The Info List - Franz Joseph I

Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.[1] From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and Johann II of Liechtenstein.[2] In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister-president
Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne. Largely considered to be a reactionary, Franz Joseph spent his early reign resisting constitutionalism in his domains. The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
was forced to cede its influence over Tuscany and most of its claim to Lombardy–Venetia to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, following the Second Italian War of Independence
Second Italian War of Independence
in 1859 and the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866. Although Franz Joseph ceded no territory to the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
after the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Peace of Prague (23 August 1866) settled the German question
German question
in favour of Prussia, which prevented the Unification of Germany
from occurring under the House of Habsburg.[3] Franz Joseph was troubled by nationalism during his entire reign. He concluded the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, which granted greater autonomy to Hungary
and transformed the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
into the Austro-Hungarian Empire, under his dual monarchy. His domains were then ruled peacefully for the next 45 years, but Franz Joseph personally suffered the tragedies of the execution of his brother Emperor Maximilian of Mexico
Maximilian of Mexico
in 1867, the suicide of his only son and heir, Crown Prince Rudolf, in 1889, and the assassination of his wife, Empress Elisabeth, in 1898. After the Austro-Prussian War, Austria-Hungary
turned its attention to the Balkans, which was a hotspot of international tension because of conflicting interests with the Russian Empire. The Bosnian Crisis
Bosnian Crisis
was a result of Franz Joseph's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 1908, which had been occupied by his troops since the Congress of Berlin (1878). On 28 June 1914, the assassination of his nephew, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo
resulted in Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against the Kingdom of Serbia, which was Russia's ally. That activated a system of alliances which resulted in World War I. Franz Joseph died on 21 November 1916, after ruling his domains for almost 68 years. He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles.


1 Early life 2 Domestic policy

2.1 Assassination attempt in 1853 2.2 Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 2.3 The Czech Question

3 Foreign policy

3.1 The German Question 3.2 The Three Emperors League 3.3 The Vatican 3.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina

4 Outbreak of World War I 5 Death 6 Family

6.1 Relationship with Franz Ferdinand

7 Issue 8 Name 9 Ancestry 10 Titles, styles and honours

10.1 Titles and styles 10.2 Honours

10.2.1 National 10.2.2 Foreign decorations 10.2.3 Honorary appointments

11 Legacy 12 Personal motto 13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 Further reading 17 External links

Early life[edit]

Franz Joseph and his mother Archduchess Sophie (by Joseph Karl Stieler)

Franz Joseph was born in the Schönbrunn Palace
Schönbrunn Palace
in Vienna, the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl (the younger son of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II), and his wife Princess Sophie of Bavaria. Because his uncle, from 1835 the Emperor Ferdinand, was weak-minded, and his father unambitious and retiring, the young Archduke "Franzl" was brought up by his mother as a future Emperor with emphasis on devotion, responsibility and diligence. Franzl came to idolise his grandfather, der Gute Kaiser Franz, who had died shortly before the former's fifth birthday, as the ideal monarch. At the age of thirteen, Franzl started a career as a colonel in the Austrian army. From that point onward, his fashion was dictated by army style and for the rest of his life he normally wore the uniform of a military officer.[4] Franz Joseph was soon joined by three younger brothers: Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (born 1832, the future Emperor Maximilian of Mexico); Archduke Karl Ludwig (born 1833, father of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria), and Archduke Ludwig Viktor
Archduke Ludwig Viktor
(born 1842), and a sister, Maria Anna (born 1835), who died at the age of four.[5] Following the resignation of the Chancellor Prince Metternich
Prince Metternich
during the Revolutions of 1848, the young Archduke, who it was widely expected would soon succeed his uncle on the throne, was appointed Governor of Bohemia
on 6 April, but never took up the post. Instead, Franz was sent to the front in Italy, joining Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Radetzky on campaign on 29 April, receiving his baptism of fire on 5 May at Santa Lucia. By all accounts he handled his first military experience calmly and with dignity. Around the same time, the Imperial Family was fleeing revolutionary Vienna
for the calmer setting of Innsbruck, in Tyrol. Soon, the Archduke was called back from Italy, joining the rest of his family at Innsbruck
by mid-June. It was at Innsbruck
at this time that Franz Joseph first met his cousin Elisabeth, his future bride, then a girl of ten, but apparently the meeting made little impact.[6] Following victory over the Italians at Custoza in late July, the court felt it safe to return to Vienna, and Franz Joseph travelled with them. But within a few months Vienna
again appeared unsafe, and in September the court left once more, this time for Olomouc
(Olmütz) in Moravia. By now, Prince Alfred I of Windisch-Grätz, an influential military commander in Bohemia, was determined to see the young Archduke soon put on the throne. It was thought that a new ruler would not be bound by the oaths to respect constitutional government to which Ferdinand had been forced to agree, and that it was necessary to find a young, energetic emperor to replace the kindly, but mentally unfit Ferdinand.[7] By the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand and the renunciation of his father, the mild-mannered Franz Karl, Franz Joseph succeeded as Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
at Olomouc
on 2 December. At this time he first became known by his second as well as his first Christian name. The name "Franz Joseph" was chosen to bring back memories of the new Emperor's great-granduncle, Emperor Joseph II, remembered as a modernising reformer.[8] Domestic policy[edit] Under the guidance of the new prime minister Prince Schwarzenberg, the new emperor at first pursued a cautious course, granting a constitution in early 1849. At the same time, a military campaign was necessary against the Hungarians, who had rebelled against Habsburg central authority in the name of their ancient liberties. Franz Joseph was also almost immediately faced with a renewal of the fighting in Italy, with King Charles Albert of Sardinia
Charles Albert of Sardinia
taking advantage of setbacks in Hungary
to resume the war in March 1849. However, the military tide began to swiftly turn in favor of Franz Joseph and the Austrian whitecoats. Almost immediately, Charles Albert was decisively beaten by Radetzky at Novara and forced to sue for peace, as well as to renounce his throne. In Hungary, the situation was more severe and Austrian defeat seemed imminent. Sensing a need to secure his right to rule, Franz Joseph sought help from Russia, requesting the intervention of Tsar Nicholas I, in order "to prevent the Hungarian insurrection developing into a European calamity".[9] Russian troops entered Hungary
in support of the Austrians
and the revolution was crushed by late summer of 1849. With order now restored throughout his Empire, Franz Joseph felt free to renege on the constitutional concessions he had made, especially as the Austrian parliament meeting at Kremsier
had behaved—in the young Emperor's eyes—abominably. The 1849 constitution was suspended, and a policy of absolutist centralism was established, guided by the Minister of the Interior, Alexander Bach.[10] The next few years saw the seeming recovery of Austria's position on the international scene following the near disasters of 1848–1849. Under Schwarzenberg's guidance, Austria was able to stymie Prussian scheming to create a new German Federation under Prussian leadership, excluding Austria. After Schwarzenberg's premature death in 1852, he could not be replaced by statesmen of equal stature, and the Emperor himself effectively took over as prime minister.[10] Assassination attempt in 1853[edit]

