Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Fish are normally
caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand
gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping.
include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs,
cephalopods, crustaceans, and echinoderms. The term is not normally
applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales
where the term whaling is more appropriate.
According to the United Nations
FAO statistics, the total number of
commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million.
Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to
over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the
worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries
was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from
fish farms. In addition to providing food, modern fishing is also a
1.2 Recreational fishing
5 Traditional fishing
6 Recreational fishing
7.1 Commercial fishing
Animal welfare concerns
10 Cultural impact
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Stone Age fish hook made from bone
History of fishing
History of fishing and History of seafood
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the
beginning of the Upper
Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago.
Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a
40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he
regularly consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as
shell middens, discarded fish bones, and cave paintings show that
sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant
During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and
were, of necessity, constantly on the move. However, where there are
early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily
permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost
always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th
century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th
century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th
century, the fishermen at
Brixham needed to expand their fishing area
further than ever before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks that
was occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon. The Brixham
trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff
rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance
trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were also
sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water. The
great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the
title of 'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'.
Painting of A
Brixham trawler by William Adolphus Knell. The painting
is now in the National Maritime Museum.
This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean
possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of
fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further
north, such as Scarborough, Hull, Grimsby,
Harwich and Yarmouth, that
were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic
The small village of
Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port
in the world by the mid 19th century. An
Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament was
first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays
and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. It was only in the
1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the
Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal
Dock was laid by Albert the
Prince consort in 1849. The dock covered
25 acres (10 ha) and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in
1854 as the first modern fishing port.
Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing
fishing fleets everywhere. By the end of the 19th century, there
were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with almost
1,000 at Grimsby. These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe,
including from the
Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went
on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet.
The earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s
and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats, usually 80–90 feet (24–27 m) in
length with a beam of around 20 feet (6.1 m). They weighed 40-50
tons and travelled at 9–11 knots (17–20 km/h;
10–13 mph). The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were
designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875,
when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built the
first screw propelled steam trawler in the world.
Steam trawlers were introduced at
Grimsby and Hull in the 1880s. In
1890 it was estimated that there were 20,000 men on the North Sea. The
steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last
sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs
adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired
World War I
World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War
In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen. The
drum was a circular device that was set to the side of the boat and
would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and
fish finders have been widely used. The first trawlers fished over the
side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern
trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Aberdeen, Scotland. The ship was
much larger than any other trawlers then in operation and inaugurated
the era of the 'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the
stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons. The
ship served as a basis for the expansion of 'super trawlers' around
the world in the following decades.
Main article: Recreational fishing
Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler, published in 1653 helped popularize
fly fishing as a sport.
Woodcut by Louis Rhead
The early evolution of fishing as recreation is not clear. For
example, there is anecdotal evidence for fly fishing in Japan,
however, fly fishing was likely to have been a means of survival,
rather than recreation. The earliest English essay on recreational
fishing was published in 1496, by Dame Juliana Berners, the prioress
of the Benedictine Sopwell Nunnery. The essay was titled Treatyse of
Fysshynge wyth an Angle, and included detailed information on
fishing waters, the construction of rods and lines, and the use of
natural baits and artificial flies.
Recreational fishing took a great leap forward after the English Civil
War, where a newly found interest in the activity left its mark on the
many books and treatises that were written on the subject at the time.
Compleat Angler was written by
Izaak Walton in 1653 (although Walton
continued to add to it for a quarter of a century) and described the
fishing in the
Derbyshire Wye. It was a celebration of the art and
spirit of fishing in prose and verse. A second part to the book was
added by Walton's friend Charles Cotton.
Charles Kirby designed an improved fishing hook in 1655 that remains
relatively unchanged to this day. He went on to invent the Kirby bend,
a distinctive hook with an offset point, still commonly used
Trading card of the Ustonson company, an early firm specializing in
fishing equipment, and holder of a Royal Warrant from the 1760s.
The 18th century was mainly an era of consolidation of the techniques
developed in the previous century. Running rings began to appear along
the fishing rods, which gave anglers greater control over the cast
line. The rods themselves were also becoming increasingly
sophisticated and specialized for different roles. Jointed rods became
common from the middle of the century and bamboo came to be used for
the top section of the rod, giving it a much greater strength and
The industry also became commercialized - rods and tackle were sold at
the haberdashers store. After the
Great Fire of London
Great Fire of London in 1666,
artisans moved to
Redditch which became a centre of production of
fishing related products from the 1730s. Onesimus Ustonson established
his trading shop in 1761, and his establishment remained as a market
leader for the next century. He received a Royal Warrant and became
the official supplier of fishing tackle to three successive monarchs
starting with King
George IV over this period. He also invented
the multiplying winch. The commercialization of the industry came at a
time of expanded interest in fishing as a recreational hobby for
members of the aristocracy.
