Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau (Chairman of the Military Council)
Minister of Public Health and Labor
14 October 1949 – 10 May 1950
Antonio Vieux (Public Health)
Louis Bazin (Labor)
Joseph Loubeau (Public Health)
Emile Saint-Lot (Labor)
Undersecretary of Labor
26 November 1948 – 14 October 1949
(1907-04-14)14 April 1907
21 April 1971(1971-04-21) (aged 64)
National Unity 
Not to be confused with Colombian cocaine trafficker Evaristo Porras
Ardila, also known as "Papá Doc".
François Duvalier (French
pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃swa dyvalje]; 14 April
1907 – 21 April 1971), also known as Papa Doc, was the
President of Haiti
President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971. He was elected president in
1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform, after thwarting a
military coup d'état in 1958 his regime rapidly became
totalitarian. An undercover death squad, the
Tonton Macoute killed
indiscriminately and was thought to be so pervasive that Haitians
became fearful of expressing dissent even in private. Duvalier further
solidified his rule by incorporating elements of Haitian mythology
into a personality cult.
Prior to his rule, Duvalier was a physician by profession. His
profession and expertise in the field acquired him the nickname
"Papa Doc". He was unanimously "re-elected" in a 1961 referendum
in which he was the only candidate. Afterwards, he consolidated his
power step by step, culminating in 1964 when he became President for
Life after another faulty election, and remained in power until he
died in 1971. He was succeeded by his son, Jean‑Claude, who was
nicknamed "Baby Doc".
1 Early life and career
2 Political rise
3.1 Consolidation of power
Heart attack and Barbot affair
3.3 Constitutional changes
3.4 Foreign relations
3.5 Internal policies
3.5.2 Social and economic policies
Personality cult and Vodou
4 Death and succession
5 Books and films
Early life and career
Duvalier was born in
Port-au-Prince in 1907, son of Duval Duvalier, a
justice of the peace, and baker Ulyssia Abraham. His aunt, Madame
Florestal, raised him.:51 He completed a degree in medicine from
the University of
Haiti in 1934, and served as staff physician at
several local hospitals. He spent a year at the University of Michigan
studying public health:53 and in 1943, became active in a United
States-sponsored campaign to control the spread of contagious tropical
diseases, helping the poor to fight typhus, yaws, malaria and other
tropical diseases that had ravaged
Haiti for years. His patients
affectionately called him "Papa Doc", a moniker that he used
throughout his life.
United States occupation of Haiti, which began in 1915, left a
powerful impression on the young Duvalier. He was also aware of the
latent political power of the poor black majority and their resentment
against the tiny mulatto (black and white mixed-race) elite.
Pan-African ideals, and became involved in the
négritude movement of Haitian author Jean Price-Mars, both of which
led to his advocacy of Haitian Vodou, an ethnological study of
which later paid enormous political dividends for him. In
1938, Duvalier co-founded the journal Les Griots. In 1939, he married
Simone Duvalier (née Ovide), with whom he had four children:
Marie‑Denise, Nicole, Simone, and Jean‑Claude.
In 1946, Duvalier aligned himself with President
Dumarsais Estimé and
was appointed Director General of the National Public Health Service.
In 1949, he served as Minister of Health and Labor, but when Duvalier
opposed Paul Magloire's 1950 coup d'état, he left the government
and resumed practicing medicine. His practice included taking part in
campaigns to prevent yaws and other diseases. In 1954, Duvalier
abandoned medicine, hiding out in Haiti's countryside from the
Magloire regime. In 1956, the Magloire government was failing, and
although still in hiding, Duvalier announced his candidacy to replace
him as president.:57 By December 1956, an amnesty was issued and
Duvalier emerged from hiding, and on 12 December 1956, Magloire
The two frontrunners in the 1957 campaign for the presidency were
Duvalier and Louis Déjoie, a landowner and industrialist from
the north. During their campaigning,
Haiti was ruled by five temporary
administrations, none lasting longer than a few months. Duvalier
promised to rebuild and renew the country and rural
supported him as did the military. He resorted to noiriste populism,
stoking the majority Afro-Haitians' irritation at being governed by
the few mulatto elite, which is how he described his opponent,
François Duvalier was elected president on 22 September 1957.
