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French India,[a] formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent. The possessions were originally acquired by the French East India
India
Company beginning in the second half of the 17th century, and were de facto incorporated into the Union of India
India
in 1950 and 1954. The French establishments included Pondichéry, Karikal
Karikal
and Yanaon
Yanaon
on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
and Chandernagor
Chandernagor
in Bengal. French India
India
also included several loges ("lodges", subsidiary trading stations) in other towns, but after 1816, the loges had little commercial importance and the towns to which they were attached came under British administration. By 1950, the total area measured 510 km2 (200 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) belonged to the territory of Pondichéry. In 1936, the population of the colony totalled 298,851 inhabitants, of which 63% (187,870) lived in the territory of Pondichéry.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 List of French establishments in India 3 List of chief governing officers

3.1 Commissioners 3.2 Governors 3.3 Commissioners 3.4 High Commissioners

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

History[edit] See also: Franco-Indian alliances, Colonial History of Yanam, and History of Puducherry France
France
was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India
India
trade. Six decades after the foundation of the English and Dutch East India
India
companies (in 1600 and 1602 respectively), and at a time when both companies were multiplying factories on the shores of India, the French still did not have a viable trading company or a single permanent establishment in the East. Historians have sought to explain France's late entrance in the East India
India
trade. They cite geopolitical circumstances such as the inland position of the French capital, the size of the country itself, France's numerous internal customs barriers and parochial perspectives of merchants on France's Atlantic coast, who had little appetite for the large-scale investment required to develop a viable trading enterprise with the distant East Indies.[2][3] The first French expedition to India
India
is believed to have taken place in the first half of the 16th century, in the reign of King Francis I, when two ships were fitted out by some merchants of Rouen
Rouen
to trade in eastern seas; they sailed from Le Havre
Le Havre
and were never heard of again. In 1604 a company was granted letters patent by King Henry IV, but the project failed. Fresh letters patent were issued in 1615, and two ships went to India, only one returning. From 1658, François Bernier
François Bernier
(1625–1688), a French physician and traveller, was for several years the personal physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. La Compagnie française des Indes orientales (French East India Company) was formed under the auspices of Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu
(1642) and reconstructed under Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
(1664), sending an expedition to Madagascar. In 1667 the French India
India
Company sent out another expedition, under the command of François Caron (who was accompanied by a Persian named Marcara), which reached Surat(the diamond city) in 1668 and established the first French factory in India.[4][5] In 1669, Marcara succeeded in establishing another French factory at Masulipatam. In 1672, Saint Thomas was taken but the French were driven out by the Dutch. Chandernagore
Chandernagore
(present-day Chandannagar) was established in 1692, with the permission of Nawab
Nawab
Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal. In 1673, the French acquired the area of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
from the qiladar of Valikondapuram under the Sultan of Bijapur, and thus the foundation of Pondichéry
Pondichéry
was laid. By 1720, the French had lost their factories at Surat, Masulipatam
Masulipatam
and Bantam to the British East India
India
Company.

