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Frank Frederick Borman II (born March 14, 1928), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a retired United States Air Force
United States Air Force
pilot, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA
NASA
astronaut, best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, making him, along with crew mates Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
and Bill Anders, the first of only 24 humans to do so. Before flying on Apollo, he set a fourteen-day spaceflight endurance record on Gemini 7, and also served on the NASA
NASA
review board which investigated the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
fire. After leaving NASA, he was the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Eastern Air Lines
Eastern Air Lines
from 1975 to 1986. Borman is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. He is currently the oldest living former American astronaut, just eleven days older than fellow astronaut Jim Lovell.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Education and early career 1.2 Flight experience 1.3 NASA
NASA
career

1.3.1 Project Gemini 1.3.2 Apollo program

1.4 Post- NASA
NASA
career

1.4.1 Eastern Air Lines 1.4.2 Retirement

2 Awards and honors 3 In media 4 Quotes 5 Tributes 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Biography[edit] Education and early career[edit] Borman was born on March 14, 1928, in Gary, Indiana, where the Frank Borman Expressway
Borman Expressway
is named after him.[1] He is of German descent, born as the only child to parents Edwin and Marjorie Borman. Because he suffered from numerous sinus problems in the cold and damp weather, his father packed up the family and moved to the better climate of Tucson, Arizona, which Borman considers his home town. He started to fly at the age of 15.[1] Borman graduated from Tucson High School
Tucson High School
in 1946. He received a Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
degree from the United States Military Academy
United States Military Academy
at West Point, in 1950, where he served as an Army Football Manager, and along with part of his graduating class, he entered the United States Air Force (USAF) and became a fighter pilot. He received his Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering
Aeronautical Engineering
from the California Institute of Technology in 1957. Later, Borman was selected for the Aerospace Research Pilot School (Class 60C, I) and became a test pilot. He completed the Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program in 1970.[1] Borman married Susan Bugbee in 1950, and they have two sons: Frederick and Edwin, and four grandchildren.[2]

Frank Borman
Frank Borman
and Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
walking up the ramp to the elevator before the Gemini 7
Gemini 7
mission

Flight experience[edit] Following graduation, Borman was a career U.S. Air Force officer. Prior to joining the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's space program in 1962, he received his pilot wings in 1951 and served as a fighter pilot with the 44th Fighter Bomber Squadron in the Philippine Islands from 1951 to 1953, and as an operational pilot and flight instructor in various squadrons in the United States, from 1953 until 1956.[1] Most of his flying was on F-80s, F-84s, swept wing F-84Fs and T-33s.[3] In 1957, he became an assistant professor of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics at West Point, where he served until 1960.[4] In 1960, Borman began serving as an experimental test pilot engaged in organizing and administering special projects for the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School, 1960–1962. During his military service, he logged over 6,000 hours of flying time. In 1966 and 1968, Borman served as special presidential ambassador on trips throughout the Far East
Far East
and Europe. In 1970, he undertook another special presidential mission, a worldwide tour to seek support for the release of American prisoners of war held by North Vietnam.[5] NASA
NASA
career[edit] Project Gemini[edit] Main article: Gemini 7 Borman was selected by NASA
NASA
for the second NASA
NASA
astronaut group in 1962. He was backup Command Pilot for Gemini 4 and was chosen as the Command Pilot for Gemini 7.[4] He was one of just four of this group chosen to command their first Gemini missions, the others being James McDivitt, Neil Armstrong, and Elliot See. (See was killed in a T-38 trainer jet crash three months before his mission. Astronauts Gerald Carr and Joe Engle, selected later, also commanded their first space flights.) Borman flew Gemini 7
Gemini 7
in December 1965 with Pilot James A. Lovell, Jr. This was a long-endurance flight which set a fourteen-day record, and also acted as the target vehicle in the first space rendezvous performed by Gemini 6A. The two craft came within one foot (30 centimeters) of each other and they took turns flying around each other, taking both still and motion pictures. Apollo program[edit] Main article: Apollo 8 Borman was selected in late 1966 to command the third manned Apollo mission, planned as an elliptical medium Earth orbit test of the second manned Lunar Module (LM) on the first manned launch of the Saturn V
Saturn V
lunar rocket sometime in 1967 or early 1968. However, in January 1967, the crew of the first manned Apollo mission Apollo 1 (then designated "AS-204"), Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, Ed White, and Roger B. Chaffee
Roger B. Chaffee
were killed in a fire aboard their Command Module, delaying the Apollo program. Following this deadly accident, the AS-204 Accident Review Board was charged with investigating the root causes of the fire and recommending corrective measures – Borman was chosen as the only astronaut to serve on the review board.[6] In April 1967, while serving on the board, Borman was one of five astronauts who testified before a United States Senate
United States Senate
committee investigating the Apollo 1
Apollo 1
fire. His testimony helped convince U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
that Apollo would be safe to fly again.

