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Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
is a funny-animal cartoon character created in the silent film era. The anthropomorphic black cat with his black body, white eyes, and giant grin, coupled with the surrealism of the situations in which his cartoons place him, combine to make Felix one of the most recognized cartoon characters in film history. Felix was the first character from animation to attain a level of popularity sufficient to draw movie audiences.[1][2] Felix's origins remain disputed. Australian cartoonist/film entrepreneur Pat Sullivan, owner of the Felix character, claimed during his lifetime to be its creator. American animator Otto Messmer, Sullivan's lead animator, has also been credited as such.[3] What is certain is that Felix emerged from Sullivan's studio, and cartoons featuring the character enjoyed success and popularity in the popular culture. Aside from the animated shorts, Felix starred in a comic strip (drawn by Sullivan, Messmer and later Joe Oriolo) beginning in 1923,[4] and his image soon adorned merchandise such as ceramics, toys and postcards. Several manufacturers made stuffed Felix toys. Jazz bands such as Paul Whiteman's played songs about him (1923's "Felix Kept On Walking" and others). By the late 1920s, with the arrival of sound cartoons, Felix's success was fading. The new Disney
Disney
shorts of Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse
made the silent offerings of Sullivan and Messmer, who were then unwilling to move to sound production, seem outdated. In 1929, Sullivan decided to make the transition and began distributing Felix sound cartoons through Copley Pictures. The sound Felix shorts proved to be a failure and the operation ended in 1932. Felix saw a brief three-cartoon resurrection in 1936 by the Van Beuren Studios. Felix cartoons began airing on American TV in 1953. Joe Oriolo introduced a redesigned, "long-legged" Felix, added new characters, and gave Felix a "Magic Bag of Tricks" that could assume an infinite variety of shapes at Felix's behest. The cat has since starred in other television programs and in two feature films. As of the 2010s, Felix is featured on a variety of merchandise from clothing to toys. Joe's son Don later assumed creative control of Felix. In 2002, TV Guide
TV Guide
ranked Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
number 28 on its "50 Greatest Cartoon
Cartoon
Characters of All Time" list.[5] In 2014, the rights to the character belonged to Joe Oriolo's son Don Oriolo. They were later acquired by DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation, which is now part of Comcast's NBCUniversal
NBCUniversal
division.[6]

Contents

1 Creation 2 Popularity and distribution

2.1 Felix as mascot and pop culture icon

3 From silent to sound 4 Revival 5 Home
Home
video 6 Filmography 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Creation[edit]

Feline Follies
Feline Follies
by Pat Sullivan, silent, 1919. Length 4min44s, 501 kbit/s

A scene of Felix "laughing" from Felix in Hollywood
Felix in Hollywood
(1923)

Pat Sullivan's work

Felix and Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
share the screen in a memorable moment from Felix in Hollywood
Felix in Hollywood
(1923).

The famous "Felix pace" as seen in Oceantics (1930)

Felix in the color cartoon Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
and the Goose That Laid the Golden Egg (1936)