A portrait of Ananda Ranga Pillai

On 4 February 1673, Bellanger de l'Espinay, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondichéry, thereby commencing the French administration of Pondichéry. In 1674 François Martin, the first Governor, initiated ambitious projects to transform Pondichéry from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-town. The French, though, found themselves in continual conflict with the Dutch and the English. In 1693 the Dutch captured Pondichéry
Pondichéry
and augmented the fortifications. The French regained the town in 1699 through the Treaty of Ryswick, signed on 20 September 1697. From their arrival until 1741, the objectives of the French, like those of the British, were purely commercial. During this period, the French East India Company
French East India Company
peacefully acquired Yanam
Yanam
(about 840 kilometres or 520 miles north-east of Pondichéry
Pondichéry
on Andhra Coast) in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
in 1725 and Karaikal
Karaikal
(about 150 kilometres or 93 miles south of Pondichéry) in 1739. In the early 18th century, the town of Pondichéry
Pondichéry
was laid out on a grid pattern and grew considerably. Able governors like Pierre Christophe Le Noir (1726–1735) and Pierre Benoît Dumas (1735–1741) expanded the Pondichéry
Pondichéry
area and made it a large and rich town. Soon after his arrival in 1741, the most famous governor of French India, Joseph François Dupleix, began to cherish the ambition of a French territorial empire in India
India
in spite of the pronounced uninterested attitude of his distant superiors and of the French government, which didn't want to provoke the British. Dupleix's ambition clashed with British interests in India
India
and a period of military skirmishes and political intrigues began and continued even in rare periods when France
France
and Great Britain were officially at peace. Under the command of the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleix's army successfully controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin. But then Robert Clive
Robert Clive
arrived in India
India
in 1744, a British officer who dashed the hopes of Dupleix to create a French empire India. After a defeat and failed peace talks, Dupleix was summarily dismissed and recalled to France
France
in 1754. In spite of a treaty between the British and French agreeing not to interfere in regional Indian affairs, their colonial intrigues continued. The French expanded their influence at the court of the Nawab
Nawab
of Bengal
Bengal
and increased their trading activity in Bengal. In 1756, the French encouraged the Nawab
Nawab
(Siraj ud-Daulah) to attack and take the British Fort William in Calcutta. This led to the Battle of Plassey in 1757, where the British decisively defeated the Nawab
Nawab
and his French allies, resulting in the extension of British power over the entire province of Bengal.

Pro-merger movement of French Settlements in India, 1954

Dupleix meeting the Soudhabar of the Deccan, Murzapha Jung.

Suffren meeting with ally Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
in 1782, J. B. Morret engraving, 1789.

French India
India
postage stamps.

Chandernagor's Government House c. 1850

"Lost in the midst of the vast British domain, these ports are nearly worthless. They are treasured by France
France
for their sentimental value."

Subsequently, France
France
sent Lally-Tollendal to recover the lost French possessions and drive the British out of India. Lally arrived in Pondichéry
Pondichéry
in 1758, had some initial success and razed Fort St. David in Cuddalore
Cuddalore
District to the ground in 1758, but strategic mistakes by Lally led to the loss of the Hyderabad region, the Battle of Wandiwash, and the siege of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in 1760. In 1761, the British razed Pondichéry
Pondichéry
to the ground in revenge for the French depredations; it lay in ruins for four years. The French had lost their hold now in South India
India
too. In 1765 Pondichéry
Pondichéry
was returned to France
France
in accordance with a 1763 peace treaty with Britain. Governor Jean Law de Lauriston
Jean Law de Lauriston
set to rebuild the town on its former layout and after five months 200 European and 2000 Tamil houses had been erected. In 1769 the French East India
India
Company, unable to support itself financially, was abolished by the French Crown, which assumed administration of the French possessions in India. During the next 50 years Pondichéry changed hands between France
France
and Britain with the regularity of their wars and peace treaties.

Colonial India

Imperial entities of India

Dutch India 1605–1825

Danish India 1620–1869

French India 1668–1954

Portuguese India (1505–1961)

Casa da Índia 1434–1833

Portuguese East India
India
Company 1628–1633

British India (1612–1947)

East India
India
Company 1612–1757

Company rule in India 1757–1858

British Raj 1858–1947

British rule in Burma 1824–1948

Princely states 1721–1949

Partition of India

1947

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Purple indicates territories under French rule; blue identifies French allies or spheres of influence (1741–1754)