Assassination attempt on the emperor, 1853

On 18 February 1853, Franz Joseph survived an assassination attempt by Hungarian nationalist János Libényi.[11] The emperor was taking a stroll with one of his officers, Count Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell, on a city bastion, when Libényi approached him. He immediately struck the emperor from behind with a knife straight at the neck. Franz Joseph almost always wore a uniform, which had a high collar that almost completely enclosed the neck. The collars of uniforms at that time were made from very sturdy material, precisely to counter this kind of attack. Even though the Emperor was wounded and bleeding, the collar saved his life. Count O'Donnell
struck Libényi down with his sabre.[11] O'Donnell, hitherto only a Count by virtue of his Irish nobility (as a descendant of the Irish noble dynasty O'Donnell
of Tyrconnell[12]), was made a Count of the Habsburg
Empire (Reichsgraf). Another witness who happened to be nearby, the butcher Joseph Ettenreich, quickly overwhelmed Libényi. For his deed he was later elevated to the nobility by the Emperor and became Joseph von Ettenreich. Libényi was subsequently put on trial and condemned to death for attempted regicide. He was executed on the Simmeringer Heide.[citation needed] After this unsuccessful attack, the Emperor's brother Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, later Emperor of Mexico, called upon Europe's royal families for donations to construct a new church on the site of the attack. The church was to be a votive offering for the survival of the Emperor. It is located on Ringstraße
in the district of Alsergrund close to the University of Vienna, and is known as the Votivkirche.[11] Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867[edit]

Franz Joseph's coronation as Apostolic King of Hungary

The 1850s witnessed several failures of Austrian external policy: the Crimean War, the dissolution of its alliance with Russia, and defeat in the Second Italian War of Independence. The setbacks continued in the 1860s with defeat in the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866, which resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.[13] Political difficulties in Austria mounted continuously through the late 19th century and into the 20th century. However, Franz Joseph remained immensely respected; the Emperor's patriarchal authority held the Empire together while the politicians squabbled among themselves.[14] The Czech Question[edit]

Franz Joseph I in the regalia of the Order of the Golden Fleece, with the Bohemian Crown Jewels
Bohemian Crown Jewels
next to him (painting by Eduard von Engerth for the Bohemian Diet, 1861)

Following the accession of Franz Joseph to the throne in 1848, the political representatives of the Kingdom of Bohemia
hoped and insisted that account should be taken of their historical state rights in the upcoming constitution. The autonomous position of Bohemia
within the Habsburg
Monarchy was to be expressed by the coronation of the new ruler to the king of Bohemia
in Prague (the last coronation took place in 1836). His new government installed the system of neoabsolutism in Austrian internal affairs to make the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
a unitary, centralised and bureaucratically administered state. When Franz Joseph returned to constitutional rule after the debacles in Italy at Magenta and Solferino and summoned the diets of his lands, the question of his coronation as king of Bohemia
returned to the agenda, as it had not since 1848. On 14 April 1861, Emperor Franz Joseph received a delegation from the Bohemian Diet with the words (in Czech):

I will have myself crowned King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
in Prague, and I am convinced that a new, indissoluble bond of trust and loyalty between My throne and My Bohemian Kingdom will be strengthened by this holy rite.[15]

In contrast to his predecessor Emperor Ferdinand (who spent the rest of his life after his abdication in 1848 in Bohemia
and especially in Prague), Franz Joseph was never crowned king of Bohemia. In 1861, the negotiations failed because of unsolved constitutional problems, and in 1866, a visit of the monarch to Prague following the defeat at Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) was also unsuccessful. In 1867, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise and the introduction of the dual monarchy left the Czechs and their aristocracy without the recognition of Bohemian state rights for which they had hoped. Instead of celebrating a coronation in Prague, they had to witness the coronation in Budapest (8 June 1867). In Bohemia, opposition to dualism took the form of street demonstrations, resolutions from district representations, and even open air mass protest meetings. The Czechs were disillusioned. According to the Czech newspaper Národní listy, the Czechs had not yet been compensated for their wartime losses and sufferings during the Austro-Prussian War, and had just seen their historic state rights tossed aside and their land subsumed into "other" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, commonly called "Cisleithania".[15] The Czech hopes revived again in 1870–1871. In an imperial rescript of 26 September 1870, Franz Joseph referred again to the prestige and glory of the Bohemian Crown and to his intention to carry out a coronation. Under Minister-President Karl Hohenwart
Karl Hohenwart
in 1871, the government of Cisleithania
negotiated a series of fundamental articles spelling out the relationship of the Bohemian Crown to the rest of the Habsburg
Monarchy. On 12 September 1871, Franz Joseph announced:

Having in mind the constitutional position of the Bohemian Crown and being conscious of the glory and power which that Crown has given us and our predecessors… we gladly recognise the rights of the kingdom and are prepared to renew that recognition through our coronation oath.[15]

For the planned coronation, the composer Bedřich Smetana
Bedřich Smetana
had written the opera Libuše, but the ceremony did not take place. The creation of the German Empire, domestic opposition from German-speaking liberals (especially German-Bohemians) and from Hungarians doomed the Fundamental Articles. Hohenwart resigned and nothing changed. Whenever Franz Joseph visited Bohemia, he was greeted as the uncrowned Bohemian king rather than as the emperor and the omnipresent decorations with depictions of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas
Crown of Saint Wenceslas
reminded him of his unfulfilled promise of a coronation in Prague.[15] Many Czech people were waiting for political changes in monarchy, including Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
and others. Masaryk served in the Reichsrat (Imperial Council) from 1891 to 1893 in the Young Czech Party and again from 1907 to 1914 in the Realist Party (which he had founded in 1900), but he did not campaign for the independence of Czechs and Slovaks from Austria-Hungary. In 1909 he helped Hinko Hinković in Vienna
in the defense[clarification needed] during the fabricated trial against mostly prominent Croats and Serbs, members of the Serbo-Croatian Coalition (such as Frano Supilo
Frano Supilo
and Svetozar Pribićević), and others, who were sentenced to more than 150 years and a number of death penalties. The Czech question would remain unresolved for the entirety of Franz Joseph's political career. Foreign policy[edit] The German Question[edit]

Emperor Franz Joseph (centre in white uniform) at the Congress of German princes in Frankfurt am Main, 1863