In-flight footage of Frank Borman
Frank Borman
(center) during the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission

Borman was then reassigned to his LM test mission, now planned to fly as "Apollo 9" in early 1969 after a first, low Earth orbit LM flight commanded by McDivitt in December 1968. But the LM was not ready for its first flight, leading NASA
NASA
management to decide to replace Borman's mission with a lunar orbit flight using just the Command/Service Module as Apollo 8
Apollo 8
in December, making McDivitt's flight Apollo 9
Apollo 9
in March 1969. Borman's Lunar Module Pilot (and spacecraft systems engineer) was William Anders. The Command Module Pilot and navigator, Michael Collins, had to have back surgery and was replaced by his backup, James Lovell, reuniting Borman with his Gemini 7 crewmate. Apollo 8
Apollo 8
went into lunar orbit on December 24 and made ten orbits of the Moon
Moon
in 20 hours before returning to Earth.

Borman (at microphone) and his crewmates Anders and Lovell, on the deck of USS Yorktown (CV-10) following Apollo 8
Apollo 8
splashdown

And, from the crew of Apollo 8, we close with good night, good luck, a Merry Christmas, and God bless all of you—all of you on the good Earth. — Frank Borman, live broadcast from lunar orbit (1968)[7][8]

The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission is also notable for the Earthrise
Earthrise
photograph taken by William Anders
William Anders
of the Earth rising above the Lunar horizon as the Command Module orbited the Moon, and for the reading from Genesis that was broadcast to Earth from Lunar orbit.[8] The success of Apollo 8
Apollo 8
avoided jeopardizing the goal of making the first manned Moon
Moon
landing by the end of 1969 by not waiting for the delayed LM, and also provided invaluable experience in navigation to the Moon. Space journalist Andrew Chaikin claims that, following the death of Gus Grissom, Borman became astronaut chief Deke Slayton's choice to command the first Moon
Moon
landing attempt. In the fall of 1968, Slayton offered command of the first landing to Borman, who turned it down, choosing to retire instead.[9]:128 Post- NASA
NASA
career[edit] Eastern Air Lines[edit] In early 1969, Borman became a special advisor to Eastern Air Lines and after retiring from NASA
NASA
and the U.S. Air Force in 1970 as a Colonel, he was made Senior Vice President-Operations Group at the company. In 1972, Borman received a phone call one evening informing him that Eastern Flight 401 had disappeared off the radarscope near Florida's Everglades. Soon, Borman himself was wading through the murky swamps, helping rescue crash victims and loading survivors into rescue helicopters. He was later promoted to Executive Vice President-General Operations Manager and was elected to Eastern's Board of Directors
Board of Directors
in July 1974. In May 1975, Borman was elected President
President
and Chief Operating Officer. He was named Chief Executive Officer of Eastern in December 1975 and became Chairman of the Board
Chairman of the Board
in December 1976.[6] After Borman became Eastern's CEO, the company went through the four most profitable years in the company's history. However, in 1983, contentious battles with labor unions, particularly the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAM) led the company to abandon several profitable programs and the resulting losses led to the sale of the airline to Texas Air Corporation, headed by Frank Lorenzo. Borman retired from Eastern in June 1986.[6] Retirement[edit]

Borman with Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
and William Anders
William Anders
in December 2008

