Kingdom of France
Holy Roman Empire
Duchy of Lower Lorraine
Republic of Genoa
Commanders and leaders
Godfrey of Bouillon
Baldwin of Boulogne
Southern French Contingent:
Raymond IV of Toulouse
Adhemar of Le Puy
Northern French Contingent:
Hugh I of Vermandois
Stephen II of Blois
Robert II of Flanders
Robert II of Normandy
Bohemond of Taranto
Tancred of Hauteville
Richard of Salerno
Alexios I Komnenos
Constantine of Armenia
Kilij Arslan I
Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan
Ghazi ibn Danishmend
Casualties and losses
Moderate to High (estimates vary)
Holy Land (1095–1291)
Crusade of 1101
Crusader battles in the
Period post First Crusade
Jaffa and Tyre
Period post Second Crusade
Period post Sixth Crusade
End of the
Crusader states in the Levant
Krak des Chevaliers
First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades
that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by
Pope Urban II
Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military
expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most
Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of
primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade not only
Anatolia but went on to conquer the
Holy Land (the
Levant), which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as in the 7th
century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem
and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The expedition was a reaction to the appeal for military aid by
Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Urban's convocation of the
Council of Clermont
Council of Clermont was specifically dedicated to this purpose,
proposing siege warfare against the recently occupied cities of Nicaea
and Antioch, even though
Urban's speech at Clermont
Urban's speech at Clermont in the testimony
of witnesses writing after 1100 was phrased to allude to the
Jerusalem and the
Holy Land as additional goals.
The successful Princes' Crusade had been preceded by the "People's
Crusade", which was a popular movement gathered by
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit in
the spring of 1096. It moved against the Turks in Anatolia, on its way
attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland, and being decisively
defeated in October.
The Princes' Crusade, by contrast, was a well-organized military
campaign, starting out in late summer of 1096 and arrived at
Constantinople between November 1096 and April 1097. They marched into
Nicaea in June 1097 and
Antioch in June 1098. The
Crusaders arrived at
Jerusalem in June 1099 and took the city in an
assault on 7 July 1099, massacring the defenders. A brief attempt to
Jerusalem was repulsed by the Crusaders at the Battle of
During their conquests, the Crusaders established the Latin Rite
crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli,
the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Edessa. This was
contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the
land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by
Latin Catholics. After the retaking of Jerusalem, most of the
crusaders returned home. This left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable
from Muslim reconquests during the Second and Third Crusades.
1 Historical context
1.1 Situation in Europe
1.2 Situation in the East
2 Council of Clermont
3 People's Crusade
4 Princes' Crusade
4.2 Siege of Nicaea
4.3 Battle of Dorylaeum
4.4 Siege of Antioch
4.5 Continued march to Jerusalem
4.6 Siege of Jerusalem
4.7 Establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
4.8 Battle of Ascalon
5 Aftermath and legacy
6 Historiographical debate
7 See also
10.1 Primary sources
10.1.1 Primary sources online
10.2 Secondary sources
The causes of the
Crusades in general, and particularly that of the
First Crusade, is widely debated among historians. While the relative
weight or importance of the various factors may be the subject of
ongoing disputes, it is clear that the
First Crusade came about from a
combination of factors in both Europe and the Near East. Its origin is
linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom,
including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe,
the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, as well as the
military and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the
Christianity had been adopted throughout the
Roman Empire in Late
Antiquity, but in the 7th to 8th centuries, the
Umayyad Caliphate had
conquered Syria, Egypt, and North Africa from the predominantly
Christian Byzantine Empire, and Hispania from the Visigothic
Kingdom. In North Africa, the Umayyad empire eventually collapsed
and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the
Aghlabids, who attacked
Italy in the 9th century. Pisa, Genoa, and the
Principality of Catalonia
Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for
control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign
and battles at
Majorca and Sardinia.
Between the years of 1096 and 1101, the
Byzantine Greeks experienced
the crusade as it arrived in
Constantinople in three separate waves.
In the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on
the outskirts of Constantinople. This wave was reported to be
undisciplined and ill-equipped as an army. This first group is often
called the Peasants’ Crusade or the People’s Crusade. It was led
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit and Walter Sans Avoir.
The second wave was also not under the command of the Emperor and was
made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together,
this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000.
The second wave was led by Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, the brother of
King Philip I of France. Also among the second wave were Raymond IV,
Count of Toulouse
Count of Toulouse and the army of Provençals. "It was this second
wave of crusaders which later passed through Asia Minor, captured
Antioch in 1098 and finally took
Jerusalem 15 July 1099."
The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy, France, and
Bavaria, arrived in
Jerusalem in the early summer of 1101.
Situation in Europe
At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the
Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th
century. It was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex
Vigilanus compiled in 881.[note 1] Increasingly in the 11th
century foreign knights, mostly from France, visited Iberia to assist
the Christians in their efforts.[note 2] Shortly before the First
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II had encouraged the Iberian Christians to
reconquer Tarragona, using much of the same symbolism and rhetoric
that was later used to preach the crusade to the people of Europe.
The heart of Western Europe had been stabilized after the
Christianization of the Saxon, Viking, and Hungarian peoples by the
end of the 10th century. However, the breakdown of the Carolingian
Empire gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to
do but fight among themselves. The random violence of the knightly
class was regularly condemned by the church, and in response, it
Peace and Truce of God to prohibit fighting on certain
days of the year. At the same time, the reform-minded papacy came into
conflict with the Holy Roman Emperors, resulting in the Investiture
Controversy. Popes such as Gregory VII justified the subsequent
warfare against the Emperor's partisans in theological terms. It
became acceptable for the
Pope to utilize knights in the name of
Christendom, not only against political enemies of the Papacy, but
also against Al-Andalus, or, theoretically, against the Seljuq dynasty
in the east.
To the east of Europe lay the Byzantine Empire, composed of Christians
who had long followed a separate Orthodox rite; the Eastern Orthodox
and Roman Catholic churches had been in schism since 1054. Historians
have argued that the desire to impose Roman church authority in the
east may have been one of the goals of the crusade, although Urban
II, who launched the First Crusade, never refers to such a goal in his
letters on crusading. The
Seljuq Turks had taken over almost all of
Anatolia after the Byzantine defeat at the
Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert in
1071; however, their conquests were piecemeal and led by
semi-independent warlords, rather than by the sultan. A dramatic
collapse of the empire's position on the eve of the Council of
Clermont brought Byzantium to the brink of disaster. By the
Byzantine Empire was largely confined to Balkan Europe
and the northwestern fringe of Anatolia, and faced Norman enemies in
the west as well as Turks in the east. In response to the defeat
at Manzikert and subsequent Byzantine losses in
Anatolia in 1074, Pope
Gregory VII had called for the miles Christi ("soldiers of Christ") to
go to Byzantium's aid. This call was largely ignored and even
opposed. The reason for this was that while the defeat at
Manzikert was shocking, it had limited significance and did not lead
to major difficulties for the Byzantine empire, at least in the short
Situation in the East
Main article: Byzantine–Seljuq wars
The Byzantine empire had lost control over most of
Anatolia in the
decade following the disastrous Battle of Manzikert.