In 1816, after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, the five establishments of Pondichéry, Chandernagore, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam and the lodges at Machilipatnam, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
and Surat
Surat
were returned to France. Pondichéry
Pondichéry
had lost much of its former glory, and Chandernagore
Chandernagore
dwindled into an insignificant outpost to the north of the rapidly growing British metropolis of Calcutta. Successive governors tried, with mixed results, to improve infrastructure, industry, law and education over the next 138 years. By a decree of 25 January 1871, French India
India
was to have an elective general council (conseil général) and elective local councils (conseil local). The results of this measure were not very satisfactory, and the qualifications for and the classes of the franchise were modified. The governor resided at Pondichéry, and was assisted by a council. There were two Tribunaux d'instance (Tribunals of first instance) (at Pondichéry
Pondichéry
and Karikal) one Cour d'appel (Court of Appeal) (at Pondichéry) and five Justices de paix ( Justices of the Peace). Agricultural production consisted of rice, peanuts, tobacco, betel nuts and vegetables. The Independence of India
India
on 15 August 1947 gave impetus to the union of France's Indian possessions with former British India. The lodges in Machilipatnam, Kozhikode
Kozhikode
and Surat
Surat
were ceded to India
India
in October 1947. An agreement between France
France
and India
India
in 1948 agreed to an election in France's remaining Indian possessions to choose their political future. Governance of Chandernagore
Chandernagore
was ceded to India
India
on 2 May 1950, then it was merged with West Bengal
Bengal
state on 2 October 1954. On 1 November 1954, the four enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Mahe, and Karikal
Karikal
were de facto transferred to the Indian Union and became the Union Territory of Puducherry. The de jure union of French India
India
with India
India
did not take place until 1962, when the French Parliament in Paris
Paris
ratified the treaty with India. List of French establishments in India[edit]

Pondichéry

Karikal

Masulipatam

Mahé

Calicut

Chandernagore

Cassimbazar

Jugdia

Dacca

Balasore

Patna

Surat

Yanaon

French establishments and lodges as of 1947    Bengal
Bengal
   Coromandel coast
Coromandel coast
  Gujarat    Malabar coast
Malabar coast
  Orissa

The French establishments of India
India
are all located in the Indian peninsula. These establishments are [6]

On the Coramandel coast,

Pondichéry
Pondichéry
and its territory comprising districts of Pondichéry, Villenour and Bahour; Karikal
Karikal
and its dependent maganams, or districts.

On the coast of Orissa,

Yanaon
Yanaon
and its territory comprising dependent aldées or villages; The Masulipatam
Masulipatam
lodge.

On the Malabar coast,

Mahé and its territory; The Calicut
Calicut
lodge.

In Bengal,

Chandernagore
Chandernagore
and its territory; The five lodges of Cassimbazar, Jugdia, Dacca, Balasore
Balasore
and Patna.

In Gujarat,

Surat
Surat
factory.

The name 'lodge' was given, under the regime of the French East India company, in factories or insulated establishments consisting of a home with an adjacent ground, where France
France
had the right to fly its flag and to form trading posts. List of chief governing officers[edit]

Bellin's map of India
India
(Indoustan), 1770

Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal
Bengal
Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Regional histories

Assam Balochistan Bengal Bihar Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Kabul Kashmir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rajasthan Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Punjab Odisha Sindh South India Tamil Nadu Tibet

Specialised histories

Agriculture Architecture Coinage Demographics Dynasties Economy Education Indology Influence on Southeast Asia Language Literature Maritime Metallurgy Military Partition of India Pakistan studies Philosophy Religion Science & Technology Timeline

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Commissioners[edit]

François Caron, 1668–1672 François Baron, 1672–1681 François Martin, 1681 – November 1693 Dutch occupation, September 1693 – September 1699 — Treaty of Ryswick (1697)

Governors[edit] In the days of the French East India
India
Company, the title of the top official was most of the time Gouverneur de Pondichéry
Pondichéry
et commandant général des établissements français aux Indes orientales. After 1816, it was Gouverneur des établissements français de l'Inde.

