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François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (French: [fʁɑ̃swa ɔlɑ̃d] ( listen); born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France
President of France
and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra
Andorra
from 2012 to 2017. He was previously the First Secretary of the Socialist Party from 1997 to 2008, Mayor of Tulle
Tulle
from 2001 to 2008, and President of the Corrèze
Corrèze
General Council from 2008 to 2012. Hollande also served in the National Assembly of France
France
twice for the department of Corrèze's 1st constituency from 1988 to 1993, and again from 1997 to 2012. Born in Rouen
Rouen
and raised in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hollande began his political career as a special advisor to newly elected President François Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. He became a member of the National Assembly in 1988 and was elected First Secretary of the Socialist Party in 1997. Following the 2004 regional elections won by the Socialists, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but resigned as First Secretary and was immediately elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as President of the General Council of Corrèze
Corrèze
in 2008. In 2011, Hollande announced that he would be a candidate in the primary election to select the Socialist Party presidential nominee; he won the nomination, and on 6 May 2012, he was elected President during the second-round of voting with 51.6% of the vote against incumbent Nicolas Sarkozy. During his tenure, Hollande legalized same-sex marriage by passing Bill no. 344, reformed labour laws and credit training programs, withdrew French combat troops present in the Afghanistan military intervention,[1][2] concluded a EU directive through a Franco-German contract, and led the country through the January and November 2015 Paris and 2016 Nice attacks. He was a leading proponent of EU mandatory migrant quotas and NATO's 2011 military intervention in Libya. He also sent troops to Mali
Mali
and the Central African Republic with the approval of the UN Security Council in order to stabilise those countries, two operations largely seen as successful. However his support of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen[3][4][5] drew controversy among his left-wing electoral basis. Under his term, France
France
also became the most toured country in the world,[6][7][8] and known as a nation of open markets, regulatory efficiency, rule of law and limited governmental intervention.[9][10] Paris hosted the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference and Hollande's efforts to attract the 2024 Summer Olympics
2024 Summer Olympics
to the city were successful. Notwithstanding, with unemployment up to 10% as of December 2016[5][11] and domestic troubles[12] over his tenure due to terrorism, he faced spikes and downturns in approval rates, ultimately making him one of the most unpopular French Presidents in history.[13][14][15] On 1 December 2016, he announced he would not seek reelection in the 2017 French presidential election, and later endorsed Emmanuel Macron, who would go on to win the election.[16][17]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Early political career

2.1 First Secretary of the Socialist Party (1997–2008) 2.2 2012 presidential campaign

3 President of France
President of France
(2012–2017)

3.1 Budget 3.2 Marriage and adoption for same-sex couples 3.3 Labour reform 3.4 Pension reform 3.5 Foreign affairs 3.6 Approval ratings

4 Personal life 5 Honours and decorations

5.1 National honours 5.2 Foreign honours 5.3 Key to the City

6 Works 7 References 8 Further reading

8.1 In French

9 External links

Early life and education[edit] François Hollande
François Hollande
was born on 12 August 1954 in Rouen.[18] His mother, Nicole Frédérique Marguerite Tribert (1927–2009),[19] was a social worker, and his father, Georges Gustave Hollande (born 1923[20]), is a retired ear, nose, and throat doctor who "ran for local election on a far right ticket in 1959."[21][22][23][24][25][26] The name "Hollande" meant "one originally from Holland" – it is mostly found in Hollande's ancestral homeland, Hauts-de-France, and it is speculated to be Dutch in origin. The earliest known member of the Hollande family lived circa 1569 near Plouvain, working as a miller.[27][28] When Hollande was thirteen, the family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, a highly exclusive suburb of Paris.[29] He attended Saint-Jean-Baptiste-de-la-Salle boarding school, a private Catholic school in Rouen, the Lycée Pasteur, in Neuilly-sur-Seine, receiving his baccalaureut in 1972 then graduated with a bachelor's degree in Law from Panthéon-Assas University. Hollande studied at HEC Paris, graduated in 1975, and then attended the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration
École nationale d'administration
(ENA). He did his military service in the French Army in 1977.[30] He graduated from the ENA in 1980[31] and chose to enter the prestigious Cour des comptes. Hollande lived in the United States in the summer of 1974 as a university student.[32] Immediately after graduation, he was employed as a councillor in the Court of Audit. Early political career[edit] Five years after volunteering as a student to work for François Mitterrand's ultimately unsuccessful campaign in the 1974 presidential election, Hollande joined the Socialist Party. He was quickly spotted by Jacques Attali, a senior adviser to Mitterrand, who arranged for Hollande to run in legislative election of 1981 in Corrèze
Corrèze
against future President Jacques Chirac, who was then the leader of the Rally for the Republic, a Neo-Gaullist
Neo-Gaullist
party. Hollande lost to Chirac in the first round. He went on to become a special advisor to newly elected President Mitterrand, before serving as a staffer for Max Gallo, the government's spokesman. After becoming a municipal councillor for Ussel in 1983, he contested Corrèze
Corrèze
for a second time in 1988, this time being elected to the National Assembly. Hollande lost his bid for re-election to the Assembly in the so-called "blue wave" of the 1993 election, described as such due to the number of seats gained by the Right at the expense of the Socialist Party. First Secretary of the Socialist Party (1997–2008)[edit]

