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FRANZ WALTER STAHLECKER (10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was commander of the SS security forces ( Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD)) for the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941–42. Stahlecker commanded Einsatzgruppe A , the most murderous of the four Einsatzgruppen (death squads during the Holocaust ) active in German-occupied Eastern Europe. He was killed in action by Soviet partisans and was replaced by Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Early Nazi career * 3 Einsatzgruppe A * 4 References * 5 Bibliography

EARLY LIFE

Stahlecker was born into a wealthy family in Sternenfels on 10 October 1900. From 1919–20 Stahlecker was a member of the Deutschvölkischer Schutz und Trutzbund and the Organisation Consul . He studied at the University of Tübingen , where he obtained a doctorate of law in 1927. On 14 October 1932, he married Luise-Gabriele Freiin von Gültlingen; their marriage produced four children.

EARLY NAZI CAREER

On 1 May 1932, Stahlecker joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(no. 3,219,015) as well as the SS (no. 73,041). On 29 May 1933, he was appointed deputy director of the Political Office of the Württemberg State Police. In 1934, he was appointed head of the Gestapo
Gestapo
in the German state of Württemberg and soon assigned to the main office of the Sicherheitsdienst (SD). On 11 May 1937, he became head of the Gestapo in Breslau
Breslau
. After the incorporation of Austria in 1938, Stahlecker became SD chief of the Danube
Danube
district ( Vienna
Vienna
), a post he retained even after being promoted to SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
. In the summer of 1938, Stahlecker became Inspector of the Security Police in Austria, succeeding Gestapo
Gestapo
chief Heinrich Müller in that position. As of 20 August 1938, Stahlecker was the formal head of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna
Vienna
, though its de facto leader was Adolf Eichmann . Differences of opinion with Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
motivated Stahlecker to move to the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office), after which he held posts as the commander of the Security Police and SD in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
under SS- Brigadeführer Karl Hermann Frank . In mid-October 1939, Eichmann and Stahlecker decided to begin implementation of the Nisko Plan .

On 29 April 1940, Stahlecker arrived in Oslo
Oslo
, Norway
Norway
, where he held various posts, most notably as commander of about 200 Einsatzgruppe members of the Security Police and SD. He was promoted to SS- Oberführer . He was succeeded in this position in autumn 1940 by Heinrich Fehlis . Annotated map from the report sent by Stahlecker, summarizes 220,250 murders committed by Einsatzgruppe A under his command by October 1941; Estonia is marked as "JudenFrei" {Free of Jews} Notably, the map used to illustrate Stahlecker's statistics shows Soviet Byelorussia as it was after the 1939 Nazi- Soviet invasion of Poland
Soviet invasion of Poland
, not before 1939 (pink). In this map, territories of prewar Poland invaded by the USSR in 1939 are marked in yellow.

EINSATZGRUPPE A

On 6 February 1941 Stahlecker was promoted to SS- Brigadeführer and Generalmajor der Polizei and took over as commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe A , in hopes of furthering his career with the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
's security police and intelligence organization. In June 1941, Einsatzgruppe A followed Army Group North and operated in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and areas of Russia
Russia
up to Leningrad
Leningrad
. Its mission was to hunt down and murder the Jews
Jews
, Gypsies , Communists
Communists
, and other "undesirables". In a 15 October 1941 report, Stahlecker wrote:

Considering that the population of the Baltic countries had suffered very heavily under the government of Bolshevism and Jewry while they were incorporated in the USSR, it was to be expected that after the liberation from that foreign government, they would render harmless most of the enemies left behind after the retreat of the Red Army. It was the duty of the Security Police to set in motion these self-cleansing movements, and to direct them into the correct channels in order to accomplish the purpose of the cleansing operations as quickly as possible. It was no less important, in view of the future, to establish the unshakeable and provable fact that the liberated populations themselves took the most severe measures against the Bolshevist and Jewish enemy quite on their own, so that the direction by German authorities could not be found out. In Lithuania this was achieved for the first time by Partisan activities in Kowno.

To our surprise it was not easy at first to set in motion an extensive pogrom against Jews. Klimatis , the leader of the partisan unit mentioned above, who was used for this purpose primarily, succeeded in starting a pogrom on the basis of advice given to him by a small advance detachment acting in Kowno, and in such a way that no German order or German instigation was noticed from the outside. During the first pogrom on the night of 25-26 , the Lithuanian partisans did away with more than 1,500 Jews, set fire to several Synagogues or destroyed them by other means, and burned down a Jewish dwelling district consisting of about 60 houses. During the following nights about 2,300 Jews
Jews
were made harmless in a similar way. A wounded Stahlecker on 22 December 1941

By winter 1941, Stahlecker reported to Berlin
Berlin
that Einsatzgruppe A had murdered some 249,420 Jews. He was made Higher SS and Police Leader (Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer; HSSPF) of Reichskommissariat Ostland , which included the occupied territory of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus, at the end of November 1941. Stahlecker was killed in action on 23 March 1942, by Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
near Krasnogvardeysk, Russia
Russia
. Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
then assumed command of Einsatzgruppe A.