Until the Crusaders' arrival, the Byzantines had continually fought
Seljuqs and other Turkish dynasties for control of
Syria. The Seljuqs, who were orthodox Sunni Muslims, had formerly
ruled the Great Seljuq Empire, but by the time of the
First Crusade it
had divided into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah
I in 1092.
Malik-Shah was succeeded in the Anatolian
Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum by Kilij
Arslan I, and in
Syria by his brother Tutush I, who died in 1095.
Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan and
Damascus respectively, further dividing
Syria amongst emirs
antagonistic towards each other, as well as Kerbogha, the atabeg of
Egypt and much of Palestine were controlled by the Arab Shi'ite
Fatimid Caliphate, which was significantly smaller since the arrival
of the Seljuqs. Warfare between the Fatimids and
Seljuqs caused great
disruption for the local Christians and for western pilgrims. The
Fatimids, under the nominal rule of caliph al-Musta'li but actually
controlled by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah, had lost
Jerusalem to the
Seljuqs in 1073 (although some older accounts say 1076); they
recaptured it in 1098 from the Artuqids, a smaller Turkish tribe
associated with the Seljuqs, just before the arrival of the
Council of Clermont
Main article: Council of Clermont
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont. Illustration from Sébastien
Mamerot's Livre des Passages d'Outre-mer (Jean Colombe, c. 1472–75,
BNF Fr. 5594)
Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos, worried about the advances of
Seljuqs in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert, who had
reached as far west as Nicaea, sent envoys to the Council of Piacenza
in March 1095 to ask
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II for aid against the Turk. Urban
responded favourably, perhaps hoping to heal the Great Schism of forty
years earlier, and to reunite the Church under papal primacy by
helping the Eastern churches in their time of need. Alexios and
Urban had previously been in close contact in 1089 and after, and had
discussed openly the prospect of the (re)union of the Christian
church. There were signs of considerable co-operation between
Constantinople in the years immediately before the crusade.
In July 1095, Urban turned to his homeland of
France to recruit men
for the expedition. His travels there culminated in the Council of
Clermont in November, where he gave an impassioned sermon to a large
audience of French nobles and clergy. There are five versions of the
speech recorded by people who may have been at the council (Baldric of
Dol, Guibert of Nogent, Robert the Monk, and Fulcher of Chartres) or
who went on crusade (Fulcher and the anonymous author of the Gesta
Francorum), as well as other versions found in later historians (such
William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury and William of Tyre). All of these versions
were written after
Jerusalem had been captured. Thus it is difficult
to know what was actually said and what was recreated in the aftermath
of the successful crusade. The only contemporary records are a few
letters written by Urban in 1095.
The five versions of the speech differ widely from one another in
regard to particulars, but all versions except that in the Gesta
Francorum agree that Urban talked about the violence of European
society and the necessity of maintaining the Peace of God; about
helping the Greeks, who had asked for assistance; about the crimes
being committed against Christians in the east; and about a new kind
of war, an armed pilgrimage, and of rewards in heaven, where remission
of sins was offered to any who might die in the undertaking. They
do not all specifically mention
Jerusalem as the ultimate goal.
However, it has been argued that Urban's subsequent preaching reveals
that he expected the expedition to reach
Jerusalem all along.
According to one version of the speech, the enthusiastic crowd
responded with cries of Deus vult! ("God wills it!").
Main article: People's Crusade
A map of the routes of the major leaders of the crusade, in French
An illustration showing the defeat of the People's Crusade, from
Sébastien Mamerot's Livre des Passages d'Outre-mer (Jean Colombe, c.
1472–75, BNF Fr. 5594)
The great French nobles and their trained armies of knights, however,
were not the first to undertake the journey towards Jerusalem. Urban
had planned the departure of the first crusade for 15 August
1096, the Feast of the Assumption, but months before this, a number of
unexpected armies of peasants and petty nobles set off for Jerusalem
on their own, led by a charismatic priest called Peter the Hermit.
Peter was the most successful of the preachers of Urban's message, and
developed an almost hysterical enthusiasm among his followers,
although he was probably not an "official" preacher sanctioned by
Urban at Clermont.
A century later he was already a legendary figure; William of Tyre
believed that it was Peter who had planted the idea for the crusade in
Urban's mind (which was taken as fact by historians until the 19th
century). It is commonly believed that Peter's followers
consisted of a massive group of untrained and illiterate peasants who
did not even have any idea where
Jerusalem was, but indeed there were
many knights among the peasants, including Walter Sans Avoir, who was
lieutenant to Peter and led a separate army.
Lacking military discipline, in what likely seemed to the participants
a strange land (Eastern Europe), Peter's fledgling army quickly found
itself in trouble despite the fact they were still in Christian
territory. The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food
at Belgrade, but otherwise arrived in
Meanwhile, the army led by Peter, which marched separately from
Walter's army, also fought with the Hungarians, and may have captured
Belgrade. At Nish the Byzantine governor tried to supply them, but
Peter had little control over his followers and Byzantine troops were
needed to quell their attacks. Peter arrived at
August, where his army joined with the one led by Walter, which had
already arrived, as well as separate bands of crusaders from France,
Germany, and Italy. Another army of Bohemians and
Saxons did not make
it past Hungary before splitting up.
This unruly mob began to attack and pillage outside the city in search
of supplies and food, prompting Alexios to hurriedly ferry the
gathering across the Bosporus one week later. After crossing into
Asia Minor, the crusaders split up and began to pillage the
countryside, wandering into Seljuq territory around Nicaea. The
greater experience of the Turks was overwhelming; and most of this
group of the crusaders were massacred because of it. Some Italian and
German crusaders were defeated and killed at Xerigordon at the end of
August. Meanwhile, Walter and Peter's followers, who, although for the
most part untrained in battle but led by about 50 knights, fought
a battle against the Turks at Civetot in October. The Turkish archers
destroyed the crusader army, and Walter was among the dead. Peter, who
was absent in
Constantinople at the time, later joined the main
crusader army, along with the few survivors of Civetot.
At a local level, the preaching of the
First Crusade ignited the
Rhineland massacres perpetrated against Jews, which some historians
have deemed "the first Holocaust". At the end of 1095 and
beginning of 1096, months before the departure of the official crusade
in August, there were attacks on Jewish communities in
Germany. In May 1096,
Emicho of Flonheim (sometimes incorrectly known
Emicho of Leiningen) attacked the Jews at Speyer and Worms. Other
unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along
with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by
Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenter, as well as many locals,
Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at
the end of May. In Mainz, one Jewish woman killed her children
rather than see them killed; the chief rabbi, Kalonymus Ben Meshullam,
committed suicide in anticipation of being killed. Emicho's
company then went on to Cologne, and others continued on to Trier,
Metz, and other cities.