François Hollande
François Hollande
in 2006

Hollande with his former partner Ségolène Royal, at a rally for the 2007 elections

As the end of Mitterrand's term in office approached, the Socialist Party was torn by a struggle of internal factions, each seeking to influence the direction of the party. Hollande pleaded for reconciliation and for the party to unite behind Jacques Delors, the President of the European Commission, but Delors renounced his ambitions to run for the French presidency in 1995. Former party leader Lionel Jospin
Lionel Jospin
resumed his position, and selected Hollande to become the official party spokesman. Hollande went on to contest Corrèze
Corrèze
once again in 1997, successfully returning to the National Assembly. That same year, Jospin became the Prime Minister of France, and Hollande won the election for his successor as First Secretary of the party, a position he would hold for eleven years. Because of the very strong position of the Socialist Party within the French government during this period, Hollande's position led some to refer to him the "Vice Prime Minister". Hollande would go on to be elected mayor of Tulle
Tulle
in 2001, an office he would hold for the next seven years. The immediate resignation of Jospin from politics following his shock defeat by far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
in the first round of the 2002 presidential election forced Hollande to become the public face of the party for the 2002 legislative election. Although he managed to limit defeats and was re-elected in his own constituency, the Socialists lost nationally. In order to prepare for the 2003 party congress in Dijon, he obtained the support of many notable personalities of the party and was re-elected first secretary against opposition from left-wing factions. After the triumph of the Left in the 2004 regional elections, Hollande was cited as a potential presidential candidate, but the Socialists were divided on the European Constitution, and Hollande's support for the ill-fated "Yes" position in the French referendum on the European constitution caused friction within the party. Although Hollande was re-elected as first secretary at the Le Mans Congress
Le Mans Congress
in 2005, his authority over the party began to decline. Eventually his domestic partner, Ségolène Royal, was chosen to represent the party in the 2007 presidential election, where she would lose to Nicolas Sarkozy. Hollande was widely blamed for the poor performances of the Socialist Party in the 2007 elections, and he announced that he would not seek another term as First Secretary. Hollande publicly declared his support for Bertrand Delanoë, the mayor of Paris, but it was Martine Aubry who would go on to win the race to succeed him in 2008. Hollande was next elected to replace Jean-Pierre Dupont as the president of the General Council of Corrèze
Corrèze
in April 2008, and won re-election in 2011. 2012 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: François Hollande
François Hollande
presidential campaign, 2012 See also: French presidential election, 2012 Hollande announced in early 2011 that he would be a candidate in the upcoming primary election to select the Socialist and Radical Left Party presidential nominee.[33] The primary marked the first time that both parties had held an open primary to select a joint nominee at the same time. He initially trailed the front-runner, former finance minister and International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn. Following Strauss-Kahn's arrest on suspicion of sexual assault in New York City in May 2011, Hollande began to lead the opinion polls, and his position as front-runner was established just as Strauss-Kahn declared that he would no longer seek the nomination. After a series of televised debates with other candidates throughout September, Hollande topped the ballot in the first round held on 9 October with 39% of the vote. He did not, however, gain the 50% required to avoid a run-off election, and was obliged to enter a second ballot against Martine Aubry, who had come in second with 30% of the vote. The second ballot took place on 16 October 2011. Hollande won with 56% of the vote to Aubry's 43% and thus became the official Socialist and Radical Left Party
Radical Left Party
candidate for the 2012 presidential election.[34] All his main opponents in the primary – Aubry, Ségolène Royal, Arnaud Montebourg, and Manuel Valls
Manuel Valls
– pledged their support to him for the general election.[35]