Duvalier received 679,884 votes to Déjoie's 266,992. Even in
this election, however, there are multiple first-person accounts of
voter fraud and voter intimidation.:64
Consolidation of power
After being elected president in 1957, Duvalier exiled most of the
major supporters of Déjoie. He had a new constitution adopted
Duvalier promoted and installed members of the black majority in the
civil service and the army. In July 1958, three exiled Haitian
army officers and five American mercenaries landed in
Haiti and tried
to overthrow Duvalier; all were killed. Although the army and its
leaders had quashed the coup attempt, the incident deepened Duvalier's
distrust of the army, an important Haitian institution over which he
did not have firm control. He replaced the chief-of-staff with a more
reliable officer and then proceeded to create his own power base
within the army by turning the Presidential Guard into an elite corps
aimed at maintaining his power. After this, Duvalier dismissed the
entire general staff and replaced it with officers who owed their
positions, and their loyalty, to him.
In 1959, Duvalier created a rural militia, the Milice de Volontaires
de la Sécurité Nationale (MVSN, English: Militia of National
Security Volunteers)—commonly referred to as the Tonton Macoute
after a Haitian Creole bogeyman—to extend and bolster support for
the regime in the countryside. The Macoute, which by 1961 was twice as
big as the army, never developed into a real military force but was
more than just a secret police.
In the early years of his rule, Duvalier was able to take advantage of
the strategic weaknesses of his powerful opponents, mostly from the
mulatto elite. These weaknesses included their inability to coordinate
their actions against the regime, whose power had grown increasingly
In the name of nationalism, Duvalier expelled almost all of Haiti's
foreign-born bishops, an act that earned him excommunication from the
Catholic Church. In 1966, he persuaded the
Holy See to allow him
permission to nominate the Catholic hierarchy for Haiti. No longer
Haiti under the grip of the minority rich mulattoes, protected by
the military and supported by the church; Duvalier now exercised more
Haiti than ever.
Heart attack and Barbot affair
On 24 May 1959, Duvalier suffered a massive heart attack, possibly due
to an insulin overdose; he had been a diabetic since early adulthood
and also suffered from heart disease and associated circulatory
problems. During the heart attack, he was comatose for nine
hours.:81–82 His physician believed that he suffered neurological
damage during these events, which harmed his mental health.:82
While recovering, Duvalier left power in the hands of Clément Barbot,
leader of the Tonton Macoute. Upon his return to work, Duvalier
accused Barbot of trying to supplant him as president and had him
imprisoned. In April 1963, Barbot was released and began plotting to
remove Duvalier from office by kidnapping his children. The plot
failed and Duvalier subsequently ordered a nationwide search for
Barbot and his fellow conspirators. During the search, Duvalier was
told that Barbot had transformed himself into a black dog, which
prompted Duvalier to order that all black dogs in
Haiti be put to
Tonton Macoute captured and killed Barbot in July 1963. In
other incidents, Duvalier ordered the head of an executed rebel packed
in ice and brought to him so he could commune with the dead man's
spirit. Peepholes were carved into the walls of the interrogation
chambers, through which Duvalier watched Haitian detainees being
tortured and submerged in baths of sulfuric acid; sometimes, he was in
the room during the tortures.