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit may have been involved in
violence against the Jews, and an army led by a priest named Folkmar
also attacked Jews further east in Bohemia. Emicho's army
eventually continued into Hungary but was defeated by the army of
Coloman of Hungary. His followers dispersed; some eventually joined
the main armies, although
Emicho himself went home. Many of the
attackers seem to have wanted to force the Jews to convert, although
they were also interested in acquiring money from them. Physical
violence against Jews was never part of the church hierarchy's
official policy for crusading, and the
Christian bishops, especially
the Archbishop of Cologne, did their best to protect the Jews. A
decade before, the Bishop of Speyer had taken the step of providing
the Jews of that city with a walled ghetto to protect them from
Christian violence and given their chief Rabbis the control of
judicial matters in the quarter. Nevertheless, some also took money in
return for their protection. The attacks may have originated in the
belief that Jews and Muslims were equally enemies of Christ, and
enemies were to be fought or converted to Christianity. Godfrey of
Bouillon was rumoured to have extorted money from the Jews of Cologne
and Mainz, and many of the Crusaders wondered why they should travel
thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already
non-believers closer to home. The attacks on the Jews were
Ekkehard of Aura and Albert of Aix; among the Jewish
communities, the main contemporary witnesses were the Mainz Anonymous,
Eliezer ben Nathan, and Solomon bar Simson.
Routes of the leaders of the First Crusade
The four main crusader armies left Europe around the appointed time in
August 1096. They took different paths to
Constantinople and gathered
outside its city walls between November 1096 and April 1097; Hugh of
Vermandois arrived first, followed by Godfrey, Raymond, and Bohemond.
This time, Emperor Alexios was more prepared for the crusaders; there
were fewer incidents of violence along the way.
Christian Forces of the First Crusades, Army of
Godfrey of Bouillon, Army of Hugh the Great, Army of Robert Curthose,
and Armies of Bohemond of Taranto
Urban's speech had been well-planned: he had discussed the crusade
Adhemar of Le Puy
Adhemar of Le Puy and Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, and
instantly the expedition had the support of two of southern France's
most important leaders. Adhemar himself was present at the Council and
was the first to "take the cross". During the rest of 1095 and into
1096, Urban spread the message throughout France, and urged his
bishops and legates to preach in their own dioceses elsewhere in
France, Germany, and
Italy as well. However, it is clear that the
response to the speech was much greater than even the Pope, let alone
Alexios, expected. On his tour of France, Urban tried to forbid
certain people (including women, monks, and the sick) from joining the
crusade, but found this nearly impossible. In the end, most who took
up the call were not knights, but peasants who were not wealthy and
had little in the way of fighting skills, in an outpouring of a new
emotional and personal piety that was not easily harnessed by the
ecclesiastical and lay aristocracy. Typically, preaching would
conclude with every volunteer taking a vow to complete a pilgrimage to
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; they were also given a cross,
usually sewn onto their clothes.
Thomas Asbridge wrote, "Just as we can do nothing more than
estimate the number of thousands who responded to the crusading ideal,
so too, with the surviving evidence, we can gain only a limited
insight into their motivation and intent." Previous generations of
scholars argued that the crusaders were motivated by greed, hoping to
find a better life away from the famines and warfare occurring in
France, but as Asbridge notes, "This image is ... profoundly
misleading." He argues that greed was unlikely to have been a
major factor because of the extremely high cost of travelling so far
from home, and because almost all of the crusaders eventually returned
home after completing their pilgrimage rather than trying to carve out
possessions for themselves in the Holy Land. It is difficult
or impossible to assess the motives of the thousands of poor for whom
there is no historical record, or even those of important knights,
whose stories were usually retold by monks or clerics. As the secular
medieval world was so deeply ingrained with the spiritual world of the
church, it is quite likely that personal piety was a major factor for
Despite this popular enthusiasm, however, Urban ensured that there
would be an army of knights, drawn from the French aristocracy. Aside
from Adhemar and Raymond, other leaders he recruited throughout 1096
included Bohemond of Taranto, a southern Italian ally of the reform
popes; Bohemond's nephew Tancred; Godfrey of Bouillon, who had
previously been an anti-reform ally of the Holy Roman Emperor; his
brother Baldwin of Boulogne; Hugh I, Count of Vermandois, brother of
the excommunicated Philip I of France; Robert Curthose, brother of
William II of England; and his relatives Stephen II, Count of Blois
and Robert II, Count of Flanders. The crusaders represented northern
and southern France, Flanders, Germany, and southern Italy, and so
were divided into four separate armies that were not always
cooperative, though they were held together by their common ultimate
The motives of the nobility are somewhat clearer than those of the
peasants; greed was apparently not a major factor. Runciman (1951)
assumed that only younger members of a family went on crusade, looking
for wealth and adventure elsewhere, as they had no prospects for
advancement at home. Riley-Smith (1998) has shown that this was not
always the case. The crusade was led by some of the most powerful
nobles of France, who left everything behind, and it was often the
case that entire families went on crusade at their own great
expense. For example, Robert of Normandy loaned the Duchy of
Normandy to his brother William II of England, and Godfrey sold or
mortgaged his property to the church. According to Tancred's
biographer, he was worried about the sinful nature of knightly
warfare, and was excited to find a holy outlet for violence.
Tancred and Bohemond, as well as Godfrey, Baldwin, and their older
brother Eustace III, Count of Boulogne, are examples of families who
crusaded together. Riley-Smith argues that the enthusiasm for the
crusade was perhaps based on family relations, as most of the French
crusaders were distant relatives. Nevertheless, in at least some
cases, personal advancement played a role in Crusaders' motives. For
instance, Bohemond was motivated by the desire to carve himself out a
territory in the east, and had previously campaigned against the
Byzantines to try to achieve this. The Crusade gave him a further
opportunity, which he took after the Siege of Antioch, taking
possession of the city and establishing the Principality of
The size of the entire crusader army is difficult to estimate; various
numbers were given by the eyewitnesses, and equally various estimates
have been offered by modern historians. Crusader military historian
David Nicolle considers the armies to have consisted of about
30,000–35,000 crusaders, including 5,000 cavalry. Raymond had the
largest contingent of about 8,500 infantry and 1,200 cavalry.
The princes arrived in
Constantinople with little food and expected
provisions and help from Alexios. Alexios was understandably
suspicious after his experiences with the People's Crusade, and also
because the knights included his old Norman enemy, Bohemond, who had
invaded Byzantine territory on numerous occasions with his father,
Robert Guiscard, and may have even attempted to organize an attack on
Constantinople while encamped outside the city.
The crusaders may have expected Alexios to become their leader, but he
had no interest in joining them, and was mainly concerned with
transporting them into
Asia Minor as quickly as possible. In
return for food and supplies, Alexios requested the leaders to swear
fealty to him and promise to return to the
Byzantine Empire any land
recovered from the Turks. Godfrey was the first to take the oath, and
almost all the other leaders followed him, although they did so only
after warfare had almost broken out in the city between the citizens
and the crusaders, who were eager to pillage for supplies. Raymond
alone avoided swearing the oath, instead pledging that he would simply
cause no harm to the Empire. Before ensuring that the various armies
were shuttled across the Bosporus, Alexios advised the leaders on how
best to deal with the Seljuq armies that they would soon
Siege of Nicaea
Main article: Siege of Nicaea
The Crusader armies crossed over into
Asia Minor during the first half
of 1097, where they were joined by
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit and the remainder
of his little army. In addition, Alexios also sent two of his own
Manuel Boutoumites and Tatikios, to assist the crusaders.