The main foreign policy goal of Franz Joseph had been the unification of Germany
under the House of Habsburg.[16] This was justified on grounds of precedence; from 1452 to the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, with only one period of interruption under the Wittelsbachs, the Habsburgs had generally held the German crown.[17] However, Franz Joseph's desire to retain the non-German territories of the Habsburg Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
in the event of German unification proved problematic. There quickly developed two factions: one party of German intellectuals favouring a Greater Germany
Greater Germany
(Großdeutschland) under the House of Habsburg; the other favouring a Lesser Germany (Kleindeutschland) . The Greater Germans favoured the inclusion of Austria in a new all-German state on the grounds that Austria had always been a part of Germanic empires, that it was the leading power of the German Confederation, and that it would be absurd to exclude eight million Austrian Germans from an all-German nation state. The champions of a lesser Germany
argued against the inclusion of Austria on the grounds that it was a multi-nation state, not a German one, and that its inclusion would bring millions of non-Germans into the German nation state.[18] If Greater Germany
Greater Germany
was to prevail, the crown would necessarily have to go to Franz Joseph, who had no desire to cede it in the first place to anyone else.[18] On the other hand, if the idea of a smaller Germany
won out, the German crown could of course not possibly go the Emperor of Austria, but would naturally be offered to the head of the largest and most powerful German state outside of Austria—the King of Prussia. The contest between the two ideas, quickly developed into a contest between Austria and Prussia. After Prussia
decisively won the Seven Weeks War, this question was solved; Austria lost no territories as long as they remained out of German affairs.[18] Franz Joseph's German identity was made explicitly clear during a meeting in August 1908 between himself and Edward VII
Edward VII
when the latter tried to persuade him to abandon Austria-Hungary's alliance with Germany
for co-operation with England, Franz Joseph replied that he was a "loyal ally" and "I am a German prince."[19][20] The Three Emperors League[edit] In 1873, two years after the unification of Germany, Franz Joseph entered into the League of Three Emperors
League of Three Emperors
(Dreikaiserbund) with Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany
Wilhelm I of Germany
and Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander II
of Russia ,who was succeeded by Tsar Alexander III
Tsar Alexander III
in 1881. The league had been designed by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, as an attempt to maintain the peace of Europe. It would last intermittently until 1887. The Vatican[edit] In 1903, Franz Joseph's veto of Cardinal Mariano Rampolla's election to the papacy was transmitted to the Papal conclave by Cardinal Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko. It was the last use of such a veto, because the new Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
prohibited future uses and provided for excommunication for any attempt.[21][22] Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit] Main article: Bosnian crisis

Play media

Film footage about emperor Franz Joseph

Voice recording of the emperor speaking into Valdemar Poulsen's magnetic wire recorder at the 1900 World's Fair.

The mid-1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, and equally violent and oppressive reprisals from the Turks. Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander II
of Russia, wanting to intervene against the Ottomans, sought and obtained an agreement with Austria-Hungary. In the Budapest
Conventions of 1877, the two powers agreed that Russia would annex Bessarabia, and Austria-Hungary
would observe a benevolent neutrality toward Russia in the pending[clarification needed] war with the Turks. As compensation for this support, Russia agreed to Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina.[23] A scant 15 months later, the Russians imposed on the Ottomans the Treaty of San Stefano, which reneged on the Budapest
accord and declared that Bosnia-Herzogovina would be jointly occupied by Russian and Austrian troops.[23] That treaty was overturned by the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, which allowed sole Austrian occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, but did not specify a final disposition of the provinces.[clarification needed] That omission was addressed in the Three Emperors' League agreement of 1881, when both Germany
and Russia endorsed Austria's right to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina.[24] However, by 1897, under a new Tsar, the Russian Imperial government had again withdrawn its support for Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Russian foreign minister, Count Michael Muraviev, stated that an Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina would raise "an extensive question requiring special scrutiny".[25] In 1908, the Russian foreign minister, Alexander Izvolsky
Alexander Izvolsky
again, and for the third time, offered Russian support for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
by Austria-Hungary, in exchange for Austrian support for the opening of the Bosporus Strait
Bosporus Strait
and the Dardanelles
to Russian warships. Austria's foreign minister, Alois von Aehrenthal, pursued this offer vigorously, resulting in the quid pro quo understanding with Izvolsky, reached on 16 September 1908 at the Buchlau Conference. However, Izvolsky made this agreement with Aehrenthal without the knowledge of Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar Nicholas II
or his government in St. Petersburg, or any of the other foreign powers including Britain, France and Serbia. Based upon the assurances of the Buchlau Conference and the treaties that preceded it, Franz Joseph signed the proclamation announcing the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina into the Empire on 6 October 1908. However a diplomatic crisis erupted, as both the Serbs and the Italians demanded compensation for the annexation, which the Austro-Hungarian government refused to entertain. The incident was not resolved until the revision of the Treaty of Berlin in April 1909, exacerbating tensions between Austria-Hungary
and the Serbs. Outbreak of World War I[edit] Main article: July Crisis On 28 June 1914 Franz Joseph's nephew and heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his morganatic wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist of Serbian ethnicity,[26] during a visit to Sarajevo. When he heard the news of the assassination, Franz Joseph said that "one has not to defy the Almighty. In this manner a superior power has restored that order which I unfortunately was unable to maintain."[27] While the emperor was shaken, and interrupted his holiday to return to Vienna, he soon resumed his vacation at his imperial villa at Bad Ischl. Initial decision-making during the "July Crisis" fell to Count Leopold Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister; Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, the chief of staff for the Austro-Hungarian army and the other ministers.[28] The ultimate resolution of deliberations by the Austrian government during the weeks following the assassination of the Archduke was to give Serbia an ultimatum of itemized demands which it was virtually certain Serbia would be unable or unwilling to comply with, thus serving as a "legal basis for war." However, the general movement toward war with Serbia was already in motion prior to assassination of the Archduke as evidenced by a June 14 memo of Berchtold recommending the "elimination of Serbia" as a state, which Franz Josef expressed agreement with in a letter delivered to Kaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin on July 5. In that letter, Franz Josef "...explicitly stated that the decision for war against Serbia had been made before the assassination of the Archduke, and that the events of Sarajevo
only confirmed the already pre-existing need for a war." A week after delivery of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, on 28 July, Austria-Hungary
declared war on Serbia. Within weeks, the Germans, Russians, French and British had all entered the fray which eventually became known as World War I. Death[edit]

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Film of the funeral procession of Franz Joseph I

Franz Joseph died in the Schönbrunn Palace
Schönbrunn Palace
on the evening of 21 November 1916, at the age of eighty-six. His death was a result of developing pneumonia of the right lung several days after catching a cold while walking in Schönbrunn Park with the King of Bavaria.[29] He was succeeded by his grandnephew Charles I, who reigned until the collapse of the Empire following its defeat in 1918.[30] He is buried in the Imperial Crypt
Imperial Crypt
in Vienna, where flowers are still left by monarchists. [citation needed] Family[edit]