Hollande campaigning in Reims, 2012

Hollande's presidential campaign was managed by Pierre Moscovici
Pierre Moscovici
and Stéphane Le Foll, a member of Parliament and Member of the European Parliament respectively.[36] Hollande launched his campaign officially with a rally and major speech at Le Bourget
Le Bourget
on 22 January 2012 in front of 25,000 people.[37][38] The main themes of his speech were equality and the regulation of finance, both of which he promised to make a key part of his campaign.[38] On 26 January, he outlined a full list of policies in a manifesto containing 60 propositions, including the separation of retail activities from riskier investment-banking businesses; raising taxes on big corporations, banks and the wealthy; creating 60,000 teaching jobs; bringing the official retirement age back down to 60 from 62; creating subsidised jobs in areas of high unemployment for the young; promoting more industry in France
France
by creating a public investment bank; granting marriage and adoption rights to same-sex couples; and pulling French troops out of Afghanistan in 2012.[39][40] On 9 February, he detailed his policies specifically relating to education in a major speech in Orléans.[41] Incumbent President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
announced on 15 February that he would run for a second and final term, strongly criticising the Socialist proposals and claiming that Hollande would bring about "economic disaster within two days of taking office".[42] Opinion polls showed a tight race between the two men in the first round of voting, with most polls showing Hollande comfortably ahead of Sarkozy in a hypothetical second round.[43] The first round of the presidential election was held on 22 April. François Hollande
François Hollande
came in first place with 28.63% of the vote, and faced Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
in a run-off.[44] In the second round of voting on 6 May 2012, Hollande was elected with 51.6% of the vote.[45] President of France
President of France
(2012–2017)[edit] See also: Presidency of François Hollande

Hollande (right) and outgoing President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
at Élysée Palace on inauguration day, 15 May 2012

Hollande during a meeting in Carcassonne
Carcassonne
in May 2015

Hollande was inaugurated on 15 May 2012, and shortly afterwards appointed Jean-Marc Ayrault
Jean-Marc Ayrault
to be his Prime Minister. He was the first Socialist Party president since François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
left office in 1995. The President of the French Republic is one of the two joint heads of state of the Principality of Andorra. Hollande hosted a visit from Antoni Martí, head of the government, and Vicenç Mateu Zamora, leader of the parliament.[46][47] He also appointed Benoît Puga
Benoît Puga
to be the military's chief of staff, Pierre-René Lemas as his general secretary and Pierre Besnard as his Head of Cabinet.[48] Hollande's full Council of Ministers became the first ever in France
France
to show gender parity, with 17 men and 17 women, and each member was required to sign a new "code of ethics" that placed significant restrictions on their conduct and compensation, above that of existing law.[49] The first measure enacted by the new government was to lower the salaries of the President, the Prime Minister, and other members of the government by 30%.[49] Budget[edit] Hollande's economic policies are wide-ranging, including supporting the creation of a European credit rating agency, the separation of lending and investment in banks, reducing the share of electricity generated by nuclear power in France
France
from 75 to 50% in favour of renewable energy sources, merging income tax and the General Social Contribution (CSG), creating an additional 45% for additional income of 150,000 euros, capping tax loopholes at a maximum of €10,000 per year, and questioning the relief solidarity tax on wealth (ISF, Impôt de Solidarité sur la Fortune) measure that should bring €29 billion in additional revenue. Hollande also signalled his intent to implement a 75% income tax rate on revenue earned above 1,000,000 euros per year, to generate the provision of development funds for deprived suburbs, and to return to a deficit of zero percent of GDP by 2017.[50][51] The tax plan proved controversial, with courts ruling it unconstitutional in 2012, only to then take the opposite position on a redrafted version in 2013.[52][53] Hollande has also announced several reforms to education, pledging to recruit 60,000 new teachers, to create a study allowance and means-tested training, and to set up a mutually beneficial contract that would allow a generation of experienced employees and craftsmen to be the guardians and teachers of younger newly hired employees, thereby creating a total of 150,000 subsidized jobs. This has been complemented by the promise of aid to SMEs, with the creation of a public bank investment-oriented SME's, and a reduction of the corporate tax rate to 30% for medium corporations and 15% for small. Hollande's government has announced plans to construct 500,000 public homes per year, including 150,000 social houses, funded by a doubling of the ceiling of the A passbook, the region making available its local government land within five years. In accordance with long-standing Socialist Party policy, Hollande has announced that the retirement age will revert to 60, for those who have contributed for more than 41 years. Marriage and adoption for same-sex couples[edit] Further information: Law 2013-404 Hollande has also announced his personal support for same-sex marriage and adoption for LGBT couples, and outlined plans to pursue the issue in early 2013.[54] In July 2012, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault announced that "In the first half of 2013, the right to marriage and adoption will be open to all couples, without discrimination", confirming this election promise by Hollande.[55][56] The bill to legalize same-sex marriage, known as Bill no. 344, was introduced to the National Assembly of France
France
on 7 November 2012. On 12 February 2013, the National Assembly approved the bill in a 329–229 vote.[57] The Right-wing opposed the bill. The Senate approved the full bill with a 171–165 majority on 12 April with minor amendments. On 23 April, the National Assembly approved the amended bill, in a 331–225 vote, and following approval of the law by the Constitutional Council of France, it was signed into law by President Hollande on 18 May 2013, with the first same-sex weddings under the law taking place eleven days later.[58] Labour reform[edit]