The first objective of their campaign was Nicaea, previously a city
under Byzantine rule, but which had become the capital of the Seljuq
Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum under Kilij Arslan I. Arslan was away campaigning
Danishmends in central
Anatolia at the time, and had left
behind his treasury and his family, underestimating the strength of
these new crusaders.
Subsequently, upon the Crusaders' arrival, the city was subjected to a
lengthy siege, and when Arslan had word of it he rushed back to Nicaea
and attacked the crusader army on 16 May. He was driven back by the
unexpectedly large crusader force, with heavy losses being suffered on
both sides in the ensuing battle. The siege continued, but the
crusaders had little success as they found they could not blockade the
lake, which the city was situated on, and from which it could be
provisioned. To break the city, Alexios sent the Crusaders' ships
rolled over land on logs, and at the sight of them the Turkish
garrison finally surrendered on 18 June. The city was handed over
to the Byzantine troops, which has often been depicted as a source of
conflict between the Empire and the crusaders; Byzantine standards
flew from the walls while the crusaders were forbidden from looting
the city or even entering it except in small escorted bands.
However, this policy was in accordance with the previous oaths made to
Alexios, and the emperor ensured that the crusaders were well-paid for
their efforts. As
Thomas Asbridge writes, "the fall of
Nicaea was a
product of the successful policy of close co-operation between the
crusaders and Byzantium." After handing custody of
Nicaea to the
Byzantines, the crusaders resumed their march to Jerusalem. Stephen of
Blois, in a letter to his wife Adela of Blois wrote that he believed
the journey would take five weeks; in reality, it took two years.
Battle of Dorylaeum
Main article: Battle of
Baldwin of Boulogne entering Edessa in 1098 (history painting,
Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury 1840)
At the end of June, the crusaders marched on through Anatolia. They
were accompanied by some Byzantine troops under Tatikios, and still
harboured the hope that Alexios would send a full Byzantine army after
them. They also divided the army into two more-easily managed
groups—one contingent led by the Normans, the other by the
French. The two groups intended to meet again at Dorylaeum, but on
1 July the Normans, who had marched ahead of the French, were attacked
by Kilij Arslan. Arslan had gathered a much larger army than he
previously had after his defeat at Nicaea, and now surrounded the
Normans with his fast-moving mounted archers. The
Normans "deployed in
a tight-knit defensive formation", surrounding all their equipment
and the non-combatants who had followed them along the journey, and
sent for help from the other group. When the French arrived, Godfrey
broke through the Turkish lines and the legate Adhemar outflanked the
Turks from the rear; thus the Turks, who had expected to destroy the
Normans and did not anticipate the quick arrival of the French, fled
rather than face the combined crusader army.
The crusaders' march through
Anatolia was thereafter unopposed, but
the journey was unpleasant, as Arslan had burned and destroyed
everything he left behind in his army's flight. It was the middle of
summer, and the crusaders had very little food and water; many men and
horses died. Fellow Christians sometimes gave them gifts of food
and money, but more often than not, the crusaders simply looted and
pillaged whenever the opportunity presented itself. Individual leaders
continued to dispute the overall leadership, although none of them
were powerful enough to take command on their own, as Adhemar was
always recognized as the spiritual leader. After passing through the
Cilician Gates, Baldwin of Boulogne set off on his own towards the
Armenian lands around the Euphrates; his wife, his only claim to
European lands and wealth, had died after the battle, giving Baldwin
no incentive to return to Europe. Thus, he resolved to seize a fiefdom
for himself in the Holy Land. Early in 1098, he was adopted as heir by
Thoros of Edessa, a ruler who was disliked by his Armenian subjects
for his Greek Orthodox religion. Thoros was later killed, during an
uprising that Baldwin may have instigated. Then, in March 1098,
Baldwin became the new ruler, thus creating the County of Edessa, the
first of the crusader states.
Siege of Antioch
Siege of Antioch
Siege of Antioch and Yağısıyan
Bohemond of Taranto Alone Mounts the Rampart of
Antioch by Gustave
The crusader army, meanwhile, marched on to Antioch, which lay about
Constantinople and Jerusalem. Described by Stephen of
Blois as "a city great beyond belief, very strong and unassailable",
the idea of taking the city by assault was a discouraging one to the
crusaders. Hoping rather to force a capitulation, or find a
traitor inside the city—a tactic that had previously seen Antioch
change to the control of the Byzantines and then the Seljuq
Turks—the crusader army set
Antioch to siege on 20 October 1097.
During the almost eight months of the siege, they were forced to
defeat two large relief armies under the leadership of
Duqaq and Fakhr
Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not
have enough troops to fully surround it, and as a result it was able
to stay partially supplied. On 4 March 1098, relief arrived in the
form of a Crusader fleet, the "Saxon Crusade", bringing much needed
supplies from the west.
In May 1098,
Antioch to relieve the
siege. Bohemond bribed an Armenian guard named
Firouz to surrender his
tower, and in June the crusaders entered the city and killed most of
the inhabitants. However, only a few days later the Muslims
arrived, laying siege to the former besiegers. According to
Raymond D'Aguilers, it was at this point that a monk named Peter
Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the
Holy Lance in the city, and
although some were skeptical, this was seen as a sign that they would
The Massacre of
Gustave Doré (1871)
On 28 June 1098, the crusaders defeated
Kerbogha in a pitched battle
outside the city, a victory caused by Kerbogha's inability to organize
the different factions in his army. While the crusaders were
marching towards the Muslims, the Fatimid section of the army deserted
the Turkish contingent, as they feared
Kerbogha would become too
powerful were he able to defeat the Crusaders. According to Christian
eyewitnesses, an army of
Christian saints came to the aid of the
crusaders during the battle and crippled Kerbogha's army.
Stephen of Blois, a Crusade leader, was in Alexandretta when he
learned of the situation in Antioch. It seemed like their situation
was hopeless so he left the Middle East, warning Alexios and his army
on his way back to France. Because of what looked like a massive
betrayal, the leaders at Antioch, most notably Bohemond, argued that
Alexios had deserted the Crusade and thus invalidated all of their
oaths to him. While Bohemond asserted his claim to Antioch, not
everyone agreed (most notably Raymond of Toulouse), so the crusade was
delayed for the rest of the year while the nobles argued amongst
themselves. When discussing this period, a common historiographical
viewpoint advanced by some scholars is that the
Franks of northern
France, the Provençals of southern France, and the
Italy considered themselves separate "nations", creating
turmoil as each tried to increase its individual status. Others argue
that while this may have had something to do with the disputes,
personal ambition among the Crusader leaders might just be as easily
Meanwhile, a plague broke out, killing many among the army, including
the legate Adhemar, who died on 1 August. There were now even
fewer horses than before, and worse, the Muslim peasants in the area
refused to supply the crusaders with food. Thus, in December, after
the Arab town of
Ma'arrat al-Numan was captured following a siege,
history describes the first occurrence of cannibalism among the
crusaders. Radulph of Caen wrote, "In Ma'arrat our troops boiled
pagan adults in cooking pots; they impaled children on spits and
devoured them grilled." At the same time, the minor knights and
soldiers had become increasingly restless and threatened to continue
Jerusalem without their squabbling leaders. Finally, at the
beginning of 1099, the march restarted, leaving Bohemond behind as the
first Prince of Antioch.
