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Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
(10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was commander of the SS security forces ( Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
(SiPo) and the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD)) for the Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ostland
in 1941–42.[1] Stahlecker commanded Einsatzgruppe A, the most murderous of the four Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(death squads during the Holocaust) active in German-occupied Eastern Europe.[2] He was killed in action by Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
and was replaced by Heinz Jost.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early Nazi career 3 Einsatzgruppe A 4 References 5 Bibliography

Early life[edit] Stahlecker was born into a wealthy family in Sternenfels
Sternenfels
on 10 October 1900.[3] From 1919–20 Stahlecker was a member of the Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund
Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund
and the Organisation Consul. He studied at the University of Tübingen, where he obtained a doctorate of law in 1927. On 14 October 1932, he married Luise-Gabriele Freiin von Gültlingen; their marriage produced four children. Early Nazi career[edit] On 1 May 1932, Stahlecker joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(no. 3,219,015) as well as the SS (no. 73,041). On 29 May 1933, he was appointed deputy director of the Political Office of the Württemberg
Württemberg
State Police. In 1934, he was appointed head of the Gestapo
Gestapo
in the German state of Württemberg
Württemberg
and soon assigned to the main office of the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD).[2] On 11 May 1937, he became head of the Gestapo
Gestapo
in Breslau. After the incorporation of Austria in 1938, Stahlecker became SD chief of the Danube
Danube
district (Vienna), a post he retained even after being promoted to SS-Standartenführer.[2] In the summer of 1938, Stahlecker became Inspector of the Security Police in Austria, succeeding Gestapo
Gestapo
chief Heinrich Müller in that position.[4] As of 20 August 1938, Stahlecker was the formal head of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, though its de facto leader was Adolf Eichmann.[5] Differences of opinion with Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
motivated Stahlecker to move to the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office), after which he held posts as the commander of the Security Police and SD in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia under SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
Karl Hermann Frank. In mid-October 1939, Eichmann and Stahlecker decided to begin implementation of the Nisko Plan.[6][7] On 29 April 1940, Stahlecker arrived in Oslo, Norway,[8] where he held various posts, most notably as commander of about 200 Einsatzgruppe members of the Security Police and SD. He was promoted to SS-Oberführer.[9] He was succeeded in this position in autumn 1940 by Heinrich Fehlis.[10]

Annotated map from the report sent by Stahlecker, summarizes 220,250 murders committed by Einsatzgruppe A
Einsatzgruppe A
under his command by October 1941; Estonia is marked as "JudenFrei" Free of Jews
Jews

Notably, the map used to illustrate Stahlecker's statistics shows Soviet Byelorussia as it was after the 1939 Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland, not before 1939 (pink). In this map, territories of prewar Poland invaded by the USSR in 1939 are marked in yellow.

Einsatzgruppe A[edit] On 6 February 1941 Stahlecker was promoted to SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
and Generalmajor der Polizei and took over as commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe A,[3] in hopes of furthering his career with the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), Nazi Germany's security police and intelligence organization. In June 1941, Einsatzgruppe A
Einsatzgruppe A
followed Army Group North and operated in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and areas of Russia
Russia
up to Leningrad.[2] Its mission was to hunt down and murder the Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and other "undesirables". In a 15 October 1941 report, Stahlecker wrote:[11][12]

Considering that the population of the Baltic countries had suffered very heavily under the government of Bolshevism and Jewry while they were incorporated in the USSR, it was to be expected that after the liberation from that foreign government, they would render harmless most of the enemies left behind after the retreat of the Red Army. It was the duty of the Security Police to set in motion these self-cleansing movements, and to direct them into the correct channels in order to accomplish the purpose of the cleansing operations as quickly as possible. It was no less important, in view of the future, to establish the unshakeable and provable fact that the liberated populations themselves took the most severe measures against the Bolshevist and Jewish enemy quite on their own, so that the direction by German authorities could not be found out. In Lithuania this was achieved for the first time by Partisan activities in Kowno. To our surprise it was not easy at first to set in motion an extensive pogrom against Jews. Klimatis, the leader of the partisan unit mentioned above, who was used for this purpose primarily, succeeded in starting a pogrom on the basis of advice given to him by a small advance detachment acting in Kowno, and in such a way that no German order or German instigation was noticed from the outside. During the first pogrom on the night of 25-26 [June], the Lithuanian partisans did away with more than 1,500 Jews, set fire to several Synagogues or destroyed them by other means, and burned down a Jewish dwelling district consisting of about 60 houses. During the following nights about 2,300 Jews
Jews
were made harmless in a similar way.