The impact of the
Industrial Revolution was first felt in the
manufacture of fly lines. Instead of anglers twisting their own lines
- a laborious and time-consuming process - the new textile spinning
machines allowed for a variety of tapered lines to be easily
manufactured and marketed.
British fly-fishing continued to develop in the 19th Century, with the
emergence of fly fishing clubs, along with the appearance of several
books on the subject of fly tying and fly fishing techniques.
By the mid to late 19th century, expanding leisure opportunities for
the middle and lower classes began to have its effect on fly fishing,
which steadily grew in mass appeal. The expansion of the railway
network in Britain allowed the less affluent for the first time to
take weekend trips to the seaside or to rivers for fishing. Richer
hobbyists ventured further abroad. The large rivers of Norway
replete with large stocks of salmon began to attract fishers from
England in large numbers in the middle of the century - Jones's guide
to Norway, and salmon-fisher's pocket companion, published in 1848,
was written by Frederic Tolfrey and was a popular guide to the
'Nottingham' and 'Scarborough' reel designs.
Modern reel design had begun in England during the latter part of the
18th century, and the predominant model in use was known as the
Nottingham reel'. The reel was a wide drum which spooled out freely,
and was ideal for allowing the bait to drift along way out with the
current. Geared multiplying reels never successfully caught on in
Britain, but had more success in the United States, where similar
models were modified by George Snyder of
Kentucky into his
bait-casting reel, the first American-made design in 1810.
The material used for the rod itself changed from the heavy woods
native to England, to lighter and more elastic varieties imported from
abroad, especially from South America and the West Indies.
became the generally favoured option from the mid 19th century, and
several strips of the material were cut from the cane, milled into
shape, and then glued together to form light, strong, hexagonal rods
with a solid core that were superior to anything that preceded them.
George Cotton and his predecessors fished their flies with long rods,
and light lines allowing the wind to do most of the work of getting
the fly to the fish. 
Fishing became a popular recreational activity in the 19th century.
Print from Currier and Ives.
Tackle design began to improve from the 1880s. The introduction of new
woods to the manufacture of fly rods made it possible to cast flies
into the wind on silk lines, instead of horse hair. These lines
allowed for a much greater casting distance. However, these early fly
lines proved troublesome as they had to be coated with various
dressings to make them float and needed to be taken off the reel and
dried every four hours or so to prevent them from becoming
waterlogged. Another negative consequence was that it became easy for
the much longer line to get into a tangle - this was called a 'tangle'
in Britain, and a 'backlash' in the US. This problem spurred the
invention of the regulator to evenly spool the line out and prevent
The American, Charles F. Orvis, designed and distributed a novel reel
and fly design in 1874, described by reel historian Jim Brown as the
"benchmark of American reel design," and the first fully modern fly
Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth
Albert Illingworth, 1st Baron Illingworth a textiles magnate, patented
the modern form of fixed-spool spinning reel in 1905. When casting
Illingworth's reel design, the line was drawn off the leading edge of
the spool, but was restrained and rewound by a line pickup, a device
which orbits around the stationary spool. Because the line did not
have to pull against a rotating spool, much lighter lures could be
cast than with conventional reels.
The development of inexpensive fiberglass rods, synthetic fly lines,
and monofilament leaders in the early 1950s, that revived the
popularity of fly fishing.
Fishermen with traditional fish traps, Vietnam
There are many fishing techniques and tactics for catching fish. The
term can also be applied to methods for catching other aquatic animals
such as molluscs (shellfish, squid, octopus) and edible marine
Fishing techniques include hand gathering, spearfishing, netting,
angling and trapping. Recreational, commercial and artisanal fishers
use different techniques, and also, sometimes, the same techniques.
Recreational fishers fish for pleasure, sport, or to provide food for
themselves, while commercial fishers fish for profit. Artisanal
fishers use traditional, low-tech methods, for survival in third-world
countries, and as a cultural heritage in other countries. Usually,
recreational fishers use angling methods and commercial fishers use
Why a fish bites a baited hook or lure involves a number of factors
related to the sensory physiology, behaviour, feeding ecology, and
biology of the fish as well as the environment and characteristics of
the bait/hook/lure. There is an intricate link between various
fishing techniques and knowledge about the fish and their behaviour
including migration, foraging and habitat. The effective use of
fishing techniques often depends on this additional knowledge.