Demonstration against Hollande's labour reform in Belfort, 2016

As President, Hollande pursued labour reform to make France
France
more competitive internationally. Legislation was introduced in late 2012 and after much debate passed the French lower and upper house in May 2013. The bill includes measures such as making it easier for workers to change jobs and for companies to fire employees. One of the main measures of the bill allows companies to temporarily cut workers' salaries or hours during times of economic difficulty. This measure takes its inspiration from Germany, where furloughs have been credited with allowing companies to weather difficult times without resorting to massive layoffs. Layoffs in France
France
are often challenged in courts and the cases can take years to resolve. Many companies cite the threat of lengthy court action – even more than any financial cost – as the most difficult part of doing business in France. The law shortens the time that employees have to contest a layoff and also lays out a scheme for severance pay. The government hopes this will help employees and companies reach agreement faster in contentious layoffs.[59] Another key measure introduced are credits for training that follow employees throughout their career, regardless of where they work, and the right to take a leave of absence to work at another company. The law will also require all companies to offer and partially pay for supplemental health insurance. Lastly, the law also reforms unemployment insurance, so that someone out of work doesn't risk foregoing significant benefits when taking a job that might pay less than previous work or end up only being temporary. Under the new law, workers will be able to essentially put benefits on hold when they take temporary work, instead of seeing their benefits recalculated each time.[59] Pension reform[edit] As President, Hollande pursued reform to the vast and expensive pension system in France. The process proved to be very contentious, with members of Parliament, Labor Unions, and general public all opposed. Mass protests and demonstrations occurred throughout Paris. Despite the opposition, the French Parliament did pass a reform in December 2013 aimed at plugging a pension deficit expected to reach 20.7 billion euros ($28.4 billion) by 2020 if nothing were to be done. Rather than raising the mandatory retirement age, as many economists had advised, Hollande pursued increases in contributions, leaving the retirement age untouched. The reform had a rough ride in parliament, being rejected twice by the Senate, where Hollande's Socialist Party has a slim majority, before it won sufficient backing in a final vote before the lower house of parliament. French private sector workers will see the size and duration of their pension contributions increase only modestly under the reform while their retirement benefits are largely untouched.[60] Foreign affairs[edit] See also: List of presidential trips made by François Hollande

Hollande reviewing troops during the 2013 Bastille Day military parade

As President, Hollande promised an early withdrawal of French combat troops present in Afghanistan in 2012.[1][2] He also pledged to conclude a new contract of Franco-German partnership, advocating the adoption of a Directive on the protection of public services. Hollande has proposed "an acceleration of the establishment of a Franco-German civic service, the creation of a Franco-German research office, the creation of a Franco-German industrial fund to finance common competitiveness clusters, and the establishment of a common military headquarters".[61] As well as this, Hollande has expressed a wish to "combine the positions of the presidents of the European Commission and of the European Council
European Council
(currently held by José Manuel Barroso and Herman Van Rompuy
Herman Van Rompuy
respectively) into a single office [...] and that it should be directly chosen" by the members of the European Parliament.[61]

Hollande and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on board Air Force One, 10 February 2014

On 11 January 2013, Hollande authorised the execution of Operation Serval, which aimed to curtail the activities of Islamist extremists in the north of Mali.[1] The intervention was popularly supported in Mali, as Hollande promised that his government would do all it could to "rebuild Mali".[62] During his one-day visit to Bamako, Mali's capital, on 2 February 2013, he said that it was "the most important day in [his] political life".[63] In 2014, Hollande took some of these troops out of Mali
Mali
and spread them over the rest of the Sahel under Operation Barkhane, in an effort to curb jihadist militants.[64] Hollande made a state visit to the United States in February 2014; a state dinner was given in his honor by U.S. President Barack Obama.[65][66][67] On 27 February 2014, Hollande was a special guest of honor in Abuja, received by Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan
Goodluck Jonathan
in celebration of Nigeria's amalgamation in 1914, a 100-year anniversary.[68] In July 2014, Hollande expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, and told Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, " France
France
strongly condemns these aggressions [by Hamas]."[69]