In 1961, Duvalier began violating the provisions of the 1957
constitution. First, he replaced the bicameral legislature with a
unicameral body. Then he called a new presidential election in which
he was the sole candidate, though his term was to expire in 1963 and
the constitution prohibited re-election. The election was flagrantly
rigged; the official tally showed 1,320,748 "yes" votes for another
term for Duvalier, with none opposed. Upon hearing the results, he
proclaimed, "I accept the people's will. ... As a revolutionary, I
have no right to disregard the will of the people".:85 The New
York Times commented, "Latin America has witnessed many fraudulent
elections throughout its history but none has been more outrageous
than the one which has just taken place in Haiti".:85 On 14 June
1964, a constitutional referendum made Duvalier "President for Life",
a title previously held by seven Haitian presidents. This referendum
was also blatantly rigged; an implausible 99.9% voted in favor, which
should have come as no surprise since all the ballots were premarked
"yes".:96–97 The new document granted Duvalier—or
Le Souverain, as he was called—absolute powers as well as the
right to name his successor. The identity of the 0.1% is still
His relationship with the
United States proved difficult. In his early
years, Duvalier rebuked the
United States for its friendly relations
with Dominican dictator
Rafael Trujillo (assassinated in 1961) while
ignoring Haiti. The
Kennedy administration (1961–1963) was
particularly disturbed by Duvalier's repressive and authoritarian rule
and allegations that he misappropriated aid money—at the time a
substantial part of the Haitian budget—and a U.S. Marine Corps
mission to train the Tonton Macoute. The U.S. thus halted most of its
economic assistance in mid-1962, pending stricter accounting
procedures, with which Duvalier refused to comply. Duvalier publicly
renounced all aid from Washington on nationalist grounds, portraying
himself as a "principled and lonely opponent of domination by a great
Duvalier misappropriated millions of dollars of international aid,
including US$ 15 million annually from the United
States.:50–51 He transferred this money to personal accounts.
Another of Duvalier's methods of obtaining foreign money was to gain
foreign loans, including US$ 4 million from Cuban dictator
After the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November 1963, which
Duvalier later claimed resulted from a curse that he had placed on
Kennedy, the U.S. eased its pressure on Duvalier, grudgingly
accepting him as a bulwark against communism. Duvalier
attempted to exploit tensions between the U.S. and Cuba, emphasizing
his anti-communist credentials and Haiti's strategic location as a
means of winning U.S. support:
Communism has established centres of infection . . . No area
in the world is as vital to American security as the Caribbean
. . . We need a massive injection of money to reset the
country on its feet, and this injection can come only from our great,
capable friend and neighbor the United States.:101
Fulgencio Batista (a friend of Duvalier):92 was overthrown
in the Cuban Revolution, Duvalier worried that new Cuban leader Fidel
Castro would provide a safe haven for Haitian dissidents. Duvalier
attempted to win
Cuba over by recognizing Castro's government by
sending medicine and pardoning several political prisoners, but to no
avail; from the very start of his regime, Castro gave anti-Duvalier
dissidents his full support.:93
Duvalier enraged Castro by voting against the country in an
Organization of American States (OAS) meeting and subsequently at
the United Nations, where a trade embargo was imposed on Cuba. Cuba
answered by breaking off diplomatic relations and Duvalier
subsequently instituted a campaign to rid
Haiti of communists.
Duvalier's relationship with the neighboring
Dominican Republic was
always tense: in his early years, Duvalier emphasized the differences
between the two countries. In April 1963, relations were brought to
the edge of war by the political enmity between Duvalier and Dominican
president Juan Bosch. Bosch, a leftist, provided asylum and support to
Haitian exiles who had plotted against the Duvalier regime. Duvalier
ordered his Presidential Guard to occupy the Dominican Embassy in
Pétion-Ville, with the goal of arresting a Haitian army officer
believed to have been involved in Barbot's plot to kidnap Duvalier's
children. The Dominican president reacted with outrage, publicly
threatened to invade Haiti, and ordered army units to the border.
However, as Dominican military commanders expressed little support for
an invasion of Haiti, Bosch refrained from the invasion and sought
mediation through the OAS.:289
In 1966, Duvalier hosted the emperor of Ethiopia, Haile
Selassie I, in what would be Haiti's only visit by a head of
state under Duvalier.:139 During the visit, Duvalier awarded Haile
Selassie the Necklace of the Order of
Jean-Jacques Dessalines the
Great, and the emperor, in turn, bestowed upon Duvalier the Great
Necklace of the Order of the Queen of Sheba.:139
1971 newsreel film about Duvalier's rule
Duvalier's government was one of the most repressive in the
hemisphere. Within the country he murdered and exiled his
opponents; estimates of those killed are as high as 60,000. Attacks
on Duvalier from within the military were treated as especially
serious. When bombs were detonated near the Presidential Palace in
1967, Duvalier had nineteen officers of the Presidential Guard
executed in Fort Dimanche.:357 A few days later Duvalier had a
public speech during which he read the attendance sheet with names of
all 19 officers killed. After each name, he said "absent". After
reading the whole list, Duvalier remarked that "all were
Haitian communists and even suspected communists bore the brunt of the
government's repression.:148 Duvalier targeted them as a means to
secure U.S. support in addition to the principle: Duvalier was exposed
to communist and leftist ideas early in his life and rejected
them.:148 On 28 April 1969, Duvalier instituted a campaign to rid
Haiti of all communists. A new law declared that "Communist
activities, no matter what their form, are hereby declared crimes
against the security of the State." Those convicted of Communist
activity were subject to execution, and faced having their property
Social and economic policies
Duvalier employed intimidation, repression, and patronage to supplant
the old mulatto elites with a new elite of his own making.