François Martin, September 1699 – 31 December 1706 Pierre Dulivier, January 1707 – July 1708 Guillaume André d'Hébert, 1708–1712 Pierre Dulivier, 1712–1717 Guillaume André d'Hébert, 1717–1718 Pierre André Prévost de La Prévostière, August 1718 – 11 October 1721 Pierre Christoph Le Noir (Acting), 1721–1723 Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant, 1723–1726 Pierre Christoph Le Noir, 1726–1734 Pierre Benoît Dumas, 1734–1741 Joseph François Dupleix, 14 January 1742 – 15 October 1754 Charles Godeheu, Le commissaire (Acting), 15 October 1754–1754 Georges Duval de Leyrit, 1754–1758 Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, 1758 – 1716 January 1761 First British occupation, January 15, 1761 – June 25, 1765 — Treaty of Paris
Paris
(1763) Jean Law de Lauriston, 1765–1766 Antoine Boyellau, 1766–1767 Jean Law de Lauriston, 1767 – January 1777 Guillaume de Bellecombe, seigneur de Teirac, January 1777–1782 Charles Joseph Pâtissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, 1783–1785 François, Vicomte de Souillac, 1785 David Charpentier de Cossigny, October 1785–1787 Thomas, comte de Conway, October 1787–1789 Camille Charles Leclerc, chevalier de Fresne, 1789–1792 Dominique Prosper de Chermont, November 1792–1793 L. Leroux de Touffreville, 1793

Colonial Yanaon

View of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in the late 18th century

French factory at Patna
Patna
on the Ganges

Governor's Garden at Pondicherry, 18th century

View of the Palace of the Governor of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
in 1850

Second British occupation, 23 August 1793 – 18 June 1802 — Treaty of Amiens (1802) Charles Matthieu Isidore, Comte Decaen, 18 June 1802 - August 1803 Louis François Binot, 1803 Third British occupation, August 1803 – 26 September 1816 — Treaty of Paris
Paris
(1814) André Julien Comte Dupuy, 26 September 1816 – October 1825 Joseph Cordier, Marie Emmanuel (Acting), October 1825 – 19 June 1826 Eugène Desbassayns de Richemont, 1826 – 2 August 1828 Joseph Cordier, Marie Emmanuel (Acting), 2 August 1828 – 11 April 1829 Auguste Jacques Nicolas Peureux de Mélay, 11 April 1829 – 3 May 1835 Hubert Jean Victor, Marquis de Saint-Simon, 3 May 1835 – April 1840 Paul de Nourquer du Camper, April 1840–1844 Louis Pujol, 1844–1849 Hyacinthe Marie de Lalande de Calan, 1849–1850 Philippe Achille Bédier, 1851–1852 Raymond de Saint-Maur, August 1852 – April 1857 Alexandre Durand d'Ubraye, April 1857 – January 1863 Napoléon Joseph Louis Bontemps, January 1863 – June 1871 Antoine-Léonce Michaux, June 1871 – November 1871 Pierre Aristide Faron, November 1871–1875 Adolph Joseph Antoine Trillard, 1875–1878 Léonce Laugier, February 1879 – April 1881 Théodore Drouhet, 1881 – October 1884 Étienne Richaud, October 1884–1886 Édouard Manès, 1886–1888 Georges Jules Piquet, 1888–1889 Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet, 1889–1891 Léon Émile Clément-Thomas, 1891–1896 Louis Jean Girod, 1896 – February 1898 François Pierre Rodier, February 1898 – 11 January 1902 Pelletan (Acting), 11 January 1902 Victor Louis Marie Lanrezac, 1902–1904 Philema Lemaire, August 1904 – April 1905 Joseph Pascal François, April 1905 – October 1906 Gabriel Louis Angoulvant, October 1906 – 3 December 1907 Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure, 1908–1909 Ernest Fernand Lévecque, 1909 – 9 July 1910 Alfred Albert Martineau, 9 July 1910 – July 1911 Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat, July 1911 – November 1913 Alfred Albert Martineau, November 1913 – 29 June 1918 Pierre Etienne Clayssen (acting), 29 June 1918 – 21 February 1919 Louis Martial Innocent Gerbinis, 21 February 1919 – 11 February 1926 Henri Leo Eugene Lagroua (Acting), 11 February 1926 – 5 August 1926 Pierre Jean Henri Didelot, 1926–1928 Robert Paul Marie de Guise, 1928–1931 François Adrien Juvanon, 1931–1934 Léon Solomiac, August 1934–1936 Horace Valentin Crocicchia, 1936–1938 Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin, 26 September 1938 – 1945 Nicolas Ernest Marie Maurice Jeandin, 1945–1946 Charles François Marie Baron, 20 March 1946 – 20 August 1947