On November 9, 1919, Master Tom, a prototype of Felix, debuted in a Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
short entitled Feline Follies.[7] Produced by the New York City-based animation studio owned by Pat Sullivan, the cartoon was directed by cartoonist and animator Otto Messmer. It was a success, and the Sullivan studio quickly set to work on producing another film featuring Master Tom, the Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
prototype in Musical Mews (released November 16, 1919). It too proved to be successful with audiences. Otto Messmer
Otto Messmer
claimed that John King of Paramount Magazine suggested the name "Felix", after the Latin
Latin
words felis (cat) and felix (happy). The name was first used for the third film starring the character, The Adventures of Felix (released on December 14, 1919). Pat Sullivan claimed he named Felix after Australia Felix from Australian history and literature. In 1924, animator Bill Nolan redesigned the character, making him both rounder and cuter. Felix's new looks, coupled with Messmer's character animation, brought Felix to fame.[8] The question of who created Felix remains a matter of dispute. Sullivan stated in numerous newspaper interviews that he created Felix and did the key drawings for the character. On a visit to Australia in 1925, Sullivan told The Argus newspaper that "[t]he idea was given to me by the sight of a cat which my wife brought to the studio one day".[9] On other occasions, he claimed that Felix had been inspired by Rudyard Kipling's "The Cat that Walked by Himself" or by his wife's love for strays.[8] Members of the Australian Cartoonist
Cartoonist
Association have claimed that lettering used in Feline Follies
Feline Follies
matches Sullivan's handwriting[10] and that Sullivan lettered within his drawings.[10] Sullivan's supporters also say the case is supported by his March 18, 1917, release of a cartoon short entitled The Tail of Thomas Kat more than two years prior to Feline Follies. Both an Australian ABC-TV documentary screened in 2004[11] and the curators of an exhibition at the State Library of New South Wales
State Library of New South Wales
in 2005 suggested that Thomas Kat was a prototype or precursor of Felix. However, few details of Thomas have survived. His fur color has not been definitively established, and the surviving copyright synopsis[citation needed] for the short suggests significant differences between Thomas and the later Felix. For example, whereas the later Felix magically transforms his tail into tools and other objects, Thomas is a non-anthropomorphized cat who loses his tail in a fight with a rooster, never to recover it. Sullivan was the studio proprietor and—as is the case with almost all film entrepreneurs—he owned the copyright to any creative work by his employees. In common with many animators at the time, Messmer was not credited. After Sullivan's death in 1933, his estate in Australia took ownership of the character. It was not until after Sullivan's death that Sullivan staffers such as Hal Walker, Al Eugster, Gerry Geronimi, Rudy Zamora, George Cannata, and Sullivan's own lawyer, Harry Kopp, credited Messmer with Felix's creation. They claimed that Felix was based on an animated Charlie Chaplin that Messmer had animated for Sullivan's studio earlier on. The down-and-out personality and movements of the cat in Feline Follies reflect key attributes of Chaplin's, and, although blockier than the later Felix, the familiar black body is already there (Messmer found solid shapes easier to animate). Messmer himself recalled his version of the cat's creation in an interview with animation historian John Canemaker:

Sullivan's studio was very busy, and Paramount, they were falling behind their schedule and they needed one extra to fill in. And Sullivan, being very busy, said, "If you want to do it on the side, you can do any little thing to satisfy them." So I figured a cat would be about the simplest. Make him all black, you know—you wouldn't need to worry about outlines. And one gag after the other, you know? Cute. And they all got laughs. So Paramount liked it so they ordered a series.