Franz Joseph I with his family

It was generally felt in the court that the Emperor should marry and produce heirs as soon as possible. Various potential brides were considered: Princess Elisabeth of Modena, Princess Anna of Prussia
and Princess Sidonia of Saxony.[31] Although in public life Franz Joseph was the unquestioned director of affairs, in his private life his formidable mother still wielded crucial influence. Sophie wanted to strengthen the relationship between the Houses of Habsburg
and Wittelsbach—descending from the latter house herself—and hoped to match Franz Joseph with her sister Ludovika's eldest daughter, Helene ("Néné"), who was four years the Emperor's junior. However, Franz Joseph fell deeply in love with Néné's younger sister Elisabeth ("Sisi"), a beautiful girl of fifteen, and insisted on marrying her instead. Sophie acquiesced, despite her misgivings about Sisi's appropriateness as an imperial consort, and the young couple were married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustine's Church, Vienna.[32] Their marriage would prove to be an unhappy one; though Franz Joseph was passionately in love with his wife, the feeling was not mutual and Sisi never truly acclimatised to life at court, frequently having disagreements with the imperial family. Their first daughter Sophie died as an infant, and their only son Rudolf died by suicide in 1889 in the infamous Mayerling Incident.[21] In 1885 Franz Joseph met Katharina Schratt, a leading actress of the Vienna
stage, and she became his friend and confidante. This relationship lasted the rest of his life, and was—to a certain degree—tolerated by Sisi. Franz Joseph built Villa Schratt in Bad Ischl for her, and also provided her with a small palace in Vienna.[33] Though their relationship lasted for thirty-four years, it remained platonic.[34] The Empress was an inveterate traveller, horsewoman, and fashion maven who was rarely seen in Vienna. Sisi was obsessed about preserving her beauty, carrying out many bizarre routines and strenuous exercise, and as a result suffered from ill health. She was stabbed to death by an Italian anarchist in 1898 while on a visit to Geneva. A few days after the funeral, Robert of Parma wrote in a letter to his friend Tirso de Olazábal that "It was pitiful to look at the Emperor, he showed a great deal of energy in his immense pain, but at times one could see all the immensity of his grief."[35] Franz Joseph never fully recovered from the loss. According to the future empress Zita of Bourbon-Parma he told his relatives: "You'll never know how important she was to me" or, according to some sources, "You will never know how much I loved this woman."[36] Relationship with Franz Ferdinand[edit]

The emperor and his great-grandnephew Otto von Habsburg, in 1914

Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
became heir presumptive (Thronfolger) to the throne of Austria-Hungary
in 1896, after the deaths of his cousin Rudolf (in 1889) and his father Karl Ludwig. The relationship between him and Franz Joseph had always been a fairly contentious one, which was further exacerbated when Franz Ferdinand announced his desire to marry Countess Sophie Chotek, a match that was out of the question in the mind of the emperor, as Sophie was merely of nobility as opposed to being of dynastic rank. Although the emperor received letters from members of the imperial family throughout the fall and winter of 1899 importuning him to relent, Franz Joseph stood his ground.[37] He finally gave his consent in 1900; however, the marriage was to be morganatic and any children of the marriage would be ineligible to succeed to the throne.[38] The couple were married on 1 July 1900 at Reichstadt. The emperor did not attend the wedding, nor did any of the archdukes. After that, the two men disliked and distrusted each other.[33] Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie in 1914, Franz Joseph's daughter, Marie Valerie, noted that her father expressed his greater confidence in the new heir presumptive: his grandnephew Archduke Charles. The emperor admitted to his daughter, regarding the assassination: "For me, it is a relief from a great worry."[39] Issue[edit]

Name Birth Death Notes

By Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria (24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898; married on 24 April 1854 in St. Augustine's Church, Vienna)

Sophie Friederike Dorothea Maria Josepha 5 March 1855 29 May 1857

Gisela Louise Marie 12 July 1856 27 July 1932 Married, 1873 her second cousin, Prince Leopold of Bavaria; had issue.

Rudolf Francis Charles Joseph 21 August 1858 30 January 1889 Married, 1881, Princess Stephanie of Belgium; had issue. Died in the Mayerling Incident.

Marie Valerie Mathilde Amalie 22 April 1868 6 September 1924 Married, 1890 her second cousin, Archduke Franz Salvator, Prince of Tuscany; had issue.


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His name in German was Franz Joseph I and I. Ferenc József in Hungarian. His names in other languages of his empire were:

Croatian and Bosnian: Franjo Josip I. Czech: František Josef I. Italian: Francesco Giuseppe I. Polish: Franciszek Józef I. Ukrainian: Фра́нц Йо́сиф I, (Frantz Yosyf I) Romanian: Francisc Iosif (no number used) Slovene: Franc Jožef I. Slovak: František Jozef I. Spanish: Francisco José I. Serbian: Фрања Јосиф (no number used)


Ancestors of Franz Joseph I of Austria

16. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

8. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

17. Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria

4. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor

18. Charles III of Spain

9. Infanta Maria Louise of Spain

19. Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony

2. Archduke Franz Karl of Austria

20. Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
(= 18)

10. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies

21. Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony
(= 19)

5. Princess Maria Teresa of Naples and Sicily

22. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(= 16)

11. Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria

23. Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria (= 17)

1. Franz Joseph I of Austria

24. Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken

12. Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken

25. Countess Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken

6. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

26. Joseph Charles, Hereditary Prince of Sulzbach

13. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach

27. Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste Sofie of Neuburg

3. Princess Sophie of Bavaria

28. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden

14. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden

29. Landgravine Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt

7. Princess Caroline of Baden

30. Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt

15. Princess Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt

31. Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Monarchical styles of Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary

Reference style His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty

Spoken style Your Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty

Alternative style My Lord

Monarchical styles of Franz Joseph I of Austria

Reference style His Imperial Majesty

Spoken style Your Imperial Majesty

Alternative style My Lord

Monarchical styles of Ferenc József I of Hungary

Reference style His Apostolic Majesty

Spoken style Your Apostolic Majesty

Alternative style My Lord

Imperial monogram

See also: Grand title of the Emperor of Austria Titles and styles[edit]

18 August 1830 – 2 December 1848: His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke and Prince Francis Joseph of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia
and Croatia[40] 2 December 1848 – 21 November 1916: His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty The Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary

His official grand title after the Ausgleich
of 1867 was: "Francis Joseph the First, by the Grace of God Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, King of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria and Illyria; King of Jerusalem etc., Archduke of Austria; Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Duke of Lorraine, of Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and of Bukovina; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Oświęcim, Zator and Ćeszyn, Friuli, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Zara (Zadar); Princely Count of Habsburg
and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent (Trento) and Brixen; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
and in Istria; Count of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro (Kotor), and over the Windic march; Grand Voivode of the Voivodship of Serbia."[41] Honours[edit]