Leaders of Belarus, Russia, Germany, France, and Ukraine at the Minsk II summit, 11–12 February 2015

In September 2015, Hollande warned former Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries against rejecting the EU mandatory migrant quotas, saying: "Those who don't share our values, those who don't even want to respect those principles, need to start asking themselves questions about their place in the European Union".[70] Hollande supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen,[71] re-supplying the Saudi military.[72] France
France
authorised $18 billion (€16 billion) in arms sales to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 2015.[73] Approval ratings[edit] An IFOP poll released in April 2014 showed that Hollande’s approval rating had dropped five points since the previous month of March to 18%, dipping below his earlier low of 20% in February during the same year.[74] In November 2014, his approval rating reached a new low of 12%, according to a YouGov poll.[75] Following the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, however, approval for Hollande increased dramatically, reaching 40% according to an IFOP poll two weeks after the attack,[76] though an Ipsos-Le Point survey in early February showed his rating declining back to 30%.[77] Hollande is the most unpopular president of the French Fifth Republic. In September 2014, his approval rating was down to 13% according to an IFOP/JDD survey, making him the first French leader in modern times to ever break the 20% threshold.[78] One year before the end of his mandate, in April 2016, his approval rating was at 14%, and surveys predicted that if he were to run for a second term, he would be defeated in the first round of the 2017 presidential elections.[79] By November 2016, Hollande's approval rating was just 4%.[80] Personal life[edit]

François Hollande
François Hollande
in 2015

For over thirty years, his partner was fellow Socialist politician Ségolène Royal, with whom he has four children: Thomas (1984), Clémence (1985), Julien (1987) and Flora (1992). In June 2007, just a month after Royal's defeat in the French presidential election of 2007, the couple announced that they were separating.[81] A few months after his split from Ségolène Royal
Ségolène Royal
was announced, a French website published details of a relationship between Hollande and French journalist Valérie Trierweiler. In November 2007, Trierweiler confirmed and openly discussed her relationship with Hollande in an interview with the French weekly Télé 7 Jours. She remained a reporter for the magazine Paris Match, but ceased work on political stories. Trierweiler moved into the Élysée Palace
Élysée Palace
with Hollande when he became president and started to accompany him on official travel.[82] On 25 January 2014, Hollande officially announced his separation from Valérie Trierweiler[83] after the tabloid magazine Closer revealed his affair with actress Julie Gayet.[84] In September 2014, Trierweiler published a book about her time with Hollande titled Merci pour ce moment (Thank You for This Moment). The memoir claimed the president presented himself as disliking the rich, but in reality disliked the poor. The claim brought an angry reaction and rejection from Hollande, who said he had spent his life dedicated to the under-privileged.[85] Hollande was raised Catholic, but became an agnostic later in life.[86] He now considers himself to be an atheist,[87] but still professes respect for all religious practices.[88] Honours and decorations[edit] National honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Honour Date & Comment

Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the National Order of the Legion of Honour 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office

Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the National Order of Merit 15 May 2012 – automatic upon taking presidential office

Foreign honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Country Honour Date

Poland Knight of the Order of the White Eagle 16 November 2012[89][90]

Italy Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 21 November 2012[91]

Morocco Grand Collar of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite 3 April 2013[92]

Saudi Arabia Chain of the Order of Abdulaziz Al Saud 30 December 2013[93]

 Holy See Holy See Proto-canon of the Papal Basilica of St. John Lateran
Basilica of St. John Lateran
(2012–2017; the post is held ex officio by the French Head of State) 15 May 2012 - 14 May 2017[94]

Tunisia Grand Cordon
Grand Cordon
of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia 4 July 2013[95]

Mali Grand Cordon
Grand Cordon
of the National Order of Mali
Mali
of Mali 15 July 2013[96]

Slovakia Order of the White Double Cross, 1st Class 29 October 2013

Austria Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria 5 November 2013

Monaco Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Saint-Charles 14 November 2013[97]

Netherlands Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Netherlands
Netherlands
Lion 20 January 2014[98]

United Kingdom Honorary Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Bath 5 June 2014[99]

Canada Grand officier of the National Order of Quebec 3 November 2014[100]

Sweden Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim 2 December 2014[101]