French India
India
became a territoire d'outre-mer of France
France
in 1946. Commissioners[edit]

Charles François Marie Baron, 20 August 1947 – May 1949 Charles Chambon, May 1949 – 31 July 1950 André Ménard, 31 July 1950 – October 1954 Georges Escargueil, October 1954 – 1 November 1954

French India
India
de facto transferred to the Republic of India
India
in 1954. High Commissioners[edit]

Mr. Kewal Singh, 1 November 1954–1957 M. K. Kripalani, 1957–1958 L. R. S. Singh, 1958–1959 A. S. Bam, 1959–1960 Sarat Kumar Dutta, 1961

See also[edit]

Apostolic Prefecture of French Colonies in India
India
(Catholic mission) British Raj Causes for liberation of French colonies in India Coup d'état of Yanaon Danish India Dutch India Municipal administration in French India Portuguese India

Notes[edit]

^ In France, the official name was customarily used in official documents; the expression Inde française was generally not used as it seemed too grandiose, inasmuch as the Indian territory under French administration was minuscule, especially in comparison to British India. Among the French population and in the French press, the expression Comptoirs de l'Inde was commonly used. Properly speaking, though, a comptoir is a trading station, whereas the French possessions in India
India
comprehended entire towns and were not mere trading stations.

References[edit]

^ Jacques Weber, Pondichéry
Pondichéry
et les comptoirs de l'Inde après Dupleix, Éditions Denoël, Paris, 1996, p. 347. ^ Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600–1800, University of Minnesota Press, 1976, p. 201. ^ Philippe Haudrère, Les Compagnies des Indes Orientales, Paris, 2006, p 70. ^ Asia in the making of Europe, p. 747 . ^ The Cambridge history of the British Empire, p. 66 . ^ Chapitre II, Notices statistiques sur les colonies françaises, 1839.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "India, French". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Bibliography[edit]

Sudipta Das (1992). Myths and realities of French imperialism in India, 1763–1783. New York: P. Lang. ISBN 0820416762. 459p.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to French India.

French Books on India: Representations of India
India
in French Literature and Culture 1750 to 1962 – University of Liverpool V. Sankaran, Freedom struggle in Pondicherry
Pondicherry
– Gov't of India publication

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India
House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj
Swaraj
Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad Ali Jauhar Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings

Independence

Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference

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French overseas empire

Former

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Former French colonies in Africa and the Indian Ocean

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French Comoros

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French Somaliland
French Somaliland
(Djibouti) Madagascar Isle de France

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Former French colonies in the Americas

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Equinoctial France

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France
Antarctique Inini

French colonization of the Americas French West India
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Company

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Former French colonies in Asia and Oceania

French India

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Indochinese Union

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Kouang-Tchéou-Wan, China

French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon

State of Syria

Aleppo Damascus

Alawite State Greater Lebanon Jabal al-Druze Sanjak of Alexandretta

Oceania

New Hebrides

Vanuatu

Port Louis-Philippe (Akaroa)

France–Asia relations French East India
India
Company

Present

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Overseas France

Inhabited areas

Overseas departments1

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte2 Réunion

Overseas collectivities

French Polynesia St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Sui generis
Sui generis
collectivity

New Caledonia

Uninhabited areas

Pacific Ocean

Clipperton Island

Overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Crozet Islands Kerguelen Islands Adélie Land

Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean

Bassas da India3 Europa Island3 Glorioso Islands2, 3 Juan de Nova Island3 Tromelin Island4

1 Also known as overseas regions 2 Claimed by Comoros 3 Claimed by Madagascar 4 Claimed by Mauritius

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