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He was Grand Master of the following chivalric orders:

Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden vom Goldenen Vlies, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) Military Order of Maria Theresa (Militär Maria-Theresien-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) Royal Hungarian Order of Saint Stephen (Königlich ungarischer St. Stephan-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) Austrian Imperial Order of Leopold (Leopold-Orden, ex officio as Emperor of Austria) Imperial Order of the Iron Crown (Orden der Eisernen Krone, ex officio as Emperor of Austria)

Austrian War Medal Cross of Honour for 50 years of military service Military Cross for the 60th year of the reign

In addition, he founded the Order of Franz Joseph
Order of Franz Joseph
(Franz Joseph-Orden) in 1849, and the Order of Elizabeth
Order of Elizabeth
(Elizabeth-Orden) in 1898. Foreign decorations[edit]

 Kingdom of Bavaria:

Knight of the Order of Saint Hubert Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph

 Kingdom of Belgium: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Leopold – 1849[42]  Bulgaria: Knight of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius  Kingdom of Hawaii:

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I
Royal Order of Kamehameha I
– 1865 Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Royal Order of Kalākaua – 1878

 Grand Duchy of Hesse: Knight Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order Holy See: Knight Grand Cross of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre  Kingdom of Italy:

Knight of the Supreme Order of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation – 1869 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
– 1869 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Order of the Crown of Italy
– 1869

 Kingdom of Montenegro: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I  Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Norwegian Lion – 5 April 1904  Kingdom of the Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order – 21 June 1849[43]  Duchy of Parma: Senator Grand Cross with Necklace of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George – 6 September 1849  Kingdom of Prussia:

Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle Pour le Mérite
Pour le Mérite
("Blue Max") Knight Grand Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern

 Russian Empire:

Knight of the Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew
the Apostle the First-Called Imperial Order of St. George, Fourth Class

 Sovereign Military Order of Malta: Bailiff of Honour and Devotion  Kingdom of Saxony: Knight Grand Cross of the Military Order of St. Henry  Kingdom of Serbia: Order of Miloš the Great  Spain: Knight Collar of the Order of Charles III[44]  Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
Order of the Seraphim
– 9 July 1850  Two Sicilies: Knight of the Order of Saint Januarius  United Kingdom:

Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
– 1867 (Expelled in 1915) Royal Victorian Chain
Royal Victorian Chain
– 1904 (Expelled in 1915) Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Royal Victorian Order
(Expelled in 1915)

Honorary appointments[edit]

Colonel-in-chief, 1st (The King's) Dragoon Guards, British Army, 25 March 1896 – 1914 Colonel-in-chief, Kexholm Life Guards Grenadier Regiment, Russian Army, until 26 June 1914 Colonel-in-chief, 12th Belgorod Lancer Regiment, Russian Army, until 26 June 1914 Colonel-in-chief, 16th (Schleswig-Holstein) Hussars, German Army Colonel-in-chief, 122nd (Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria, King of Hungary
(4th Württemberg) Fusiliers Field Marshal, British Army, 1 September 1903 – 1914


Stamp issued by Österreichische Post in 2016 on the 100th anniversary of the emperor's death.[45]

The archipelago Franz Josef Land
Franz Josef Land
in the Russian high Arctic was named in his honour in 1873 by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole expedition which first reported finding it. The Franz Josef Glacier
Franz Josef Glacier
in New Zealand's South Island also bears his name.

Tomb of Franz Joseph I, to the left Empress Elisabeth, to the right their son Crown Prince Rudolph, in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna

Franz Joseph founded in 1872 the Franz Joseph University (Hungarian: Ferenc József Tudományegyetem, Romanian: Universitatea Francisc Iosif) in the city of Cluj-Napoca
(at that time a part of Austria-Hungary
under the name of Kolozsvár). The university was moved to Szeged
after Cluj became a part of Romania, becoming the University of Szeged. In certain areas, celebrations are still being held in remembrance of Franz Joseph's birthday. The Mitteleuropean People's Festival takes place every year around 18 August, and is a "spontaneous, traditional and brotherly meeting among peoples of the Central-European Countries".[46] The event includes ceremonies, meetings, music, songs, dances, wine and food tasting, and traditional costumes and folklore from Mitteleuropa. Personal motto[edit]

"mit vereinten Kräften" (in German) = "Viribus Unitis" (in Latin) = "With united forces" (as the Emperor of Austria). A homonymous war ship existed. "Bizalmam az Ősi Erényben" (in Hungarian) = "Virtutis Confido" (in Latin) = "My trust in [the ancient] virtue" (as the Apostolic King of Hungary)

See also[edit]

Family tree of the German monarchs
Family tree of the German monarchs
– he was related to every other ruler of Germany List of coupled cousins Franc Jozeph Island, island in Albania
named in honor of the Emperor.