Corruption—in the form of government rake-offs of industries,
bribery, extortion of domestic businesses, and stolen government
funds—enriched the dictator's closest supporters. Most of them held
sufficient power to intimidate the members of the old elite, who were
gradually co-opted or eliminated.
Many educated professionals fled
Haiti for New York City, Miami,
Paris and several French-speaking African countries,
exacerbating an already serious lack of doctors and teachers. Some of
the highly skilled professionals joined the ranks of several UN
agencies to work in development in newly independent nations such as
Ivory Coast, and Congo.
The government confiscated peasant landholdings and allotted them to
members of the militia, who had no official salary and made their
living through crime and extortion.:464 The dispossessed fled to
the slums of the capital where they would find only meager incomes to
Malnutrition and famine became endemic.
Nonetheless, Duvalier enjoyed significant support among Haiti's
majority black rural population, who saw in him a champion of their
claims against the historically dominant mulatto elite. During his 14
years in power, he created a substantial black middle class, chiefly
through government patronage.:330 Duvalier also initiated the
François Duvalier Airport, now known as
Toussaint Louverture International Airport.
Personality cult and Vodou
Duvalier fostered his cult of personality and claimed that he was the
physical embodiment of the island nation. He also revived the
traditions of Vodou, later using them to consolidate his power with
his claim of being a Vodou priest, himself. In an effort to make
himself even more imposing, Duvalier deliberately modeled his image on
that of Baron Samedi, one of the loa, or spirits, of Haitian
Vodou. He often donned sunglasses in order to hide his eyes and talked
with the strong nasal tone associated with the loa. The regime's
propaganda stated that "Papa Doc was one with the loa, Jesus
God himself". The most celebrated image from the time
shows a standing
Jesus Christ with a hand on the shoulder of a seated
Papa Doc, captioned, "I have chosen him". Duvalier declared
himself an "immaterial being" as well as "the Haitian flag" soon after
his first election. In 1964, he published a catechism in which the
Lord's Prayer was reworded to pay tribute to Duvalier instead of
Duvalier also held in his closet the head of former opponent Blucher
Philogenes, who tried to overthrow him in 1963.:132 He believed
another political enemy was able to change into a black dog at will
and had the militia begin killing black dogs on sight in the
Death and succession
Duvalier died in April 1971 from heart disease and diabetes. His
19-year-old son Jean-Claude Duvalier, nicknamed "Baby Doc",
succeeded him as president.
Books and films
Many books have been written about the Duvalier era in Haiti, the best
known being Graham Greene's novel The Comedians. Duvalier,
however, dismissed the piece and referred to its author as "a cretin,
a stool pigeon, sadistic, unbalanced, perverted, a perfect ignoramous
[sic], lying to his heart's content, the shame of proud and noble
England, a spy, a drug addict, and a torturer". It was later made
into a movie. Greene himself was declared persona non grata and barred
from entering Haiti.
The British television journalist
Alan Whicker featured Duvalier in a
1969 episode of Whicker's World, which includes an interview with the
president. Made by Yorkshire Television, part of Britain's ITV
commercial network, the documentary is deeply revealing of Duvalier's
character as well as of the state of
Haiti in 1969.