Spain Knight Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic 23 March 2015[102]

Greece Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Redeemer 22 October 2015[103]

Kazakhstan Order of Friendship, 1st class 6 November 2015[104]

Argentina Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín 25 February 2016[105]

Central African Republic Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Central African Merit 13 May 2016[106]

Portugal Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty 19 June 2016[107]

Romania Grand Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania 13 September 2016[108]

Key to the City[edit] Manila: Freedom of the City of Manila
Manila
(26 February 2015). Works[edit] Hollande has had a number of books and academic works published, including:

L'Heure des choix. Pour une économie politique (The hour of choices. For a political economy), with Pierre Moscovici, 1991. ISBN 2-7381-0146-1 L'Idée socialiste aujourd'hui (The Socialist Idea Today), Omnibus, 2001. ISBN 978-2-259-19584-3 Devoirs de vérité (Duties of truth), interviews with Edwy Plenel, éd. Stock, 2007. ISBN 978-2-234-05934-4 Droit d'inventaires (Rights of inventory), interviews with Pierre Favier, Le Seuil, 2009. ISBN 978-2-02-097913-9 Le rêve français (The French Dream), Privat, August 2011. ISBN 978-2-7089-4441-1 Un destin pour la France
France
(A Destiny for France), Fayard, January 2012. ISBN 978-2-213-66283-1 Changer de destin (Changing destiny), Robert Laffont, February 2012. ISBN 978-2-221-13117-6

References[edit]