^ Francis Joseph, in Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 April 2009 ^ Murad 1968, p. 1. ^ "Gale Encyclopedia of Biography: ''Francis Joseph''". Answers.com. Retrieved 2013-12-02.  ^ Murad 1968, p. 61. ^ Murad 1968, p. 101. ^ Murad 1968, p. 33. ^ Murad 1968, p. 8. ^ Murad 1968, p. 6. ^ Rothenburg, G. The Army of Francis Joseph. West Lafayette, Purdue University Press, 1976. p. 35. ^ a b Murad 1968, p. 41. ^ a b c Murad 1968, p. 42. ^ O'Domhnaill Abu – O'Donnell
Clan Newsletter no. 7, Spring 1987 (ISSN 0790-7389)) ^ Murad 1968, p. 169. ^ :William M. Johnston, The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848–1938 (University of California Press, 1983), p. 38 ^ a b c d Le Caine Agnew, Hugh (2007). "The Flyspecks on Palivec's Portrait: Franz Joseph, the Symbols of Monarchy, and Czech Popular Loyalty". In Cole, Laurence; Unowsky, Daniel L. The limits of loyalty : imperial symbolism, popular allegiances, and state patriotism in the late Habsburg
monarchy. New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 86–112. ISBN 9781845452025. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Murad 1968, p. 149. ^ Murad 1968, p. 150. ^ a b c Murad 1968, p. 151. ^ "Sir, ich bin ein deutscher Fürst." Walter Wiltschegg: Österreich, der "zweite deutsche Staat"?: der nationale Gedanke in der Ersten Republik, Stocker, p. 41. (German) ^ Richard Bassett, For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619-1918, p. 401 ^ a b Murad 1968, p. 127. ^ See also http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05677b.htm (discussing the papal veto from the perspective of the Catholic Church) ^ a b Albertini 2005, p. 16. ^ Albertini 2005, p. 37. ^ Albertini 2005, p. 94. ^ Dejan Djokić (January 2003). Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918-1992. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85065-663-0.  ^ Albert Freiherr von Margutti: Vom alten Kaiser. Leipzig & Wien 1921, S. 147f. Zitiert nach Erika Bestenreiter: Franz Ferdinand und Sophie von Hohenberg. München (Piper), 2004, S. 247 ^ Palmer 1994, p. 328. ^ "Sausalito News 25 November 1916 — California Digital Newspaper Collection". Cdnc.ucr.edu. 1916-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-02.  ^ Norman Davies, Europe: A history p. 687 ^ Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph By Alan Palmer ^ Murad 1968, p. 242. ^ a b Murad 1968, p. 120. ^ Morton, Frederic (1989). Thunder at Twilight: Vienna
1913/1914. pp. 85–86.  ^ The letter is available here ^ Murad 1968, p. 117. ^ Palmer 1994, p. 288. ^ Palmer 1994, p. 289. ^ Palmer 1994, p. 324. ^ Kaiser Joseph II. harmonische Wahlkapitulation mit allen den vorhergehenden Wahlkapitulationen der vorigen Kaiser und Könige.  Since 1780 official title used for princes ("zu Ungarn, Böhmen, Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slawonien, Königlicher Erbprinz") ^ The official title of the ruler of Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and later the Austria-Hungary
had been changed several times: by a patent from 1 August 1804, by a court office decree from 22 August 1836, by an imperial court ministry decree from 6 January 1867 and finally by a letter from 12 December 1867. Shorter versions were recommended for official documents and international treaties: "Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
etc. and Apostolic King of Hungary", "Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary", "His Majesty The Emperor and King" and "His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty". The term Kaiserlich und königlich
Kaiserlich und königlich
(K.u.K.) was decreed in a letter from 17 October 1889 for the military, the navy and the institutions shared by both parts of the monarchy. From the Otto's encyclopedia
Otto's encyclopedia
(published during 1888–1909), subject 'King', online in Czech. ^ Almanach royal officiel, publié, exécution d'un arrête du roi, Volume 1  ; Tarlier, 1854 ^ (in Dutch) Military William Order: Franz Joseph I. Retrieved 9 maart 2016. ^ https://abcfoto.abc.es/fotografias/temas/emperador-austria-francisco-jose-con-45494.html Franz Joseph I of Austria's portrait wearing the uniform of the Spanish Regiment of León no. 36 and the insignia as knight of the Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III
c.1900.] ABC (newspaper) Acceded 19 March 2016 ^ 100. Todestag Kaiser Franz Joseph (100th Anniversary of the death of Emperor Francis Joseph). The stamp uses the design issued on his 80th birthday, which in turn is based on a 1908 design by Koloman Moser
Koloman Moser
to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the his accession to the throne. ^ Associazione Culturale Mitteleuropa
Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 21 April 2012


Albertini, Luigi (2005). The Origins of the War of 1914. New York, NY: Enigma Books.  Murad, Anatol (1968). Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
and his Empire. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8290-0172-3.  Palmer, Alan (1994). Twilight of the Habsburgs: the Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. Atlantic Monthly Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Bagger, Eugene Szekeres (1927). Francis Joseph: Emperor of Austria—king of Hungary. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.  Beller, Steven. Francis Joseph. Profiles in power. London: Longman, 1996. ISBN 0582060907 Bled, Jean-Paul. Franz Joseph. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. ISBN 0631167781 Cunliffe-Owen, Marguerite. Keystone of Empire: Francis Joseph of Austria. New York: Harper, 1903. Gerö, András. Emperor Francis Joseph: King of the Hungarians. Boulder, Colo.: Social Science Monographs, 2001. Owens, Karen. Franz Joseph and Elisabeth The Last Great Monarchs of Austria-Hungary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2013. [1]. ISBN 9781476612164 Redlich, Joseph. Emperor Francis Joseph Of Austria. New York: Macmillan, 1929. online free Unterreiner, Katrin. Emperor Franz Joseph, 1830–1916: Myth and Truth. Wien: C. Brandstätter, 2006. ISBN 3902510447 Van der Kiste, John. Emperor Francis Joseph: Life, Death and the Fall of the Habsburg
Empire. Stroud, England: Sutton, 2005. Winkelhofer, Martina. The Everyday Life of the Emperor: Francis Joseph and His Imperial Court. Innsbruck-Wien: Haymon Taschenbuch, 2012. ISBN 9783852189277

External links[edit]

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has original text related to this article: Emperor Franz Joseph I

Works by or about Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
at Internet Archive Works by Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Biography at WorldWar1.com Details at Regiments.org at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 19 December 2007) Genealogy Mayerling tragedy Miklós Horthy
Miklós Horthy
reflects on Franz Josef Internet museum of Emperor Franz Joseph I, Wilhelm II and First World War Wien – Attentat – Kaiser Franz Joseph – Lasslo Libényi – Graf O'Donnell
– Josef Ettenreich – Geschichte – Votivkirche
at www.wien-vienna.at Empress Elisabeth Magazine The Emperor in Love

Franz Joseph I of Austria House of Habsburg-Lorraine Cadet branch of the House of Lorraine Born: 18 August 1830 Died: 21 November 1916

Regnal titles

Preceded by Ferdinand I & V Emperor of Austria King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia King of Bohemia 1848–1916 Succeeded by Charles I & IV

Preceded by Ferdinand I King of Lombardy-Venetia 1848–1866 Italian unification

Political offices

Preceded by Ferdinand I of Austria Head of the Präsidialmacht Austria 1850–1866 Succeeded by William I of Prussia as Holder of the Bundespräsidium of the North German Confederation

v t e

German Confederations (1806–1871)

Confederation of the Rhine 1806–1813


I (1806–1813)

Prince primate

Karl Theodor von Dalberg (1806–1813) Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais

German Confederation 1815–1866


Francis I of Austria (1815–1835) Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I of Austria
(1835–1848) Francis Joseph I of Austria (1850–1866)

Imperial regent

Archduke Johann of Austria (1848–1849)

North German Confederation 1867–1871


Wilhelm I of Prussia


Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck

List of German monarchs History of Germany House of Habsburg-Lorraine House of Hohenzollern

v t e

Monarchs of Germany

East Francia
East Francia
within the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire

Louis the German Carloman Louis the Younger Charles the Fat Arnulf Louis the Child

East Francia
East Francia

Conrad I Henry I Arnulf Otto I

Kingdom of Germany
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Rudolf Hermann Conrad (III) Henry V Lothair II Conrad III Henry (VI) Frederick I Henry VI Philip Otto IV Frederick II Henry (VII) Conrad IV Henry (VIII) William Richard Alfonso Rudolf I Adolf Albert I Henry VII Louis IV Frederick (III) Günther Charles IV Wenceslaus Rupert Jobst Sigismund Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Ferdinand IV Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine


German Confederation
German Confederation

Francis I Ferdinand I

German Empire
German Empire

Archduke John of Austria
Archduke John of Austria
(Imperial Regent)

German Confederation
German Confederation

Franz Joseph I

North German Confederation
German Confederation

William I

German Empire
German Empire

William I Frederick III William II

v t e

Monarchs of Bohemia


c. 870–1198 (Dukes)

Bořivoj I Spytihněv I Vratislaus I Saint Wenceslaus Boleslaus I Boleslaus II Boleslaus III Vladivoj Boleslaus the Brave1 Jaromír Oldřich Bretislaus I Spytihněv II Vratislaus II (I)2 Conrad I Bretislaus II Bořivoj II Svatopluk the Lion Vladislaus I Sobeslaus I Vladislaus II (I)2 Frederick Sobeslaus II Frederick Conrad II Otto Wenceslaus II Ottokar I Henry Bretislaus Vladislaus III Henry

1198–1306 (Kings)

Ottokar I Wenceslaus I Ottokar II Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III



Henry the Carinthian Rudolph I



John the Blind Charles IV (I) Wenceslaus IV Sigismund



Albert Interregnum Ladislaus the Posthumous



George Matthias Corvinus3



Vladislaus II Louis



Ferdinand I Maximilian Rudolph II Matthias Ferdinand II Frederick4 Ferdinand III Leopold I Joseph I Charles II Charles Albert (II)3, 5 Maria Theresa



Joseph II Leopold II Francis II (I) Ferdinand V Francis Joseph Charles I (III)

1 Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty 2 During his reign obtained non-hereditary royal title 3 Antiking 4 Elector Palatine from the Wittelsbach
dynasty 5 Prince-elector
of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach

v t e

Monarchs of Hungary

Family tree

House of Árpád

Grand Princes

(c. 850–c. 895) Árpád
(c. 895–c. 907) Zoltán (c. 907–c. 947) Fajsz
(c. 947–c. 955) Taksony (c. 955–c. 972) Géza (c. 972–997) Stephen (997–1000)


Stephen I (1000–1038) Peter (1038–1041; 1044–1046) Samuel (1041–1044) Andrew I (1046–1060) Béla I (1060–1063) Solomon (1063–1074) Géza I (1074–1077) Ladislaus I (1077–1095) Coloman (1095–1116) Stephen II (1116–1131) Béla II (1131–1141) Géza II (1141–1162) Stephen III (1162–1172)

Ladislaus II (1162–1163) Stephen IV (1163–1165)

Béla III (1172–1196) Emeric (1196–1204) Ladislaus III (1204–1205) Andrew II (1205–1235) Béla IV (1235–1270) Stephen V (1270–1272) Ladislaus IV (1272–1290) Andrew III (1290–1301)

House of Přemysl

Wenceslaus (1301–1305)

House of Wittelsbach

Otto (1305–1307)

Capetian House of Anjou

Charles I (1308–1342) Louis I (1342–1382) Mary (1382–1385; 1386–1395) Charles II (1385–1386)

House of Luxembourg

Sigismund (1387–1437)

House of Habsburg

Albert (1437–1439) Ladislaus V (1440–1457)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus I (1440–1444)

House of Hunyadi

Matthias I (1458–1490)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus II (1490–1516) Louis II (1516–1526)

House of Zápolya

John (1526–1540) John Sigismund (1540–1570)

House of Habsburg

Ferdinand I (1526–1564) Maximilian (1564–1576) Rudolph (1576–1608) Matthias II (1608–1619) Ferdinand II (1619–1637) Ferdinand III (1637–1657)

Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)

Leopold I (1657–1705) Joseph I (1705–1711) Charles III (1711–1740) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Joseph II (1780–1790) Leopold II (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1835) Ferdinand V (1835–1848) Francis Joseph (1848–1916) Charles IV (1916–1918)

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Austrian archdukes

1st generation

Frederick V Albert VI Sigismund

2nd generation

Cristopher Maximilian I John Wolfgang

3rd generation

Philip I of Castile Archduke Francis

4th generation

Charles I Ferdinand I

5th generation

Philip II of SpainS Maximilian II Ferdinand II FerdinandS JohnS John FerdinandS Charles II

6th generation

Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Rudolf V Ernest Matthias Maximilian III Albert VII Wenzel Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Carlos LorenzoS Diego, Prince of AsturiasS Philip III of SpainS Ferdinand III Charles Maximilian Ernest Leopold V Charles, Bishop of Wroclaw

7th generation

Charles Philip IV of SpainS Philipp John-Charles Albert CharlesS Ferdinand IV FerdinandS Alfonso Mauricio Leopold Wilhelm Ferdinand Charles Sigismund Francis

8th generation

Balthasar Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand IV of Hungary Francisco FernandoS Philip August Maximilian Thomas Leopold VI Charles Joseph Ferdinand Joseph Alois Philip Prospero, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand ThomasS Charles II of SpainS

9th generation

Ferdinand Wenzel John Leopold Joseph I Leopold Joseph Charles III

10th generation

Leopold Joseph Leopold John

11th generation

Joseph IIT Charles JosephT Leopold VIIT FerdinandT Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of CologneT

12th generation

Emperor Francis IT Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Charles, Duke of TeschenT Alexander Leopold, Palatine of HungaryT Joseph, Palatine of HungaryT Anton VictorT JohnT Rainer JosephT Archduke LouisT Cardinal-Archduke RudolfT Joseph FranzM Francis IV, Duke of ModenaM Ferdinand Karl JosephM MaximilianM Karl, Primate of HungaryM

13th generation

Emperor Ferdinand I Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of TuscanyT Leopold II, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Joseph Franz Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk Albert, Duke of Teschen Stephen, Palatine of Hungary Karl Ferdinand Francis V, Duke of ModenaM Frederick Ferdinand Ferdinand Karl ViktorM Archduke Rudolf Leopold Ludwig Ernest Alexander Sigismund Leopold Rainer Ferdinand Wilhelm Franz Heinrich Anton Maximilian Karl Joseph Karl

14th generation

Emperor Franz Joseph I Maximilian I of Mexico Karl Ludwig Ludwig Viktor Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Karl SalvatorT RainierT Ludwig SalvatorT John SalvatorT Karl Franz Joseph Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles Stephen Eugen Joseph August Ladislaus

15th generation

Crown Prince Rudolf Franz FerdinandM Otto Francis Ferdinand Karl Leopold FerdinandT Josef FerdinandT Peter FerdinandT Heinrich FerdinandT Robert FerdinandT Leopold SalvatorT Franz SalvatorT Albrecht SalvatorT Rainier SalvatorT Ferdinand SalvatorT Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen Karl Albrecht Leo Karl Wilhelm Joseph Francis Ladislaus Joseph Matthias