The first authoritative book on the subject was Papa Doc: Haiti
and its Dictator by
Al Burt and Bernard Diederich, published in
1969, though several others by Haitian scholars and historians
have appeared since Duvalier's death in 1971. One of the most
informative, Patrick Lemoine's Fort‑Dimanche: Dungeon of Death,
dealt specifically with victims of Fort-Dimanche, the prison Duvalier
used for the torture and murder of his political opponents.[citation
In 2007, British newspaper editor
John Marquis published
Papa Doc: Portrait of a Haitian Tyrant, which relied in part
on records from a 1968 espionage trial in
Haiti to detail numerous
attempts on Duvalier's life. The trial's defendant, David Knox, was a
Bahamian director of information. Knox lost and was sentenced to
death, but was later granted amnesty.
^ Fatton, Robert, Jr. (2013). "Michel-Rolph Trouillot's State Against
Nation: A Critique of the
Totalitarian Paradigm". Small Axe. Duke
University Press. 17 (3 42): 208. doi:10.1215/07990537-2379009.
ISSN 1534-6714. (Subscription required (help)). In 1963, Duvalier
created the Parti de l'unité nationale—PUN (National Unity
Party)—to constitute a single-party system. . . . the
existence of a single party as one of the defining characteristics of
the totalitarian nature of Duvalierism . . . the party had a
thoroughly inconsequential role in the Duvalierist system.
^ Lacey, Marc (23 March 2008). "Haiti's Poverty Stirs Nostalgia for
Old Ghosts". New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the
original on 13 September 2015.
^ a b c Greene, Anne (2001). "Haiti: Historical Setting
§ François Duvalier, 1957–71". In Metz, Helen Chapin.
Dominican Republic and Haiti. Country Studies. Research completed
December 1999 (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division,
Library of Congress. pp. 288–289. ISBN 978-0-8444-1044-9.
ISSN 1057-5294. LCCN 2001023524. OCLC 46321054.
President Duvalier reigned supreme for fourteen years. Even in Haiti,
where dictators had been the norm, François Duvalier gave new
meaning to the term. Duvalier and his henchmen killed between 30,000
and 60,000 Haitians. The victims were not only political opponents,
but women, whole families, whole towns. In April 1963, when an army
officer suspected of trying to kidnap two of Duvalier's children took
refuge in the Dominican chancery, Duvalier ordered the
Presidential Guard to occupy the building. The Dominicans were
incensed; President Juan Bosch Gaviño ordered troops to the
border and threatened to invade. However, the Dominican commanders
were reluctant to enter Haiti, and Bosch was obliged to turn to the
[Organization of American States] to settle the matter.
^ "Real-Life Baron Samedi: Francois 'Papa Doc' Duvalier". Life.
Archived from the original on 27 June 2009.
^ a b Joseph, Romel (2010). The Miracle of Music. Friends of Music
Education for Haiti. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0-9769847-0-2.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Abbott, Elizabeth (2011). Haiti: A Shattered
Nation. Rev. and updated from Haiti: The Duvaliers and Their
Legacy (1988). New York: The Overlook Press.
ASIN B013JQLXKW. ISBN 978-1-59020-989-9.
LCCN 2013496344. OCLC 859201061. OL 25772018M.
^ Péan, Leslie (24 July 2014). "Métaspora de Joël Des Rosiers ou
l'art comme dépassement de la vie quotidienne". Le Nouvelliste (in
French). Port‑au‑Prince. Archived from the original on 9 November
2015. Dans un mélange de subtilité allusive et de rigueur
architecturale, Joël Des Rosiers décrit ainsi la détresse
psychique du dictateur: « François Duvalier chasse
Joseph Dunès Olivier de la magistrature. Il fut ostracisé
pour avoir notarié l'acte de candidature à l'élection
présidentielle du sénateur Louis Déjoie, opposant politique et
véritable vainqueur des élections. Ce fut le premier acte illégal
du dictateur. Oh ! Il en fut d'autres. Oh ! Par bassesse, le
dictateur vengeait la mémoire de son vrai père
Florestal Duvalier, citoyen français du
Morne des Esses, commune de la Martinique, tailleur de son
métier à la rue de l'Enterrement, dont le fils aîné
Duval Duvalier fut fait officiellement le père adoptif de
François Duvalier alors qu'il en était le demi‑frère. Pour
maquiller sa paternité tardive, Florestal Duvalier, vieillard
cacochyme, poussa son fils adulte Duval à reconnaître l'enfant, né
de ses amours ancillaires avec une jeune domestique,
Irutia Abraham, originaire de Maniche, commune des Cayes. La
mère de Duvalier en devint folle. Son fils lui fut retiré si bien
que l'enfant ne la connut jamais et fut élevé par une tante,
madame Florestal .»