Some fishermen follow fishing folklores which claim that fish feeding
patterns are influenced by the position of the sun and the moon.
An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, with his tackle
Fishing tackle is a general term that refers to the equipment used by
fishermen when fishing.
Almost any equipment or gear used for fishing can be called fishing
tackle. Some examples are hooks, lines, sinkers, floats, rods, reels,
baits, lures, spears, nets, gaffs, traps, waders and tackle boxes.
Tackle that is attached to the end of a fishing line is called
terminal tackle. This includes hooks, sinkers, floats, leaders,
swivels, split rings and wire, snaps, beads, spoons, blades, spinners
and clevises to attach spinner blades to fishing lures. People also
tend to used dead or live fish as another form of bait.
Fishing tackle refers to the physical equipment that is used when
fishing, whereas fishing techniques refers to the ways the tackle is
used when fishing.
Commercial crab boat working in the North Sea
Small sport fishing boat
Fishing vessels and Traditional fishing boats
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or
on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in
commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.
According to the FAO, in 2004 there were four million commercial
fishing vessels. About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels
with enclosed areas. Nearly all of these decked vessels are
mechanised, and 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other
extreme, two-thirds (1.8 million) of the undecked boats are
traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail and oars.
These boats are used by artisan fishers.
It is difficult to estimate how many recreational fishing boats there
are, although the number is high. The term is fluid, since most
recreational boats are also used for fishing from time to time. Unlike
most commercial fishing vessels, recreational fishing boats are often
not dedicated just to fishing. Just about anything that will stay
afloat can be called a recreational fishing boat, so long as a
fisherman periodically climbs aboard with the intent to catch a fish.
Fish are caught for recreational purposes from boats which range from
dugout canoes, kayaks, rafts, pontoon boats and small dinghies to
runabouts, cabin cruisers and cruising yachts to large, hi-tech and
luxurious big game rigs. Larger boats, purpose-built with
recreational fishing in mind, usually have large, open cockpits at the
stern, designed for convenient fishing.
Main article: Artisan fishing
Traditional fishing is any kind of small scale, commercial or
subsistence fishing practices using traditional techniques such as rod
and tackle, arrows and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc.
Main article: Recreational fishing
Recreational and sport fishing are fishing primarily for pleasure or
Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing
restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught;
typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish
with hooks not in the mouth. The most common form of recreational
fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide
range of baits or lures such as artificial flies. The practice of
catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is generally known as
angling. In angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish be
returned to the water (catch and release). Recreational or sport
fishermen may log their catches or participate in fishing
Big-game fishing is fishing from boats to catch large open-water
species such as tuna, sharks, and marlin.
Sport fishing (sometimes
game fishing) is recreational fishing where the primary reward is the
challenge of finding and catching the fish rather than the culinary or
financial value of the fish's flesh.
Fish sought after include tarpon,
sailfish, mackerel and many others.
Modern Spanish tuna purse seiner in the Seychelles Islands
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with
taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting,
marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the FAO
as including recreational, subsistence and commercial fishing, and the
harvesting, processing, and marketing sectors. The commercial
activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products
for human consumption or for use as raw material in other industrial
There are three principal industry sectors:[Note 1]
The commercial sector comprises enterprises and individuals associated
with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various
transformations of those resources into products for sale. It is also
referred to as the "seafood industry", although non-food items such as
pearls are included among its products.
The traditional sector comprises enterprises and individuals
associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people
derive products in accordance with their traditions.
The recreational sector comprises enterprises and individuals
associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with
fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for
Main article: Commercial fishing
Fishing boat in a heavy sea
Commercial fishing is the capture of fish for commercial purposes.
Those who practice it must often pursue fish far from land under
adverse conditions. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic
species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams,
squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Commercial
fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and
sea-going processing factories. Individual fishing quotas and
international treaties seek to control the species and quantities
A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small
boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of
trawlers processing tons of fish every day.
Commercial fishing gear includes weights, nets (e.g. purse seine),
seine nets (e.g. beach seine), trawls (e.g. bottom trawl), dredges,
hooks and line (e.g. long line and handline), lift nets, gillnets,
entangling nets and traps.
According to the
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, total world capture fisheries production in 2000 was 86
million tons (
FAO 2002). The top producing countries were, in order,
the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), Peru,
Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand,
Norway and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of
the world's production; China alone accounted for a third of the
world's production. Of that production, over 90% was marine and less
than 10% was inland.