Continued march to Jerusalem
Main article: First Crusade: March down the Mediterranean coast
Route of the
First Crusade through Asia
Proceeding down the Mediterranean coast, the crusaders encountered
little resistance, as local rulers preferred to make peace with them
and furnish them with supplies rather than fight, with a notable
exception of the abandoned siege of Arqa.
Iftikhar ad-Daula, the Fatimid governor of Jerusalem, was aware of the
arrival of the Crusaders. He expelled all of Jerusalem's Christian
inhabitants, to avoid the possibility of the city falling due to
treason from the inside, and he poisoned most of the wells in the
area. The crusaders reached Jerusalem, which had been recaptured
Seljuqs by the Fatimids only the year before, on 7 June. Many
Crusaders wept upon seeing the city they had journeyed so long to
Siege of Jerusalem
Main article: Siege of
Crusaders' arrival at
Jerusalem revealed an arid countryside, lacking
in water or food supplies. Here there was no prospect of relief, even
as they feared an imminent attack by the local Fatimid rulers. There
was no hope of trying to blockade the city as they had at Antioch; the
crusaders had insufficient troops, supplies, and time. Rather, they
resolved to take the city by assault. They might have been left
with little choice, as by the time the Crusader army reached
Jerusalem, it has been estimated that only about 12,000 men including
1,500 cavalry remained. These contingents, composed of men with
differing origins and varying allegiances, were also approaching
another low ebb in their camaraderie; e.g., while Godfrey and Tancred
made camp to the north of the city, Raymond made his to the south. In
addition, the Provençal contingent did not take part in the initial
assault on 13 June. This first assault was perhaps more speculative
than determined, and after scaling the outer wall the Crusaders were
repulsed from the inner one.
After the failure of the initial assault, a meeting between the
various leaders was organized in which it was agreed upon that a more
concerted attack would be required in the future. On 17 June, a party
of Genoese mariners under
Guglielmo Embriaco arrived at Jaffa, and
provided the Crusaders with skilled engineers, and perhaps more
critically, supplies of timber (stripped from the ships) to build
siege engines. The Crusaders' morale was raised when a priest,
Peter Desiderius, claimed to have had a divine vision, of Bishop
Adhemar, instructing them to fast and then march in a barefoot
procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall,
following the Biblical story of
Joshua at the siege of Jericho.
After a three-day fast, on 8 July the crusaders performed the
procession as they had been instructed by Desiderius, ending on the
Mount of Olives where
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit preached to them, and
shortly afterward the various bickering factions arrived at a public
rapprochement. News arrived shortly after that a Fatimid relief army
had set off from Egypt, giving the Crusaders a very strong incentive
to make another assault on the city.
The final assault on
Jerusalem began on 13 July; Raymond's troops
attacked the south gate while the other contingents attacked the
northern wall. Initially the Provençals at the southern gate made
little headway, but the contingents at the northern wall fared better,
with a slow but steady attrition of the defence. On 15 July, a final
push was launched at both ends of the city, and eventually the inner
rampart of the northern wall was captured. In the ensuing panic, the
defenders abandoned the walls of the city at both ends, allowing the
Crusaders to finally enter.
The Siege of
Jerusalem as depicted in a medieval manuscript
The massacre that followed the capture of
Jerusalem has attained
particular notoriety, as a "juxtaposition of extreme violence and
anguished faith". The eyewitness accounts from the crusaders
themselves leave little doubt that there was great slaughter in the
aftermath of the siege. Nevertheless, some historians propose that the
scale of the massacre has been exaggerated in later medieval
After the successful assault on the northern wall, the defenders fled
to the Temple Mount, pursued by Tancred and his men. Arriving before
the defenders could secure the area, Tancred's men assaulted the
precinct, butchering many of the defenders, with the remainder taking
refuge in the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Tancred then called a halt to the
slaughter, offering those in the mosque his protection. When the
defenders on the southern wall heard of the fall of the northern wall,
they fled to the citadel, allowing Raymond and the Provençals to
enter the city. Iftikhar al-Dawla, the commander of the garrison,
struck a deal with Raymond, surrendering the citadel in return for
being granted safe passage to Ascalon.
The slaughter continued for the rest of the day; Muslims were
indiscriminately killed, and Jews who had taken refuge in their
synagogue died when it was burnt down by the Crusaders. The following
day, Tancred's prisoners in the mosque were slaughtered. Nevertheless,
it is clear that some Muslims and Jews of the city survived the
massacre, either escaping or being taken prisoner to be ransomed.
Christian population of the city had been expelled before
the siege by the governor, and thus escaped the massacre.
Establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Crusader Graffiti in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem
On 22 July, a council was held in the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre to
establish a king for the newly created Kingdom of Jerusalem. Raymond
of Toulouse at first refused to become king, perhaps attempting to
show his piety, but probably hoping that the other nobles would insist
upon his election anyway. Godfrey, who had become the more popular
of the two after Raymond's actions at the siege of Antioch, did no
damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader.
Raymond was incensed at this development and took his army out into
The exact nature and meaning of Godfrey's title is somewhat
controversial. Although it is widely claimed that he took the title
Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("advocate" or "defender" of the Holy
Sepulchre), this title is only used in a letter that was not written
by Godfrey. Instead, Godfrey himself seems to have used the more
ambiguous term princeps, or simply retained his title of dux from
Lower Lorraine. According to William of Tyre, writing in the later
12th century when Godfrey was already a legendary hero in crusader
Jerusalem, he refused to wear "a crown of gold" where Christ had worn
"a crown of thorns".
Robert the Monk
Robert the Monk is the only contemporary
chronicler of the crusade to report that Godfrey took the title
Battle of Ascalon
Main article: Battle of Ascalon
An engraving of the
Battle of Ascalon
Battle of Ascalon by C.W. Sharpe (1881), based on
an illustration by
Gustave Doré (1871)
The crusaders had attempted to negotiate with the Fatimids during
their march to Jerusalem, but to no avail. After the crusaders
Jerusalem from the Fatimids, they learned of a Fatimid army
about to attack them. On 10 August
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon led the
remaining troops from
Jerusalem to Ascalon, a day's march away.
The Fatimids were estimated to have as many as 50,000 troops (other
sources estimate about 20,000–30,000) entering the battle. Their
troops consisted of Seljuq Turks, Arabs, Persians, Kurds, and
Ethiopians, led by vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah. Opposing them were the
crusaders, whose numbers, estimated by Raymond of Aguilers, were
around 1,200 knights and 9,000 infantry.
On 12 August, crusader scouts discovered the location of the Fatimid
camp, which the crusaders immediately marched towards. According
to most crusader and Muslim accounts, the Fatimids were caught
unaware. Because of a somewhat ill-prepared Fatimid army, the battle
was fairly short, although it still took some time to resolve,
according to Albert of Aix. al-Afdal Shahanshah and his army retreated
into the heavily guarded and fortified city of Ascalon. The next
day the crusaders learned that al-Afdal Shahanshah had retreated back
to Egypt via boat, so they plundered what remained of the Fatimid
camp. After returning to
Jerusalem most of the crusaders returned to
their homes in Europe.