Animation historians back Messmer's claims. Among them are Michael Barrier, Jerry Beck, Colin and Timothy Cowles, Donald Crafton, David Gerstein, Milt Gray, Mark Kausler, Leonard Maltin, and Charles Solomon.[12] No animation historians outside of Australia have argued on behalf of Sullivan. Sullivan marketed the cat relentlessly while Messmer continued to produce a prodigious volume of Felix cartoons. Messmer did the animation directly on white paper with inkers tracing the drawings directly. The animators drew backgrounds onto pieces of celluloid, which were then laid atop the drawings to be photographed. Any perspective work had to be animated by hand, as the studio cameras were unable to perform pans or trucks. Pat Sullivan began a comic strip in 1923 distributed by King Features Syndicate.[8] Messmer took over drawing duties of the strip. The first The Felix Annual from 1924 issued in Great Britain shows the last two stories are not the usual Otto Messmer
Otto Messmer
style, so a difference in Pat Sullivan drawn cartoons can be noted. Popularity and distribution[edit] Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
distributed the earliest films from 1919 to 1921. Margaret J. Winkler
Margaret J. Winkler
distributed the shorts from 1922 to 1925, the year when Educational Pictures
Educational Pictures
took over the distribution of the shorts. Sullivan promised them one new Felix short every two weeks.[13] The combination of solid animation, skillful promotion, and widespread distribution brought Felix's popularity to new heights.[14] References to alcoholism and Prohibition
Prohibition
were also commonplace in many of the Felix shorts, particularly Felix Finds Out (1924), Whys and Other Whys (1927), and Felix Woos Whoopee (1930), to name a few. In Felix Dopes It Out (1924), Felix tries to help his hobo friend who is plagued with a red nose. By the end of the short, the cat finds the cure for the condition: "Keep drinking, and it'll turn blue". In addition, the cat was one of the first images ever broadcast by television when RCA
RCA
chose a Felix doll for a 1928 experiment in New York's Van Cortlandt Park. The papier-mâché (later Bakelite) doll was chosen for its tonal contrast and its ability to withstand the intense lights needed. It was placed on a rotating phonograph turntable and photographed for approximately two hours each day; as a result, Felix is considered by some to be the world's first TV star. After a one-time payoff to Sullivan, the doll remained on the turntable for nearly a decade as RCA
RCA
fine-tuned the picture's definition.[citation needed] Felix's great success also spawned a host of imitators. The appearances and personalities of other 1920s feline stars such as Julius of Walt Disney's Alice Comedies, Waffles of Paul Terry's Aesop's Film Fables, and especially Bill Nolan's 1925 adaptation of Krazy Kat
Krazy Kat
(distributed by the eschewed Winkler) all seem to have been directly patterned after Felix.[15] Felix's cartoons were also popular among critics. They have been cited as imaginative examples of surrealism in filmmaking. Felix has been said to represent a child's sense of wonder, creating the fantastic when it is not there, and taking it in stride when it is. His famous pace—hands behind his back, head down, deep in thought—became a trademark that has been analyzed by critics around the world.[16] Felix's expressive tail, which could be a shovel one moment, an exclamation mark or pencil the next, serves to emphasize that anything can happen in his world.[17] Aldous Huxley
Aldous Huxley
wrote that the Felix shorts proved that "[w]hat the cinema can do better than literature or the spoken drama is to be fantastic".[14] By 1923, the character was at the peak of his film career. Felix in Hollywood, a short released during that year, plays upon Felix's popularity, as he becomes acquainted with such fellow celebrities as Douglas Fairbanks, Cecil B. DeMille, Charlie Chaplin, Ben Turpin, and even censor Will H. Hays. His image could be seen on clocks (not to be confused with the Kit-Cat Klock) and Christmas ornaments. Felix also became the subject of several popular songs of the day, such as "Felix Kept Walking" by Paul Whiteman. Sullivan made an estimated $100,000 a year from toy licensing alone.[14] With the character's success also emerged a handful of new costars. These included Felix's master Willie Jones, a mouse named Skiddoo, Felix's nephews Inky, Dinky, and Winky, and his girlfriend Kitty. Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
sheet music, with music by Pete Wendling and Max Kortlander and featuring lyrics by Alfred Bryan, was published in 1928 by Sam Fox Publishing Company. The cover art of Felix playing a banjo was done by Otto Messmer[18] Most of the early Felix cartoons mirrored American attitudes of the "Roaring Twenties". Ethnic stereotypes appeared in such shorts as Felix Goes Hungry (1924). Recent events such as the Russian Civil War were depicted in shorts like Felix All Puzzled (1924). Flappers were caricatured in Felix Strikes It Rich (1923). He also became involved in union organizing with Felix Revolts (also 1923). In some shorts, Felix even performed a rendition of the Charleston. In 1928, Educational ceased releasing the Felix cartoons, and several were reissued by First National Pictures. Copley Pictures distributed them from 1929 to 1930. There was a brief three-cartoon resurrection in 1936 by the Van Beuren Studios ( Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
and the Goose That Laid the Golden Egg, Neptune Nonsense, and Bold King Cole). Sullivan did most of the marketing for the character in the 1920s. In these Van Beuren Studios shorts, Felix spoke and sang in a high-pitched, childlike voice provided by Walter Tetley, a popular radio actor in the 1930s and 1940s ("Julius" on The Phil Harris-Alice Faye Show, and "Leroy" on The Great Gildersleeve, but best known later in the 1960s as the voice of Sherman on The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show's Mister Peabody segments.[citation needed] Felix as mascot and pop culture icon[edit]