A small number of species support the majority of the world's
fisheries. Some of these species are herring, cod, anchovy, tuna,
flounder, mullet, squid, shrimp, salmon, crab, lobster, oyster and
scallops. All except these last four provided a worldwide catch of
well over a million tonnes in 1999, with herring and sardines together
providing a catch of over 22 million metric tons in 1999. Many other
species as well are fished in smaller numbers.
Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods
may fall under mariculture. It involves raising fish commercially in
tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases
juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement
a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish
Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, carp,
tilapia, catfish and trout.
Increased demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing has caused
Fish farming offers an alternative solution to
the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.
Gyula Derkovits, still-life with fish (1928)
Fish (food), and Seafood
Fish and fish products are consumed as food all over the world. With
other seafoods, it provides the world's prime source of high-quality
protein: 14–16 percent of the animal protein consumed worldwide.
Over one billion people rely on fish as their primary source of animal
Fish and other aquatic organisms are also processed into various food
and non-food products, such as sharkskin leather, pigments made from
the inky secretions of cuttlefish, isinglass used for the
clarification of wine and beer, fish emulsion used as a fertilizer,
fish glue, fish oil and fish meal.
Fish are also collected live for research or the aquarium trade.
Fish market and
Fishing down the food web
Fisheries management and
Fisheries management draws on fisheries science in order to find ways
to protect fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible.
Modern fisheries management is often referred to as a governmental
system of (hopefully appropriate) management rules based on defined
objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which
are put in place by a system of monitoring control and surveillance.
Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and
understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which
draws on the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine
conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management
in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries. In some
cases new disciplines have emerged, such as bioeconomics.
Main article: Sustainable fishing
Issues involved in the long term sustainability of fishing include
overfishing, by-catch, marine pollution, environmental effects of
fishing, climate change and fish farming.
Conservation issues are part of marine conservation, and are addressed
in fisheries science programs. There is a growing gap between how many
fish are available to be caught and humanity's desire to catch them, a
problem that gets worse as the world population grows.
Similar to other environmental issues, there can be conflict between
the fishermen who depend on fishing for their livelihoods and fishery
scientists who realise that if future fish populations are to be
sustainable then some fisheries must limit fishing or cease
Animal welfare concerns
Animal welfare and Pain in fish
Historically, some doubted that fish could experience pain. Laboratory
experiments have shown that fish do react to painful stimuli (e.g.,
injections of bee venom) in a similar way to mammals. This is
controversial and has been disputed. The expansion of fish farming
as well as animal welfare concerns in society has led to research into
more humane and faster ways of killing fish. In large-scale
operations like fish farms, stunning fish with electricity or putting
them into water saturated with nitrogen so that they cannot breathe,
results in death more rapidly than just taking them out of the water.
For sport fishing, it is recommended that fish be killed soon after
catching them by hitting them on the head followed by bleeding out or
by stabbing the brain with a sharp object (called pithing or ike
jime in Japanese).
Ona, a traditional fishing village in Norway
Assamese woman with traditional fish catching device made from bamboo
For communities like fishing villages, fisheries provide not only a
source of food and work but also a community and cultural
A "fishing expedition" is a situation where an interviewer implies he
knows more than he actually does in order to trick his target into
divulging more information than he wishes to reveal. Other examples of
fishing terms that carry a negative connotation are: "fishing for
compliments", "to be fooled hook, line and sinker" (to be fooled
beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of
which a third party will duplicate a website where the user would put
sensitive information (such as bank codes).
Fishing has had an effect on major religions, including Islam,
Christianity, Hinduism, and the various new age religions.
Jesus was said to participate in fishing excursions. According to the
Roman Catholic faith the first Pope was a fisherman, the Apostle
Peter, a number of the miracles, and many parables and stories
reported in the Bible involve fish or fishing. The Pope's traditional
vestments include a fish-shaped hat and the fishermans ring.
List of fishing villages
^ The wording of the following definitions of the fishing industry are
based on those used by the Australian government.
Aquaculture in our Changing Climate[permanent dead
link] Policy brief of the
FAO for the
UNFCCC COP-15 in Copenhagen,
Fisheries and Aquaculture". FAO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human Evolution National
Geographic News article.
^ Yaowu Hu Y, Hong Shang H, Haowen Tong H, Olaf Nehlich O, Wu Liu W,
Zhao C, Yu J, Wang C, Trinkaus E and Richards M (2009) "Stable isotope
dietary analysis of the Tianyuan 1 early modern human" Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (27) 10971-10974.
^ First direct evidence of substantial fish consumption by early
modern humans in China PhysOrg.com, 6 July 2009.
^ Coastal Shell Middens and Agricultural Origins in Atlantic Europe.
^ a b "History of a
Brixham trawler". JKappeal.org. 2 March 2009.
Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 13 September
^ Days out: "Gone fishing in Grimsby"[permanent dead link] The
Independent, 8 September 2002
^ "A brief history of Grimsby". localhistories.org.
^ "Pilgrim's restoration under full sail". BBC. Retrieved 2 March
^ Sailing trawlers.
^ "The Steam Trawler".
^ a b "HISTORY".
^ Berners, Dame Juliana (1496) A treatyse of fysshynge wyth an Angle
(transcription by Risa S. Bear).
^ Berners, Dame Juliana. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica.
Retrieved 20 June 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
^ Andrew N. Herd. "
Fly fishing techniques in the fifteenth
^ Stan L. Ulanski (2003). The Science of Fly-fishing. University of
Virginia Press. p. 4.
^ "Welcome To Great Fly
Fishing Tackle Chapter 3" (PDF).
^ a b Andrew N. Herd. "Fly
Fishing in the Years 1800 - 1850".
^ Andrew N. Herd. "Fly
Fishing in the Eighteenth Century".
^ a b c "fishing". Encyclopedia Britannica.
^ Brown, Jim. A Treasury of Reels: The
Fishing Reel Collection of The
American Museum of Fly Fishing. Manchester, Vermont: The American
Museum of Fly Fishing, 1990.
^ Schullery, Paul. The Orvis Story: 150 Years of an American Sporting
Tradition. Manchester, Vermont, The Orvis Company, Inc., 2006
^ Lennox, Robert J; Alós, Josep; Arlinghaus, Robert; Horodysky,
Andrij; Klefoth, Thomas; Monk, Christopher T; Cooke, Steven J. "What
makes fish vulnerable to capture by hooks? A conceptual framework and
a review of key determinants".
Fish and Fisheries: n/a–n/a.
doi:10.1111/faf.12219. ISSN 1467-2979.
^ Keegan, William F (1986) New Series, Vol. 88, No. 1., pp. 92-107.
^ a b
Sport fishing boat
Fisheries Section: Glossary:
Fishing industry. Retrieved 28 May
Fisheries Research and Development
Corporation. 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 14 June
2009. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
^ Tidwell, James H. and Allan, Geoff L.
^ Sneddon, LU (2009). "Pain perception in fish: indicators and
endpoints". ILAR Journal. 50 (4): 38–42. PMID 19949250.
^ Oidtmann, B; Hoffman, RW (Jul–Aug 2001). "Pain and suffering in
fish". Berliner und Münchener tierärztliche Wochenschrift. 114
(7–8): 277–82. PMID 11505801.
^ "Do fish feel pain? Not as humans do, study suggests". ScienceDaily.
ScienceDaily. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
^ Lund, V; Mejdell, CM; Röcklinsberg, H; Anthony, R; Håstein, T
(2007-05-04). "Expanding the moral circle: farmed fish as objects of
moral concern". Diseases of aquatic organisms. 75 (2): 109–118.
doi:10.3354/dao075109. PMID 17578250.
^ Davie, PS; Kopf, RK (August 2006). "Physiology, behaviour and
welfare of fish during recreational fishing and after release". New
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doi:10.1080/00480169.2006.36690. PMID 16915337.
^ "International Collective in Support of Fishworkers". ICSF. 2 March
2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
^ Regensteinn J M and Regensteinn C E (2000) "Religious food laws and
the seafood industry" In: R E Martin, E P Carter, G J Flick Jr and L M
Davis (Eds) (2000) Marine and freshwater products handbook, CRC Press.
^ African fishermen find way of conservation in the Koran The
Christian Science Monitor
^ A Misunderstood Analogy for Evangelism Bible Analysis Article
^ American Bible Society Article Archived 5 September 2008 at the
Wayback Machine. American Bible Society
^ About Pisces the
Fish The Astrology Cafe Monitor
^ Peter: From
Fisherman to Fisher of Men Profiles of Faith Archived 6
March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
Schultz, Ken (1999).
Fishing Encyclopedia: Worldwide
John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-02-862057-7.
Gabriel, Otto; Andres von Brandt (2005).
Fish catching methods of the
world. Blackwell. ISBN 0-85238-280-4.
Sahrhage, Dietrich; Johannes Lundbeck (1992). A History of Fishing.
Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-55332-0.
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"The sea without fish, a reality!". Pauly, Daniel (2009). University
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Recreational fishing at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Commercial fishing at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Map of world ocean fishing activity, 2016
Fisheries and fishing topic areas
Diversity of fish
Fish diseases and parasites
Individual fishing quota
History of fishing
List of harvested aquatic animals by weight
Catch and release
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