Aftermath and legacy
The crusader states after the First Crusade
Further information: Crusader states, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Knights
Hospitaller, Knights Templar, Crusade of 1101, and Second Crusade
First Crusade succeeded in establishing the "crusader states" of
Edessa, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Tripoli in Palestine and
well as allies along the Crusaders' route, such as the Armenian
Kingdom of Cilicia).
A map of western Asia Minor, showing the routes taken by Christian
armies during the Crusade of 1101
However, there were many who had gone home before reaching Jerusalem,
and many who had never left Europe at all. When the success of the
crusade became known, these people were mocked and scorned by their
families and threatened with excommunication by the Pope. Many
crusaders who had remained with the crusade all the way to Jerusalem
also went home; according to Fulcher of Chartres, there were only a
few hundred knights left in the newfound kingdom in 1100. Godfrey
himself only ruled for one year, dying in July 1100. He was succeeded
by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa, the first person to take the title
King of Jerusalem. Among the crusaders in the
Crusade of 1101
Crusade of 1101 were
Stephen II, Count of Blois
Stephen II, Count of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois, both of whom had
returned home before reaching Jerusalem. This crusade was almost
Asia Minor by the Seljuqs, but the survivors helped to
reinforce the kingdom upon their arrival in Jerusalem. In the
following years, assistance was also provided by Italian merchants who
established themselves in Syrian ports, and from the religious and
military orders of the
Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller,
which were created during Baldwin I's reign.
Back at home in Western Europe, those who had survived to reach
Jerusalem were treated as heroes. Robert of Flanders was nicknamed
"Hierosolymitanus" thanks to his exploits. The life of Godfrey of
Bouillon became legendary even within a few years of his death.
In some cases, the political situation at home was greatly affected by
crusader absences. For instance, while
Robert Curthose was away on
crusade the throne of England had passed to his brother Henry I of
England instead, and their resultant conflict led to the Battle of
Tinchebray in 1106.
Meanwhile, the establishment of the crusader states in the east helped
ease Seljuq pressure on the Byzantine Empire, which had regained some
of its Anatolian territory with crusader help, and experienced a
period of relative peace and prosperity in the 12th century. The
effect on the Muslim dynasties of the east was gradual but important.
In the wake of the death of Malik Shah I in 1092, political
instability and the division of the
Great Seljuq Empire
Great Seljuq Empire prevented a
coherent defence against the Latin states. Cooperation between them
remained difficult for many decades, but from Egypt to
Baghdad there were calls for the expulsion of the crusaders,
culminating in the recapture of
Saladin later in the
century when the Ayyubids had united the surrounding areas.
The success of the crusade inspired the literary imagination of poets
in France, who, in the 12th century, began to compose various chansons
de geste celebrating the exploits of
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon and other
crusaders. Some of these, such as the Chanson d'Antioche, are
semi-historical, while others are completely fanciful, describing
battles with a dragon or connecting Godfrey's ancestors to the legend
of the Knight of the Swan. Together, the chansons are known as the
First Crusade was also an inspiration to artists in later
centuries. In 1580,
Torquato Tasso wrote
Jerusalem Delivered, a
largely fictionalized epic poem about the capture of Jerusalem. George
Frideric Handel composed music based on Tasso's poem in his opera
Rinaldo. The 19th-century poet
Tommaso Grossi also wrote an epic poem,
which was the basis of Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima
Further information: Historiography of the Crusades
The first known mention of the Frankish conquest of Jerusalem, in an
Armenian colophon written in 1099.
William of Tyre
William of Tyre began his chronicle with the fall of
Umar. Although the original Islamic conquest of the
taken place more than four centuries before the First Crusade, its
immediate cause was the occupation of Byzantine
Anatolia by the
Seljuqs during the 1070s to 1080s. Following the defeat at Manzikert
in 1071, Muslims had taken half of the Byzantine Empire's territory,
and such strategically and religiously important cities as
Nicaea had only fallen to Muslims in the decade before the Council of
Piacenza. Moreover, the harrowing accounts of the atrocities
committed by the invaders against the Anatolian population recorded by
Christian chroniclers such as John Skylitzes, Michael
Attaleiates, Matthew of Edessa,
Michael the Syrian
Michael the Syrian and others
(summarized Vryonis 1971) align with the primary motivation of
relieving the acute distress suffered by the Byzantine empire. In
addition, the early 11th century saw a worsening of Muslim-Christian
relations in the Levant; for example, in 1009 the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre had been destroyed by the Fatimid
Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr
Pope Sergius IV had supposedly already called for a military
expedition in response to this. Even more recently, in the Great
German Pilgrimage of 1064–1065, pilgrims had continued to be
harassed. Therefore, the liberation of
Jerusalem and the
Holy Sepulchre is presented as the main motivation of the crusaders by
contemporary historiographers more than providing military aid to the
Byzantin emperor against the Seljuq onslaught.
This situation of multiple possible causes or motivations for the
crusades has led to extended debates in modern historiography. A
theory proposed by
Carl Erdmann (1935), known as the "Erdmann thesis",
First Crusade l to the Gregorian Reform, the series of
reforms initiated by
Pope Gregory VII during c. 1050–80. These
reforms re-established the Western Church, which had been much
weakened during the 10th century, as a relevant power able to inspire
and co-ordinate the crusades. The "Erdmann thesis" proposes that
the strengthened Western Church, combined with the weakened Byzantine
Empire, permitted a projection of power from west to east, with the
actual conquest of
Jerusalem figuring at best as a secondary, popular
While it is clear that the motivations for and causes of the First
Crusade are to be sought both in the East and in the West. There has
still been much debate among historiographers of the later 20th
century on how the relative impact of such causes should be weighed.
The very influential
Steven Runciman (1951) significantly shaped the
popular perception of the crusades in the later 20th century. Runciman
represents the view that the motivation for the crusades was primarily
that of a "barbarian invasion" motivated by greed and the desire for
spoils and adventure among the Frankish nobles. Runciman argued
that the crusade was motivated by a combination of theological
justification for holy war and a "general restlessness and taste for
adventure", especially among the
Normans and the "younger sons" of the
French nobility who had no other opportunities. and goes as far
as suggesting that there wasn't any immediate threat from the Islamic
world, arguing that "in the middle of the 11th century the lot of the
Christians in Palestine had seldom been so pleasant". In a
Thomas Asbridge (2004) argues that the
First Crusade was
a strategic attempt to expand the power of the Western Church, and
reunite the churches of
Rome and Constantinople, which had been in
schism since 1054. According to this view, the Islamic conquests were
of little importance in this, as "Islam and
Christendom had coexisted
for centuries in relative equanimity".