16th generation

Emperor Charles I Maximilian Eugen

Habsburg Tuscany

GottfriedT GeorgT RainerT Leopold MariaT AntonT Franz JosephT Karl PiusT Franz KarlT Hubert SalvatorT Theodor SalvatorT Clemens SalvatorT

Palatines of Hungary

Joseph Árpád István Géza Michael Koloman

17th generation

Descent of Charles I

Crown Prince Otto RobertM Felix Carl Ludwig Rudolf

Descent of Maximilian

Ferdinand Karl Heinrich Maria


Leopold FranzT GuntramT RadbotT JohannT GeorgT StephanT DominicT Friederich SalvatorT Andreas SalvatorT MarkusT JohannT MichaelT Franz SalvatorT Karl SalvatorT


Joseph Karl Andreas Agustinus Nicholas Franz Johann Jacob Edward Karl Paul Rudolf

18th generation


Karl Georg LorenzM GerhardM MartinM Karl Philipp Raimund Joseph István Rudolf Carl Christian Karl Peter Simeon Johannes


Maximilian Heinrich Philipp Joachim Ferdinand Karl Konrad


SigismundT GeorgT GuntramT LeopoldT Alexander SalvatorT Thaddäus SalvatorT Casimir SalvatorT MatthiasT JohannesT BernhardT BenediktT


Joseph Albrecht (1994–) Paul Leo (1996–) Friedrich Cyprian (1995–) Pierre (1997–) Benedikt Alexander (2005–) Nicolás (2003–) Santiago (2006–) Johannes (2010–) Paul Benedikt (2000–)

19th generation


Ferdinand Zvonimir Karl Konstantin AmedeoM JoachimM BartholomaeusM EmmanuelM LuigiM Felix Carl Andreas Franz Paul Johannes Carl Christian Johannes Thomas Franz Ludwig Michael Joseph Imre Christoph Alexander Lorenz Carl Johannes Ludwig Philipp


Nicholas Constantin Jacob Maximilian


Leopold AmedeoT MaximilianT LeopoldT Constantin SalvatorT Paul SalvatorT

S: also an infante of Spain T: also a prince of Tuscany M: also a prince of Modena

v t e

Military of Austria-Hungary


Austro-Hungarian Army Common Army Imperial Austrian Landwehr Privilegiertes uniformiertes Grazer Bürgerkorps Royal Hungarian Honvéd Royal Croatian Home Guard

42nd Inf. Division

First Army Rank insignia Military Intelligence Weaponry Imperial and Royal Infantry Alpine companies Kaiserjäger Imperial and Royal Mountain Troops Imperial and Royal Dragoons Imperial and Royal Hussars Imperial and Royal Uhlans Standschützen


K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Ranks Battleships Cruisers U-Boats

Air Force

K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen


Ministers for War

Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Kuhn Freiherr Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld General der Kavallerie Alexander Freiherr von Koller Feldzeugmeister
Arthur Maximilian Graf
Bylandt-Rheydt (der Ältere) Feldzeugmeister
Ferdinand Freiherr Bauer Feldzeugmeister
Rudolf Freiherr Merkl General der Kavallerie Edmund Freiherr von Krieghammer Feldzeugmeister
Heinrich Ritter
von Pitreich General der Infanterie Franz Freiherr Schönaich General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter
Auffenberg von Komarów Feldmarschall
Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin Generaloberst
Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten


Archduke Eugen of Austria Franz Rohr von Denta Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli Svetozar Boroević Archduke Joseph August of Austria Franz Böhme Josip Jelačić Günther Burstyn Georg Dragičević Karol Durski-Trzaska Gheorghe Flondor Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria Rudolf Maister Artur Phleps Oskar Potiorek Alfred Redl Maximilian Ronge Viktor Dankl von Krasnik Viktor Graf
von Scheuchenstuel Stjepan Sarkotić Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria Miklós Horthy Franz von Keil Giovanni Luppis Georg von Trapp Janko Vuković

Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Maximilian Njegovan Adm. Miklós Horthy

Heads of the Naval Section

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels Adm. Maximilian Njegovan RAdm Franz von Holub

Chiefs of the General Staff

Josef Wilhelm Freiher von Gallina Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Anton Freiherr von Schönfeld Feldzeugmeister
Friedrich Graf
von Beck-Rzikowsky Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf Generalmajor Blasius Schemua General der Infanterie Arthur Arz von Straußenburg

Commanders-in-Chief of the Army

Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen Francis Joseph I Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles I Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza

Supreme Commanders

Francis Joseph I Charles I

v t e

Hungarian Revolution of 1848


Austrian Empire Hungarian Revolutionary Army Kingdom of Hungary Russian Empire


April Laws

Major battles

Pákozd Schwechat Mór Kápolna Battles of Komárom

First battle Second battle Third battle

Isaszeg Buda Pered Segesvár Szőreg Temesvár Hegyes

Other battles



Hungarian Declaration of Independence Surrender at Világos Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

Leaders for Austria

Ferdinand I of Austria Franz Joseph I of Austria Eduard Clam-Gallas Julius Jacob von Haynau Josip Jelačić Prince Franz de Paula of Liechtenstein Franz Schlik Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz

Leaders for Hungary

Lajos Batthyány Józef Bem János Damjanich Henryk Dembiński Arisztid Dessewffy Artúr Görgey Richard Guyon György Klapka György Kmety Lajos Kossuth Vilmos Lázár János Móga Alessandro Monti Ferenc Ottinger Mór Perczel István Széchenyi Bertalan Szemere

Leaders for Russia

Alexander von Lüders Fyodor Sergeevich Panyutin Grigory Yakovlevich Skariatin Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich Grigory Khristoforovich Zass Nikolai Fyodorovich Engelhardt Maksim Maksimovich Grotenhelm


v t e

Italian unification
Italian unification
— Risorgimento

Wars and revolts

Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 First Italian War of Independence Crimean War Second Italian War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third Italian War of Independence Capture of Rome

Main leaders

Bettino Ricasoli Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour Carlo Cattaneo Daniele Manin Francesco Crispi Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Mazzini Ruggero Settimo Victor Emmanuel II


Pope Pius IX Franz Joseph I of Austria Francis II of the Two Sicilies Klemens von Metternich Joseph Radetzky von Radetz

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32787948 LCCN: n50025622 ISNI: 0000 0001 2127 0219 GND: 118535013 SELIBR: 187743 SUDOC: 027324583 BNF: cb12239721g (data) BIBSYS: 90535536 ULAN: 500339089 MusicBrainz: 3337f01f-99c8-4f47-9df3-a63938fb7e37 NLA: 35992905 NDL: 00620683 NKC: j