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24". France
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François Hollande
so unpopular in France?". RFI. 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (2013-10-29). " François Hollande
François Hollande
becomes most unpopular French president ever". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ "Nearly 90 percent of the French now disapprove of their president". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ "Francois Hollande now the most unpopular president in French history". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ "French President Francois Hollande says he will not seek second term". ABC News. 2016-12-02. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ "Après l'échec de Hamon, Hollande se met en marche pour Macron". Le Figaro (in French). 2017-04-24. Retrieved 2017-05-09.  ^ "François HOLLANDE History of parliamentary service MEPs European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 13 April 2017.  ^ "Nicole Tribert, sa mère - François Hollande
François Hollande
et les femmes de sa vie - Elle". www.elle.fr (in French). Retrieved 13 April 2017.  ^ "Georges Hollande: "Sarkozy a fait un cadeau empoisonné à mon fils"". Charente libre (in French). AFP. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ Angelique Chrisafis in Le Bourget
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(22 January 2012). "Francois Hollande stages first major rally in 2012 French presidential race World news". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Willsher, Kim (16 October 2011). "French presidential election: Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
v François Hollande". The Guardian. London.  ^ "EN IMAGES. François Hollande, une carrière au parti socialiste – Presidentielle 2012" (in French). leParisien.fr. Retrieved 3 January 2012.  ^ Email Us (21 April 2012). "We all know Sarko, but who's the other guy?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "The NS Profile: François Hollande". New Statesman. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (18 April 2012). "François Hollande: from marshmallow man to Sarkozy's nemesis?". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ Luc Antonini, L'ascendance des candidats, dans Généalogie Magazine Hors-série no 318-319, octobre-novembre 2011, p. 13 ^ Serge Raffy, Le Président, François Hollande, itinéraire secret, nouvelle édition revue et augmentée, A. Fayard/Pluriel, 2012 ^ "Global Players: Francois Hollande Thomas White International". Thomaswhite.com. Retrieved 15 May 2012.  ^ "Francois Hollande Fast Facts". CNN.com. CNN. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "The French elite: Old school ties". The Economist. 10 March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (15 April 2012). "The Soft Middle of François Hollande". The New York Times. p. 50. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Albinet, Alain (31 March 2011). "L'appel de Tulle
Tulle
de François Hollande". Le Monde
Le Monde
(in French). Retrieved 29 June 2011.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (7 September 2010). "French Unions in National Strike on Pensions". The New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved 4 December 2010. [Socialist party leader Martine] Aubry has presidential ambitions... Her rivals included the former leader of the party, François Hollande....  ^ Love, Brian (16 September 2011). "Hollande to run for presidency for French left". Reuters. Retrieved 16 October 2011.  ^ Botella, Bruno. " François Hollande
François Hollande
recrute deux préfets pour sa campagne" (in French). acteurs publics. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (22 January 2012). "François Hollande, Challenging Sarkozy, Calls for Change". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ a b Clavel, Geoffroy (22 January 2012). "François Hollande, French Presidential Candidate, Says 'Finance' Is His Adversary". Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (26 January 2012). "Sarkozy's Main Rival Offers Proposals for Lifting France's Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ "Presidential program – François Hollande". Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ Laubacher, Paul (10 February 2013). "Éducation : François Hollande fait de l'école primaire une priorité". Le Nouvel Observateur (in French). Retrieved 18 February 2012.  ^ "Politique : Sarkozy se voit à l'Élysée pour encore "sept ans et demi"". Le Figaro. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  ^ "4 March 2012 – Opinion Way" (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2012.  ^ "Elections Présidentielle Résultats". FRANCE 24. 22 April 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Socialist Hollande triumphs in French presidential poll – FRENCH ELECTIONS 2012". FRANCE 24. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "François Hollande, co-prince d'Andorre, reçoit des responsables de la principauté", 20 minutes, 26 July 2012 ^ "Entretien du Président de la République, M. François Hollande avec MM. Marti et Mateu, Chef du Gouvernement et Syndic Général de la Principauté d’Andorre" Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine., French embassy to Andorra, 30 July 2012 ^ Le cabinet du Président de la République elysee.fr 15 May 2012 ^ a b "France: Hollande réunit son gouvernement, baisse son salaire de 30%". Le Parisien. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ Samuel, Henry (26 January 2012). " François Hollande
François Hollande
outlines manifesto for French presidency challenge". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ ""2% de croissance": Hollande s'explique". Le Figaro. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Fouquet, Helene (29 December 2012). "French Court Says 75% Tax Rate on the Rich Is Unconstitutional". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 June 2013. (subscription required) ^ Petroff, Alanna (30 December 2013). "France's 75% 'millionaire tax' to become law". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ "Unpopular French President Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
Desperately Woos Les Gais". Queerty.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ [1] Archived 7 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Le mariage et l'adoption homosexuels pour début 2013". Le Figaro. Retrieved 23 October 2012.  ^ (in French) Loi sur le mariage pour tous : les députés adoptent l'article 1. Retrieved 2 February 2013. ^ "French constitutional court approves gay-marriage bill". France
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France
approves major labor reform package". yahoo.com. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ "French parliament approves pension reform". Reuters. 19 December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.  ^ a b EurActiv.com, based on reporting by EurActiv.fr. "François Hollande: Towards a European 'New Deal'?". EurActiv. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Andrew Harding (2 February 2013). "French President Hollande pledges to help rebuild Mali". BBC News. Retrieved 16 June 2013.  ^ "The Bamako
Bamako
Effect". The Economist. 9 February 2013. (subscription required) ^ " France
France
sets up anti-Islamist force in Africa's Sahel". BBC News. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ "French President visits America". CNN.com. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ "Politics with side of caviar: Obama welcomes Hollande at state dinner". CNN.com. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ " François Hollande
François Hollande
arrives in United States: No more 'freedom fries' as Obama rolls out red carpet". The Daily Telegraph. London. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014.  ^ "Security issues dominate as France's Hollande visits Nigeria". M.news24.com. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ "France, Germany 'Strongly Condemn' Rockets on Israel". Israel national news. 9 July 2014.  ^ "Migrant crisis: Hungarian PM Viktor Orban proposes EU border force to patrol Greek frontier". International Business Times. 23 September 2015.  ^ " France
France
voices support for Saudi campaign in Yemen". France
France
24. 12 April 2015. ^ Pressure mounts on Western powers to halt arms sales to Saudi Arabia". France
France
24. 23 August 2016. ^ "Arms sales to Saudi 'illicit' due to civilian deaths in Yemen: campaigners". Reuters. 22 August 2016. ^ http://www.ifop.fr/media/poll/2601-1-study_file.pdf ^ Sage, Alexandria (6 November 2014). "Hollande popularity plumbs new low in mid-term French poll". Reuters. Retrieved 7 November 2014.  ^ Sharkov, Damien (19 January 2015). "French President's Popularity Rating Doubles Following Paris Attacks". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 February 2015.  ^ "Hollande, Valls approval ratings drop - poll". Reuters. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.  ^ " François Hollande
François Hollande
devient le président le plus impopulaire de la Ve République". Le Monde
Le Monde
(in French). 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ "14% contre 28% pour Sarkozy à la même époque : Hollande président le plus impopulaire de la Ve République" (in French). My TF1
TF1
News. 23 April 2016. Archived from the original on 10 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ "Mon Dieu, François Hollande’s Approval Rating Is at 4 Percent", Emily Tamkin. Foreign Policy. November 2, 2016. Accessed January 18, 2017 ^ Sciolino, Elaine (19 June 2007). "French Socialists' First Couple Disclose a Parting of Ways". The New York Times. p. A3. Retrieved 4 December 2010.  ^ The women in Francois Hollande's life BBC News
BBC News
10 January 2014 ^ " François Hollande
François Hollande
annonce sa rupture avec Valérie Trierweiler
Valérie Trierweiler
- valérie trierweiler sur Europe1". Europe1.fr. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.  ^ Alex Wynne and Laure Guilbault (16 January 2014). "Pressure Mounts Against President Hollande". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved 16 January 2014.  ^ "Upset Hollande hits back at former girlfriend's accusations". Paris News.Net. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2014.  ^ "Prince et chanoine : les nouveaux métiers de Hollande". Direct Matin. Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2012.  ^ Duchemin, Rémi (23 January 2014). "François Hollande, un athée très discret". Europe1.fr (in French). Europe 1. Retrieved 13 July 2014.  ^ Elkaïm, Olivia (5 April 2012). "François Hollande : des origines protestantes hollandaises". La Vie (in French). Retrieved 3 February 2013.  ("En décembre dernier, François Hollande confiait à La Vie : 'Je n'ai aucune pratique religieuse. Mais je respecte toutes les confessions. La mienne est de ne pas en avoir.'") ^ Orders exchange between Polish and French Presidents (photo) – prezydent.pl ^ Orders exchange between Polish and French Presidents (photo)[permanent dead link] – Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
Order of Merit of the Italian Republic elysee.fr ^ (in Italian) Italian Presidency website, Exchange of decorations between President Napolitano and President Hollande ^ (in French) Maroc.ma, [2] ^ (in French) BFMTV, [3] ^ (in Italian) La Stampa, Dal Laterano un’onorificenza per Hollande ^ (in Dutch) Directinfo, [4] ^ (in Dutch) RTL, [5] ^ Sovereign Ordonnance n° 4575 of 14 november 2013 ^ (in Dutch) Telegraaf, Koning krijgt grootkruis van Legioen van Eer ^ (in French) Radio-Canada, [6] ^ (in French) BFMTV, Débarquement: la visite millimétrée de la reine Elizabeth II en France ^ Présidence de la République. "Entretien avec Sa Majesté le Roi de Suède Carl XVI Gustaf". www.elysee.fr. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014.  ^ "Royal Decree 211/2015, 23 March,". BOE Spanish Official Journal.  ^ "Hollande arrives in Athens for official visit". Athens News Agency - Macedonian Press Agency (ANA-MPA).  ^ "Nazarbayev awards Order of Friendship to Francois Hollande". Tengrinews.kz.  ^ "Macri awards Order of Libertator General San Martin to Francois Hollande". Tengrinews.kz.  ^ " François Hollande
François Hollande
décoré à la dignité de Grand-croix dans l'ordre national de la reconnaissance centrafricaine".  ^ "CIDADÃOS ESTRANGEIROS AGRACIADOS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS". Presidência da República Portuguesa.  ^ "Tabella degli insigniti". 