^ Her name is recorded variously as "Ulyssia", "Uritia",:51 and
^ a b Harris, Bruce (12 October 2014). "Heroes & killers of the
20th century: The Duvaliers". moreorless. Sydney, Australia. Archived
from the original on 10 September 2015.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Haggerty, Richard A. (1991). "Haiti:
Historical Setting § François Duvalier, 1957–71" (PDF). In
Haggerty, Richard A.
Dominican Republic and
Haiti (PDF). Country
Studies (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division,
Library of Congress. pp. 232–235. ISBN 978-0-8444-0728-9.
ISSN 1057-5294. LCCN 91-9495. OCLC 23179347.
OL 1531915M. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 September
^ a b c d e f Wright, Giles. "François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier".
TheDictatorship.com. Archived from the original on 18 September
^ a b Bryan, Patrick E. (1984). The
Haitian Revolution and its
Effects. Heinemann CXC history (1st ed.). Oxford, England: Heinemann
Educational Publishers. ISBN 978-0-435-98301-7.
LCCN 83239673. OCLC 15655540. OL 3809991W.
^ Jenkins, Everett, Jr. (2011) [1st pub. 1998]. Pan-African
Chronology II: A Comprehensive Reference to the Black Quest for
Freedom in Africa, the Americas, Europe and Asia, 1865–1915.
Pan-African Chronologies. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
p. 394. ISBN 978-0-7864-4506-6. LCCN 95008294.
OCLC 913828919. During the 1930s, Duvalier joined a group of
black intellectuals, the Griots. The Griots had begun to study and
sanctify Haiti's African heritage. The group's work marked the
beginning of a new campaign against the
[child of two worlds] elite and an emerging
ideology of black power, Haitian style. It was on this ideology that
Duvalier later based his political leadership. His pro‑black led to
his advocacy of [Vodou].
^ Juang, Richard M.; Morrissette, Noelle Anne (2008). "François
Duvalier". Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. 1.
Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 391–393.
ISBN 978-1-85109-441-7. LCCN 2007035154.
^ Hall, Michael R. (2012). Woronoff, Jon, ed. Historical Dictionary of
Haiti. Historical Dictionaries of the Americas. Lanham, Maryland:
Scarecrow Press. p. 92. ASIN B007P5WH5O.
ISBN 978-0-8108-7549-4. LCCN 2011035933.
OCLC 751922123. OL 25025684M. While working in a hospital
during the 1930s, [Simone Duvalier] met
[François] Duvalier, and the couple married on 27 December 1939.
They had four children: Marie‑Denise, Nicole, Simone, and
^ a b "François Duvalier: Haitian President". HaitianMedia.com.
Archived from the original on 20 March 2012.
^ Maingot, Anthony P. (1996). "Haiti: Four Old and Two New
Hypotheses". In Domínguez, Jorge I.; Lowenthal, Abraham F.
Constructing Democratic Governance: Mexico, Central America, and the
Caribbean in the 1990s. Inter-American Dialogue. 3. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-8018-5404-0.
LCCN 96-12421. OCLC 36288579. OL 7870247M. The vote,
however, was for Papa Doc: Duvalier 679,884;
^ a b c d e f g h Abbott, Elizabeth (1988). Haiti: The Duvaliers and
Their Legacy (1st ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
ISBN 978-0-07-046029-4. LCCN 88016918. OCLC 18069022.
^ "A Weird, Fatal Dash into Turbulent Haiti". Life. Time. Vol. 45
no. 6. pp. 22–23. 11 August 1958.
^ Tartter, Jean (2001). "Haiti: National Security § The Duvalier
Era, 1957–86". In Metz, Helen Chapin.
Dominican Republic and
Haiti. Country Studies. Research completed December 1999 (3rd ed.).
Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
p. 464. ISBN 978-0-8444-1044-9. ISSN 1057-5294.