Upon retirement, Borman and his wife, Susan Borman, moved to Las Cruces, New Mexico, where he enjoyed rebuilding and flying vintage airplanes from the World War II
World War II
and Korean War
Korean War
era. For a time, he was the majority owner of a Las Cruces Ford dealership founded by his son, Fred.[10] Borman purchased a cattle ranch in the Bighorn Mountains
Bighorn Mountains
of southern Montana
Montana
in 1998, where he and his wife lived for nearly two decades. In addition to tending cattle, Borman continued his hobbies in rebuilding and modeling aircraft during these years. Borman and his wife now reside in Billings, Montana
Montana
due to Susan's degrading mental health.[11] Following John Glenn's death in December 2016, Borman became the oldest living American astronaut. Borman gave the commencement address to the University of Arizona's 2008 graduating class.[12] He is a member of the Society of Antique Modelers (SAM).[13] Awards and honors[edit]

Air Force Master Astronaut
Astronaut
badge

Air Force Distinguished Service Medal Legion of Merit

Distinguished Flying Cross Congressional Space Medal of Honor[1] NASA
NASA
Exceptional Service Medal

World War II
World War II
Victory Medal National Defense Service Medal with one star Air Force Longevity Service Award with four clusters

Harmon Trophy, 1965 & 1968 Academy of Model Aeronautics
Academy of Model Aeronautics
Distinguished Service Award, 1968[13] National Geographic Society's Hubbard Medal, 1969[1] Dr. Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, 1969 Golden Plate Award
Golden Plate Award
for Science and Exploration, 1969 Society of Experimental Test Pilots James H. Doolittle Award, 1976 International Space Hall of Fame, 1982[1] Robert J. Collier Trophy[1] Tony Jannus Award, 1986[1] Airport Operators Council International Downes Award, 1990 Enshrined in the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1982.[14] Inducted into the U.S. Astronaut
Astronaut
Hall of Fame in 1993.[15] Inducted into the DeMolay International
DeMolay International
Hall of Fame[16]

In media[edit] In the 1998 HBO
HBO
miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, Borman was played by David Andrews.[17] Borman has since appeared in the documentary When We Left Earth: The NASA
NASA
Missions.[18] On November 13, 2008, Borman and his fellow Apollo 8 crewmates, Jim Lovell
Jim Lovell
and Bill Anders, appeared on the NASA
NASA
TV channel to discuss the Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission.[19] Borman also appeared in the 2005 documentary "Race to the Moon", which was shown as part of the PBS American Experience
American Experience
series. The film, renamed in 2013 as "Earthrise: The First Lunar Voyage," centered on the events that led up to NASA's Apollo 8
Apollo 8
mission.[20] Quotes[edit]

Frank Borman

"There's no question that it was a coffin, and I'd have flown it gladly." — Public comment on the hazardous design and construction of the Apollo Command Module, during 1967 congressional testimony after serving on the AS-204 Accident Review Board.[21] At the time, Borman was scheduled to command the third manned flight of the Apollo spacecraft. He coordinated the redesign effort to improve the safety of the spacecraft. "Had that rocket not fired, I'd still be orbiting the Moon. Forever. And I really didn't want to do that." — Spoken of the Apollo 8 mission during the documentary When We Left Earth: The NASA
NASA
Missions "I've long said that capitalism without bankruptcy is like Christianity
Christianity
without Hell. But it's hard to see any good news in this." — as chairman of Eastern Air Lines[22] "A superior pilot uses his superior judgment to avoid situations which require the use of his superior skill." - Flying Lessons, Federal Aviation Administration (8 January 2008) Tributes[edit]

I-80/I-94 in Lake County, Indiana, which runs through his birthtown of Gary, Indiana, is named the Frank Borman
Frank Borman
Expressway.[23] A K-8 school on Davis-Monthan Air Force Base
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base
in Tucson, Arizona
Tucson, Arizona
is named in Borman's honor.[24] A school in Phoenix, Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona
is named Frank Borman
Frank Borman
Elementary School.[25]

See also[edit]

Biography portal United States Air Force
United States Air Force
portal Spaceflight portal Moon
Moon
portal