Further reading[edit]

Chafer, Tony. "Hollande and Africa Policy." Modern & Contemporary France
France
(2014) 22#4 pp: 513-531. Clift, Ben, and Raymond Kuhn. "The Hollande Presidency, 2012–14." Modern & Contemporary France
France
(2014) 22#4 pp: 425-434; Online free Goodliffe, Gabriel, and Riccardo Brizzi. France
France
after 2012 (2015). Kuhn, Raymond. "Mister Unpopular: François Hollande
François Hollande
and the Exercise of Presidential Leadership, 2012–14," Modern & Contemporary France
France
(2014) 22#4 pp: 435-457 Merle, Patrick, and Dennis Patterson. "The French parliamentary and presidential elections of 2012." Electoral Studies 34 (2014): 303-309. Wall, Irwin. France
France
Votes: The Election of François Hollande (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.) Weinstein, Kenneth R. "Hollande the hawk?." World Affairs 177.1 (2014): 87-96.

In French[edit]

Michel, Richard (2011). François Hollande: L'inattendu (in French). Paris: Archipel. ISBN 978-2-8098-0600-7.  Raffy, Serge (2011). François Hollande: Itinéraire Secret (in French). Paris: Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-63520-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: François Hollande

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François Hollande, 11 années à la tête du Parti Socialiste, Politique.net Statement of President Hollande to the Sixty-seventh session of the United Nations General Assembly, 25 September 2012 (dubbed in English; official United Nations video) Collected Articles at the Guardian Appearances on C-SPAN

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