LCCN 2001023524. OCLC 46321054. Although referred to as a
militia, the VSN in fact became the Duvaliers' front-line security
force. As of early 1986, the organization included more than 9,000
members and an informal circle of thousands more. The VSN acted as a
political cadre, secret police and instrument of terror. It played a
crucial political role for the regime, countering the influence of the
armed forces, historically the government's primary source of power.
The VSN gained its deadly reputation in part because members received
no salary, although they took orders from the Presidential Palace.
They made their living, instead, through extortion and petty crime.
Rural members of the VSN, who wore blue denim uniforms, had received
some training from the army, while the plainclothes members,
identified by their trademark dark glasses, served as Haiti's criminal
^ Peschanski, João Alexandre (2013). "Papa Doc's Feint: the misled
opposition and the consolidation of Duvalier's rule in Haiti".
Teoria e Pesquisa. 22 (2): 1–10. doi:10.4322/tp.2013.016.
ISSN 0104-0103. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July
^ "Haiti: Papa Doc's concordat (1966)". Concordat Watch. Archived
from the original on 16 January 2015. This concordat let Dr. François
Duvalier ('Papa Doc') nominate seven key clerics, thus ensuring
their personal loyalty to him. It also stipulates that future
appointments should be 'preferentially to members of the indigenous
clergy'. Both these measures helped bring the Haitian church under
Papa Doc's control.
^ Lentz, Harris M. (2014) [1st pub. 1994]. "Haiti". Heads of States
and Governments. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 357.
ISBN 978-1-884964-44-2. OCLC 870226851. OL 14865945W.
He once ordered the head of an executed rebel packed in ice and
brought to the presidential palace so he could commune with his
^ Von Tunzelmann, Alex (2011). "
Cuba Libre § 'Our Real
Friends'". Red Heat: Conspiracy, Murder, and the Cold War in the
Caribbean (1st ed.). New York: Henry Holt and Company. p. 236.
ISBN 978-0-8050-9067-3. LCCN 2010037585.
OCLC 648922964. OL 25022986M. Peepholes were made in his
torture chambers, to allow him to observe discreetly. Sometimes, he
was in the room itself, while men and women were beaten, tortured, and
plunged into baths of sulfuric acid.
^ a b c d Shaw, Karl (2005). Šílenství mocných [Power Mad!] (in
Czech). Prague: Metafora. ISBN 978-80-7359-002-4.
^ Murray, Rolland (2008). "Black Crisis Shuffle: Fiction, Race, and
Simulation". African American Review. Saint Louis University. 42 (2):
222. JSTOR 40301207 – via Questia. (Registration required
(help)). Haitian president François "Papa Doc" Duvalier
infamously claimed that his [Vodou] curse on John F. Kennedy
brought about the President's 1963 assassination.
^ Smucker, Glenn R. (1991). "Haiti: Government and Politics
§ Foreign Relations" (PDF). In Haggerty, Richard A. Dominican
Haiti (PDF). Country Studies (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.:
Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 346–349.
ISBN 978-0-8444-0728-9. ISSN 1057-5294. LCCN 91-9495.
OCLC 23179347. OL 1531915M. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 19 September 2015.
^ Štraus, Stane. "Biographies:
François Duvalier (1907–1971)".
PolymerNotes.org. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015.
^ Inskeep, Steve; Green, Nadege (6 October 2014). "Duvalier's Death
Causes Mixed Reactions In Miami's Little Haiti". Morning Edition.
Washington, D.C.: NPR. Archived from the original on 30 November 2014.