On the other hand, historians of the second half of the 20th century,
Speros Vryonis (1971), have emphasized the importance of the
military threat of Islamic expansion and the atrocities and attacks
against Christians in
Anatolia and the Levant. Similarly, Moshe
Gil (1997) argues against Runciman on the basis of contemporary Jewish
Cairo Geniza documents, as well as later Muslim accounts, concluding
that the Seljuq invasion of
Anatolia and the occupation of Palestine
(c. 1073–1098) was a period of "slaughter and vandalism, of
economic hardship, and the uprooting of populations". Indeed,
drawing upon earlier writers such as Ignatius of Melitene, Michael the
Syrian had recorded that the
Seljuqs subjected Coele-
Syria and the
Palestinian coast to "cruel destruction and pillage".
Thomas F. Madden
Thomas F. Madden (2005) represents a view almost diametrically opposed
to that of Asbridge (2004); while the crusade was certainly linked to
church reform and attempts to assert papal authority, he argues that
it was most importantly a pious struggle to liberate fellow
Christians, who, Madden claims, "had suffered mightily at the hands of
the Turks". This argument distinguishes the relatively recent violence
and warfare that followed the conquests of the Turks from the general
advance of Islam in the early medieval period, the significance of
which had been dismissed by Runciman and Asbridge.
Christopher Tyerman (2006) attempted a resolution by arguing for
compound causes, presenting the
First Crusade as developing out of the
Western church reform and theories of holy war as much as being a
response to conflicts with the Islamic world throughout Europe and the
In the view of
Jonathan Riley-Smith (2005), additional contingencies
such as poor harvests, overpopulation, and a pre-existing movement
towards colonizing the frontier areas of Europe have also contributed
to the crusade; however, he also takes care to say that "most
commentators then and a minority of historians now have maintained
that the chief motivation was a genuine idealism".
Peter Frankopan (2012) has argued that the
First Crusade has been
fundamentally distorted by the attention paid by historians to western
(Latin) sources, rather than Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Arabic and
Hebrew material from the late 11th and 12th centuries. The expedition
to Jerusalem, he argues, was conceived of not by the
Pope but by the
Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, in response to a dramatic deterioration of
Byzantium's position in
Asia Minor and also as a result of a state of
near anarchy at the imperial court where plans to depose Alexios or
even murder him were an open secret by 1094. The appeal to
II was a desperate move to shore up Emperor and Empire. Frankopan
further argues that the primary military targets of the First Crusade
Asia Minor —
Antioch — required large numbers of
soldiers with experience in siege warfare, precisely the type of force
recruited by Urban in
France in his call to arms of 1095/6.
Christian Forces of the First Crusades
The Crusader Army of Godfrey of Bouillon
The Crusader Army of Hugh the Great
The Crusader Army of Robert Curthose
Battle of Civetot
^ "They [the Saracens] take the kingdom of the Goths, which until
today they stubbornly possess in part; and against them the Christians
do battle day and night, and constantly strive; until the divine
fore-shadowing orders them to be cruelly expelled from here.
^ The Norman
Roger I of Tosny
Roger I of Tosny went in 1018. Other foreign ventures
into Aragon: the
War of Barbastro
War of Barbastro in 1063; Moctadir of
an expedition with foreign assistance in 1067; Ebles II of Roucy
planned one in 1073; William VIII of Aquitaine was sent back from
Aragon in 1090; a French army came to the assistance of Sancho
Ramírez in 1087 after Castile was defeated at the Battle of Sagrajas;
Centule I of Bigorre was in the valley of Tena in 1088; and there was
a major French component to the "crusade" launched against
Peter I of
Aragon and Navarre in 1101.
^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1990). The Atlas of the Crusades.
p. 22. estimate a total of 40,000 crusaders, of whom some
4,500 were nobles; Runciman (1951) estimated that no more than 20% of
crusaders were non-combatants and a cavalry to infantry ratio of about
one to seven. Runciman, Steven (1951). A History of the Crusades,
Volume One. pp. Appendix II. ; these are rough estimates,
for a total number of roughly 30,000 to 40,000 combatants, including
roughly 4,000 to 5,000 cavalry.
^ Nicolle 2003, pp. 21 and 32.
^ France, John (2005). The
Crusades and the expansion of Catholic
Christendom. New York: Routledge. p. 64.
^ Tyerman 2006, pp. 51–54.
H. E. J. Cowdrey
H. E. J. Cowdrey (1977), "The
Mahdia campaign of 1087" The English
Historical Review 92, pp. 1–29.
^ , Hindley, Geoffrey (2004). The Crusades: Islam and Christianity in
the Struggle for World Supremacy. Carrol & Graf.
^ Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100–1187 (repr. Folio
Society, 1994 ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Harris, Jonathan (2006), "Byzantium and the Crusades", London:
Hambledon Continuum, p. 54.
^ Harris, Jonathan (2006), "Byzantium and the Crusades", London:
Hambledon Continuum, pp. 53–55. ISBN 1-85285-501-0
^ a b R. A. Fletcher (1987), "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c.
1050–1150," Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth
Series, 37, p. 34.
^ a b Lynn H. Nelson (1979), "The Foundation of Jaca (1077): Urban
Growth in Early Aragon," Speculum, 53 p. 697 note 27.
^ Riley-Smith 2005, p. 7.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 3–4.
^ Riley-Smith 1991, pp. 5–8.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 17.
^ Frankopan 2012, pp. 57–71
^ a b Treadgold 1997, p. 8 Graph 1
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 15–20
^ Frankopan 2012, pp. 97–99
^ Holt 1989, pp. 11, 14–15.
^ Gil 1997, pp. 410, 411 note 61.
^ Holt 1989, pp. 11–14.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 15.
^ Frankopan 2012, pp. 19–23
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 32.
^ The first attempt to reconcile the different speeches was made by
Dana Munro, "The Speech of
Urban II at Clermont, 1095", American
Historical Review 11 (1906), pp. 231–242. The different versions of
the speech are collected in The First Crusade: The Chronicle of
Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials, ed. Edward Peters
(University of Pennsylvania Press, 2nd ed., 1998). The accounts can
also be read online at The Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 31–39
^ Riley-Smith 2005, p. 8.
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 65.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 78–82.
^ William of Tyre, pp. 82–85.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 80–81.
^ a b Riley-Smith 2005, p. 28.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 82.
^ Riley-Smith 2005, pp. 26–27.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 101–103.
^ Riley-Smith 1991, p. 50.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 84–85.
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 102.
^ a b Tyerman 2006, p. 103.
^ Riley-Smith 2005, p. 24.
^ Tyerman 2006, pp. 103–106.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 103–105.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 46–49.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 65–66.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 41.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 68.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 69.
^ Riley-Smith 1998, p. 15.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 69–71.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 55–65.
^ Riley-Smith 1998, p. 21.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 77.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 71.
^ Riley-Smith 1998, pp. 93–97.
^ a b c Neveux 2008, pp. 186–188.
^ Nicolle 2003, pp. 21, 32.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 106.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 110.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 110–113.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 117–120.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 124–126.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 126–130.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 130.
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 122.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 132–34.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 135.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 135–37.
^ Asbridge 2004, pp. 138–39.
^ a b Hindley 2004, p. 37.
^ Runciman 1980, p. 149.
^ Hindley 2004, p. 38.
^ Hindley 2004, p. 39.
^ a b Asbridge 2004, pp. 163–187.
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 135.
^ Runciman 1951, p. 231.
^ Tyerman 2006, pp. 142–143.