A wounded Stahlecker on 22 December 1941

By winter 1941, Stahlecker reported to Berlin
Berlin
that Einsatzgruppe A
Einsatzgruppe A
had murdered some 249,420 Jews. He was made Higher SS and Police Leader (Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer; HSSPF) of Reichskommissariat Ostland, which included the occupied territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus, at the end of November 1941.[13] Stahlecker was killed in action on 23 March 1942, by Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
near Krasnogvardeysk, Russia.[2] Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
then assumed command of Einsatzgruppe A. References[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Comprehensive report of Einsatzgruppe A
Einsatzgruppe A
up to 15 October 1941

^ Benz, Wolfgang; Kwiet, Konrad; Matthäus, Jürgen, eds. (1998). Einsatz im "Reichskommissariat Ostland": Dokumente zum Völkermord im Baltikum und in Weißrußland 1941–1944 (in German). Berlin: Metropol. pp. 31, 263. ISBN 3-932482-01-8. OCLC 40486576.  ^ a b c d e "Stahlecker, Franz Walter" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center. Yad Vashem. 2003. Retrieved 2009-04-05.  ^ a b Headland, Ronald (1992). Messages of murder: a study of the reports of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943 (2nd ed.). Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-8386-3418-4.  ^ Longerich 2012, p. 404. ^ Saul Friedländer: Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Jews: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939, New York : HarperCollins, 1997, pp. 244–245 ^ Longerich 2012, p. 441. ^ Gerwarth 2011, p. 158. ^ Gerwarth 2011, p. 175. ^ Crowe, David (2008). The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-8133-4325-9.  ^ Longerich 2012, p. 492. ^ Office of the United States Chief of Counsel For Prosecution of Axis Criminality.  Comprehensive Report up to 15 October 1941 by Franz Walter Stahlecker. VII. Washington DC 1946. Translation of Document L-180, Action-group A: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (Red Series), NCA Volume VII; Exhibit L-180, pp. 978–995. Wikisource. Report page 983. "Cleansing and Securing the Area of Operations"  ^ Saul Friedländer. The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Jews, 1939-1945, HarperCollins, 2007, p. 223 ISBN 978-0-06-019043-9 ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Israel Gutman, editor-in-chief. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 4 volumes. ISBN 0-02-896090-4, p. 1404

Bibliography[edit]

Hale, Christopher (2011). Hitler's Foreign Executioners: Europe's Dirty Secret. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5974-5.  Gerwarth, Robert (2011). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11575-8.  Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6. 

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Victims

Jewish people of Latvia Gypsies Joseph Carlebach Simon Dubnow Else Hirsch

Perpetrators

Alois Brunner Rudolf Batz Fritz Dietrich Otto-Heinrich Drechsler Erich Ehrlinger Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Heinz Jost Konrāds Kalējs Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wolfgang Kügler Rudolf Lange Hinrich Lohse Friedrich Panzinger Hans-Adolf Prützmann Eduard Roschmann Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Albert Sauer Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Eduard Strauch

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat Ostland Rollkommando Hamann

Collaborators

Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe

Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

Ghettos and camps

Daugavpils Ghetto Jungfernhof concentration camp Kaiserwald concentration camp Riga Ghetto Salaspils concentration camp

Documentation

Generalplan Ost Jäger Report

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Jānis Lipke Roberts Sedols

Memorials

Bikernieki Memorial

Related articles

The Holocaust Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

People

Perpetrators

Algimantas Dailidė Erich Ehrlinger Joachim Hamann Karl Jäger Bruno Kittel Algirdas Klimaitis Hinrich Lohse Franz Murer Helmut Rauca Adrian von Renteln Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

Chaim Yellin Alexander Bogen Josef Glazman Jay M. Ipson Shmerke Kaczerginski Zelig Kalmanovich Abba Kovner Ephraim Oshry Abraham Sutzkever Elchonon Wasserman Yitzhak Wittenberg Jacob Wygodzki Wolf Durmashkin See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

Rescuers

Kazys Binkis Petronėlė Lastienė Karl Plagge Antanas Poška Ona Šimaitė Chiune Sugihara Jan Zwartendijk See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

Groups

Perpetrators

Einsatzgruppen Police Battalions Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Resistance

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Events

Jäger Report Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Places

HKP 562 forced labor camp Kailis forced labor camp Kovno Ghetto Lukiškės Prison Marcinkonys Ghetto Ninth Fort Šiauliai Ghetto Švenčionys Ghetto Vilna Ghetto

Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany History of the Jews
Jews
in Lithuania

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3567266 ISNI: 0000 0000 2592 1

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