People with ties to
Haiti are remembering one of that country's former
dictators. Jean‑Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier died over the
weekend. The old saying goes, speak nothing but good of the dead, but
that is hard for
Patrick Gaspard to do. He's a U.S. diplomat and a
Haitian‑American. And after Duvalier's death, he tweeted, I'm
thinking of the look in my mother's eyes when she talks about her
brother Joel, who was disappeared by that dictator. Duvalier and his
father before him ran one of the most repressive regimes in the
^ "Report on the situation of human rights in Haiti". Inter-American
Commission on Human Rights. Washington, D.C.: Organization of American
States. 1979. ISBN 978-0-8270-1094-9. OCLC 8344995. Archived
from the original on 21 March 2012. Current Haitian legislation
contains a number of legal provisions that place considerable
restrictions on the freedom of speech. The most important of these is
the law of April 28, 1969:
Article 1. Communist activities, no matter what their form, are
hereby declared crimes against the security of the State
. . . The authors of an accomplices in crimes listed above
shall receive the death penalty, and their goods and chattels shall be
confiscated and sold for the benefit of the State
^ Nicholls, David (1996) [1st pub. 1979]. From Dessalines to Duvalier:
Race, Colour, and National Independence in
Haiti (Revised ed.). New
Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. pp. xvi.
ISBN 978-0-8135-2240-1. LCCN 95-8893. OCLC 32396546.
OL 8025482M. Thousands of posters appeared as the Péligre dam
was about to be opened proclaiming that 'Duvalier alone is able to
harness the energy of Péligre and give it to his people'. Others had
Jesus with his hand on Duvalier proclaiming 'I have chosen him'.
^ a b Kofele-Kale, Ndiva (2006). "The Cult of State Sovereignty". The
International Law of Responsibility for Economic Crimes (2nd ed.).
Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing. p. 261.
ASIN B00B5QULLQ. ISBN 978-1-4094-9609-0.
LCCN 2006006433. OCLC 64289359. OL 7991049M. Not
satisfied with being the Haitian flag, . . . Duvalier
also declared himself 'an immaterial being' shortly after he became
'President-for-Life', and issued a Catechisme de la Révolution to the
faithful containing the following version of the Lord's Prayer: 'Our
Doc, who art in the National Palace for Life, hallowed be Thy name by
present and future generations. Thy will be done in
it is in the provinces. Give us this day our new
Haiti and forgive not
the trespasses of those antipatriots who daily spit on our country;
lead them into temptation, and, poisoned by their own venom, deliver
them from no evil . . .'
^ Fourcand, Jean M. (1964). Catechisme de la révolution [Catechism of
the Revolution] (PDF) (in French). Port‑au‑Prince: Edition
imprimerie de l'état. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on
27 September 2015. Notre Doc qui êtes au Palais National pour la Vie,
que Votre nom soit béni par les générations présentes et futures,
que Votre Volonté soit faite à Port‑au‑Prince et en Province.
Donnez‑nous aujourd'hui notre nouvelle Haïti, ne pardonnez jamais
les offenses des apatrides qui bavent chaque jour sur notre Patrie,
laissez‑les succomber à la tentation et sous le poids de leurs
baves malfaisantes: ne les délivrez d'aucun mal. Amen.
^ "Haiti: The Living Dead". Time. 82 (4): 20–21. 26 July 1963.
Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
^ Shaw, Karl (2005) . Power Mad! [Šílenství mocných] (in
Czech). Praha: Metafora. p. 52. ISBN 80-7359-002-6.
^ Greene, Graham (1966). The Comedians. New York: The Viking Press.
ASIN B0078EPH2C. LCCN 66012636. OCLC 365953.
^ French, Howard W. (27 April 1991). "
Haiti Recalls Greene With
Gratitude". New York Times. Associated Press. ISSN 0362-4331.
Archived from the original on 25 May 2015.
^ Whicker, Alan (17 June 1969). Papa Doc: The Black Sheep. Whicker's
World. London. Archived from the original on 31 October 2015.
^ Diederich, Bernard; Burt, Al (1969). Papa Doc:
Haiti and Its
Dictator. London: The Bodley Head. ISBN 978-0-370-01326-8.
LCCN 76532183. OCLC 221276122. OL 5009670M.
^ Lemoine, Patrick (2011) [1st pub. 1996 as Fort‑Dimanche,
Fort‑la‑Mort ]. Prézeau, Maryse, ed. Fort-Dimanche, Dungeon of
Death. Translated by Haspil, Frantz. Bloomington, Indiana: Trafford
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4269-6624-8. LCCN 2011906135.
^ Marquis, John (2007). Papa Doc: Portrait of a Haitian Tyrant.
Kingston, Jamaica: LMH Publishing. ISBN 978-976-8202-49-9.
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