Space rendezvous List of spaceflight records

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i "Commanded Apollo 8, first mission to circumnavigate the Moon". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ Rieker, Jane (May 6, 1974). "A Happy Landing for the Bormans". People. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ Borman, Frank (1988). Countdown. William Morrow. ISBN 0-688-07929-6.  ^ a b "Frank Borman, Colonel, USAF". NASA. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ "Colonel Borman's flight experience". Archived from the original on September 11, 2014.  ^ a b c "Frank Borman". NASA
NASA
JSC. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ Williams, David R. (September 25, 2007). "The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Christmas Eve Broadcast". NASA
NASA
National Space Science Data Center.  ^ a b Borman, Frank; Lovell, James; Anders, William (December 25, 1968). The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Christmas Eve Broadcast (MOV) (Live broadcast). NASA
NASA
National Space Science Data Center.  ^ Chaikin, Andrew (1999). A Man on the Moon. Time-Life, Inc. ISBN 978-0783556758.  ^ Diven, William (November 1992). "Auto dealers: sign of the times – The New Mexico Private 100". New Mexico Business Journal. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved February 21, 2012.  ^ News, Russell Nemetz - MTN. "Frank Borman: from pioneering astronaut to Montana
Montana
rancher". Retrieved 2018-02-28.  ^ "A New Beginning". University Communications. University of Arizona. May 18, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ a b "The AMA History Program Presents: Biography of Col. FRANK BORMAN" (pdf). Academy of Model Aeronautics. July 2003. Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ "National Aviation Hall of fame: Our Enshrinees". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved February 10, 2011.  ^ " Frank Borman
Frank Borman
inducted into the U.S. Astronaut
Astronaut
Hall of Fame". Retrieved June 25, 2016.  ^ "Frank Borman". DeMolay International.  ^ "From the Earth to the Moon, Full Cast and Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 5, 2017.  ^ " When We Left Earth
When We Left Earth
Full Cast and Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ " NASA
NASA
Television Commemorates Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Christmas Eve Broadcast". NASA. December 22, 2008. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ "American Experience, Race to the Moon, Full Cast and Crew". IMDb. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ To The Moon
Moon
(6-LP documentary with accompanying book about the early space program, the Space Race, and the Apollo program
Apollo program
to the first Moon
Moon
landing). Time-Life. 1969.  ^ Nash, J. Madeleine; Van Voorst, Bruce; Taylor III, Alexander L. (October 18, 1982). "The Growing Bankruptcy Brigade". Time Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011.  ^ Staff. "Frank Borman". Borman Expressway
Borman Expressway
Reconstruction Project. Indiana Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2007. Retrieved March 18, 2007.  ^ "Homepage". Borman K-8 Elementary School. Retrieved January 31, 2018.  ^ "Homepage". Frank Borman
Frank Borman
School. Retrieved January 30, 2018. 

Bibliography[edit]

Borman, Frank; Serling, Robert J. (October 1988). Countdown: An Autobiography. Silver Arrow. ISBN 0-688-07929-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frank Borman.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Frank Borman

Appearances on C-SPAN Frank Borman
Frank Borman
on IMDb

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Recipients of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor

Michael P. Anderson Neil Armstrong Frank Borman David M. Brown Roger B. Chaffee Kalpana Chawla Laurel Clark Charles "Pete" Conrad Robert Crippen John Glenn Virgil "Gus" Grissom Rick Husband Gregory Jarvis Jim Lovell Shannon Lucid Christa McAuliffe William C. McCool Ronald McNair Ellison Onizuka Ilan Ramon Judith Resnik Dick Scobee Alan Shepard William Shepherd Michael J. Smith Thomas P. Stafford Ed White John Young

Italics indicate the award was bestowed posthumously

v t e

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 2, "The New Nine, The Next Nine, The Nifty Nine", 1962

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 1 ← NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Group 2 → NASA
NASA
Astronaut Group 3

Neil Armstrong Frank Borman Charles "Pete" Conrad Jim Lovell James McDivitt Elliot See Thomas P. Stafford Ed White John Young

v t e

NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Groups NASA
NASA
Astronaut
Astronaut
Corps

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 List of astronauts by year of selection

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265948180 LCCN: n81082950 GND: 11887411X BIBSYS: 14021892 MusicBrainz: 70ac7f3b-d9d3-42f1-821e-53bc647f90ec SNAC: w63w5f2w

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