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 137.
^ Madden 2006, 28
^ Lock 2006, p. 23.
^ Runciman 1951, p. 261.
^ Hotaling 2003, p. 114
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 150.
^ Madden, Thomas F. The New Concise History of the
Crusades page 33
(Rowman & Littlefield Pub., Inc., 2005). The Syriac Chronicle to
1234 is one source claiming that Christians were expelled from
Jerusalem before the Crusaders' arrival. "The First and Second
Crusades from an Anonymous Syriac Chronicle." Trans. A.S. Tritton.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1933, p. 73. Presumabaly this
was done to prevent their collusion with the Crusaders.
^ a b c d e f Tyerman 2006, pp. 153–157.
^ Konstam 2004, p. 133.
^ a b c d e f Tyerman 2006, pp. 157–159
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 159.
^ Madden 2005, p. 34
^ Tyerman 2006, pp. 159–160.
^ William of Tyre,
Book 9, Chapter 9.
^ Riley-Smith (1979), "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon", Bulletin of
the Institute of Historical Research 52, pp. 83–86.
^ Murray, Alan V. (1990), "The Title of
Godfrey of Bouillon
Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler
of Jerusalem", Collegium Medievale 3, pp. 163–178.
^ a b Baldwin 1969, p. 340.
^ a b Baldwin 1969, p. 341.
^ Riley-Smith 2005, p. 35
^ Tyerman 2006, p. 161.
^ Lock 2006, pp. 142–144.
^ Baldwin 1969, pp. 379–380.
^ Neveux 2008, pp. 176–177.
^ Baldwin 1969, pp. 404–405.
^ Baldwin 1969, pp. 443–447.
^ Baldwin 1969, pp. 616–620.
^ Edgington, Susan B., "Albert of Aachen and the Chansons de Geste",
Crusades and their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton,
^ William of Tyre, p. 60.
^ The bull attributed to Sergius was considered genuine by Erdmann
(1935), but its authenticity was later called into question.
Aleksander Gieysztor ([year needed]) suggested that it was a
forgery dating to after the First Crusade, while Hans Martin Schaller
([year needed]) has again argued forcefully for the document's
^ Riley-Smith 2005, pp. 10–12.
^ William of Tyre, pp. 65–66, where he mentions the destruction
of the Holy Sepulchre as a cause of the First Crusade.
^ Charles Mills (June 1820). "Mill's History of the Crusades". The
Eclectic Review. Retrieved 2014-08-12.
^ Erdmann (1935), Die Entstehung des Kreuzzugsgedankens. Translated
into English as The Origin of the Idea of Crusade by Marshall W.
Baldwin and Walter Goffart in 1977.
^ Riley-Smith 1991, p. 1.
^ Riddle (2008) says that for his day Runciman was the "greatest
historian of the Crusades." He reports that, "Prior to Runciman, in
the early part of the [20th] century, historians related the Crusades
as an idealistic attempt of
Christendom to push Islam back." Runciman
Crusades "as a barbarian invasion of a superior
civilization, not that of the Muslims but of the Byzantines." John M
Riddle (2008). A History of the Middle Ages, 300 - 1500. Rowman &
Littlefield Publishing Group, Incorporated. p. 315. . Madden
(2005) stresses the impact of Runciman’s style and viewpoint: as
having "single-handedly crafted the current popular concept of the
crusades" by painting the crusaders as "simpletons or barbarians".
Thomas F Madden (2005). The New Concise History Of The Crusades.
Rowman & Littlefield. p. 216.
^ Runciman 1980, p. 76.
^ Runciman 1980, p. 31.
^ Asbridge 2004, p. 17; for Urban's personal motives, see
^ Vryonis 1971, pp. 85–117.
^ Gil 1997, p. 420; for details on the Seljuq occupation of
Palestine, see pp. 410–420.
^ Chronique de Michel le Syrien, pp. 170–171.
^ Madden 2005, p. 7.
^ Tyerman 2006, pp. 56–57.
^ Riley-Smith 2005, p. 17.
^ Frankopan 2012, pp. 87–101
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Albert of Aix, Historia Hierosolymitana
Anna Comnena, Alexiad
Guibert of Nogent, Dei gesta per Francos
Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana
Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum, (anonymous)
Ibn al-Qalanisi, The
Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades
Michael the Syrian, Chronicle
Peter Tudebode, Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere
Raymond of Aguilers, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem
William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea
Primary sources online
Selected letters by Crusaders:
Anselme of Ribemont, Anselme of Ribemont, Letter to Manasses II,
Archbishop of Reims (1098)
Stephen, Count of Blois and Chartres, Letter to his wife, Adele (1098)
Daimbert, Godfrey and Raymond, Letter to the Pope, (1099)
Online primary sources from the Internet Medieval Sourcebook:
Peter the Hermit
Peter the Hermit and the Popular Crusade: Collected Accounts.
The Crusaders Journey to Constantinople: Collected Accounts.
The Crusaders at Constantinople: Collected Accounts.
The Siege and Capture of Nicea: Collected Accounts.
The Siege and Capture of Antioch: Collected Accounts.
The Siege and Capture of Jerusalem: Collected Accounts.
Fulcher of Chartres: The Capture of Jerusalem, 1099.
Ekkehard of Aura: On the Opening of the First Crusade.
Albert of Aix and Ekkehard of Aura: Emico and the Slaughter of the
Soloman bar Samson: The Crusaders in Mainz, attacks on Rhineland
Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. 1106): Kitab al-
Jihad (extracts). First
known Islamic discussion of the concept of jihad written in the
aftermath of the First Crusade.
Asbridge, Thomas (2004). The First Crusade: A New History. Oxford.
Baldwin, Marshall W. (1969). A History of the Crusades: The First
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Chazan, Robert (1997). In the Year 1096: The
First Crusade and the
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Present, and Its Challenge for the Future. Syracuse University Press.
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& Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3822-2.
Magdalino, Paul (1996). The Byzantine Background to the First Crusade.
Canadian Institute of Balkan Studies. Archived from the original on 13
Mayer, Hans Eberhard (1988). The Crusades. John Gillingham. Oxford.
Neveux, Francois (2008). The Normans. Howard Curtis. Robinson.
Nicolle, David (2003). The First Crusade, 1096–99: Conquest of the
Holy Land. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-515-5.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1991). The
First Crusade and the Idea of
Crusading. University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8122-1363-7.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. (2002). The Oxford History of the Crusades.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280312-3.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2005). The Crusades: A History (2nd ed.). Yale
University Press. ISBN 0-8264-7270-2.
Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1998). The First Crusaders, 1095–1131.
Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-64603-0.
Runciman, Steven (1951). A History of the Crusades: Volume 1, The
First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-34770-9. (abridged version: The
First Crusade, Cambridge (1980), ISBN 0-521-23255-4).
Setton, Kenneth (1969–1989). A History of the Crusades.
Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and
Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2.
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and the Process of Islamization in the Eleventh through Fifteenth
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Bibliography of the
First Crusade (1095–1099), compiled by Alan V.
Murray, Institute for Medieval Studies, University of Leeds. Extensive
and up to date as of 2004.
BNF: cb11947239z (data)