REFERENCES

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: COMPREHENSIVE REPORT OF EINSATZGRUPPE A UP TO 15 OCTOBER 1941

* ^ Benz, Wolfgang; Kwiet, Konrad; Matthäus, Jürgen, eds. (1998). Einsatz im "Reichskommissariat Ostland": Dokumente zum Völkermord im Baltikum und in Weißrußland 1941–1944 (in German). Berlin: Metropol. pp. 31, 263. ISBN 3-932482-01-8 . OCLC
OCLC
40486576 . * ^ A B C D E "Stahlecker, Franz Walter" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center. Yad Vashem. 2003. Retrieved 2009-04-05. * ^ A B Headland, Ronald (1992). Messages of murder: a study of the reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943 (2nd ed.). Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-8386-3418-4 . * ^ Longerich 2012 , p. 404. * ^ Saul Friedländer : Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Jews: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939, New York : HarperCollins, 1997, pp. 244–245 * ^ Longerich 2012 , p. 441. * ^ Gerwarth 2011 , p. 158. * ^ Gerwarth 2011 , p. 175. * ^ Crowe, David (2008). The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. p. 200. ISBN 0-8133-4325-9 . * ^ Longerich 2012 , p. 492. * ^ Office of the United States Chief of Counsel For Prosecution of Axis Criminality. Comprehensive Report up to 15 October 1941 by Franz Walter Stahlecker. VII. Washington DC 1946. Translation of Document L-180, Action-group A: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression (Red Series), NCA Volume VII; Exhibit L-180, pp. 978–995. Wikisource
Wikisource
. Report page 983. "Cleansing and Securing the Area of Operations" * ^ Saul Friedländer . The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 , HarperCollins, 2007, p. 223 ISBN 978-0-06-019043-9 * ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust , Israel Gutman
Israel Gutman
, editor-in-chief. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 4 volumes. ISBN 0-02-896090-4 , p. 1404

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Hale, Christopher (2011). Hitler\'s Foreign Executioners: Europe\'s Dirty Secret. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5974-5 . * Gerwarth, Robert (2011). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11575-8 . * Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6 .

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway
Norway
Poland Russia
Russia
Ukraine

CRIMES

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

VICTIMS

* Jewish people of Latvia * Gypsies * Joseph Carlebach
Joseph Carlebach
* Simon Dubnow * Else Hirsch

PERPETRATORS

* Alois Brunner
Alois Brunner
* Rudolf Batz * Fritz Dietrich * Otto-Heinrich Drechsler * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Konrāds Kalējs * Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
* Wolfgang Kügler * Rudolf Lange * Hinrich Lohse * Friedrich Panzinger * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Eduard Roschmann * Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Martin Sandberger * Albert Sauer * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Reichskommissariat Ostland * Rollkommando Hamann

COLLABORATORS Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe Organizations Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

GHETTOS AND CAMPS

* Daugavpils Ghetto * Jungfernhof concentration camp
Jungfernhof concentration camp
* Kaiserwald concentration camp * Riga Ghetto * Salaspils concentration camp
Salaspils concentration camp

DOCUMENTATION

* Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Jānis Lipke * Roberts Sedols

MEMORIALS

* Bikernieki Memorial

RELATED ARTICLES

* The Holocaust
The Holocaust
* Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia
Russia
Ukraine

PEOPLE

PERPETRATORS

* Algimantas Dailidė * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Joachim Hamann * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Bruno Kittel * Algirdas Klimaitis * Hinrich Lohse * Franz Murer * Helmut Rauca * Adrian von Renteln * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

* Kazys Binkis * Alexander Bogen * Josef Glazman * Jay M. Ipson * Zelig Kalmanovich * Abba Kovner * Ephraim Oshry * Karl Plagge * Ona Šimaitė * Chiune Sugihara * Abraham Sutzkever * Elchonon Wasserman * Yitzhak Wittenberg * Jacob Wygodzki * See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

GROUPS

PERPETRATORS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Battalions * Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

RESISTANCE

* Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

EVENTS

* Jäger Report * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

PLACES

* HKP 562 forced labor camp * Kailis forced labor camp * Kovno Ghetto * Lukiškės Prison * Marcinkonys Ghetto * Ninth Fort * Šiauliai Ghetto * Švenčionys Ghetto * Vilna Ghetto

* Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* History of the Jews
Jews
in Lithuania

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Erich Naumann * Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein * Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer * Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
* Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
Karl Eberhard Schöngarth
* Erwin Schulz
Erwin Schulz
* Franz Six
Franz Six
* Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker * Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto
Łachwa Ghetto
* Minsk Ghetto