The U.S. Navy insignia for the VF-31 squadron from 1948

Given the character's unprecedented popularity and the fact that his name was partially derived from the Latin
Latin
word for "happy", some rather notable individuals and organizations adopted Felix as a mascot. The first of these was a Los Angeles Chevrolet
Chevrolet
dealer and friend of Pat Sullivan named Winslow B. Felix, who first opened his showroom in 1921. The three-sided neon sign of Felix Chevrolet,[19][20] with its giant, smiling images of the character, is today one of LA's better-known landmarks, standing watch over both Figueroa Street
Figueroa Street
and the Harbor Freeway. Others who adopted Felix included the 1922 New York Yankees
New York Yankees
and pilot and actress Ruth Elder, who took a Felix doll with her in an attempt to become the first woman to duplicate Charles Lindbergh's transatlantic crossing to Paris.[21]

Felix on the tail of an airplane now at the Evergreen Aviation Museum

This popularity persisted. In the late 1920s, the U.S. Navy's Bombing Squadron Two (VB-2B) adopted a unit insignia consisting of Felix happily carrying a bomb with a burning fuse. They retained the insignia through the 1930s, when they became a fighter squadron under the designations VF-6B and, later, VF-3, whose members Edward O'Hare and John Thach
John Thach
became famous naval aviators in World War II. After the world war a U.S. Navy fighter squadron currently designated VFA-31 replaced its winged meat-cleaver logo with the same insignia after the original Felix squadron had been disbanded. The carrier-based night-fighter squadron, nicknamed the "Tomcatters", remained active under various designations continuing to the present day, and Felix still appears on both the squadron's cloth jacket patches and aircraft, carrying his bomb with its fuse burning. Felix is also the oldest high school mascot in the state of Indiana, chosen in 1926 after a Logansport High School player brought his plush Felix to a basketball game. When the team came from behind and won that night, Felix became the mascot of all the Logansport High School sports teams.

Felix as a giant puppet at the 2015 Treefort Music Fest

Nearly a century after his first debut on screen in 1919, he still makes occasional appearances in pop culture. The pop punk band The Queers also use Felix as a mascot, often drawn to reflect punk sensibilities and attributes such as scowling, smoking, or playing the guitar. Felix adorns the covers of both the Surf Goddess
Surf Goddess
EP and the Move Back Home
Move Back Home
album. Felix also appears in the music video for the single "Don't Back Down". Besides appearing on the covers and liner notes of various albums, the iconic cat also appears in merchandise such as T-shirts and buttons. (In an interview with bassist B-Face, he asserts that Lookout! Records
Lookout! Records
is responsible for the use of Felix as a mascot.)[22] Felix has cameos in the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit [23] and (as a giant puppet) at the 2015 Treefort Music Fest. From silent to sound[edit]

Felix and Inky and Winky in April Maze
April Maze
(1930)

With the advent of synchronized sound in The Jazz
Jazz
Singer in 1927, Educational Pictures, who distributed the Felix shorts at the time, urged Pat Sullivan to make the leap to "talkie" cartoons, but Sullivan refused. Further disputes led to a break between Educational and Sullivan. Only after competing studios released the first synchronized-sound animated films, such as Fleischer's My Old Kentucky Home, Van Beuren's Dinner Time and Disney's Steamboat Willie, did Sullivan see the possibilities of sound. He managed to secure a contract with First National Pictures
First National Pictures
in 1928. However, for reasons unknown, this did not last, so Sullivan sought out Jacques Kopfstein and Copley Pictures to distribute his new sound Felix cartoons. On 16 October 1929, an advertisement appeared in Film Daily
Film Daily
with Felix announcing, Jolson-like, "You ain't heard nothin' yet!"[citation needed] Unfortunately, Felix's transition to sound was not a smooth one. Sullivan did not carefully prepare for Felix's transition to sound and added sound effects into the sound cartoons as a post-animation process.[24] The results were disastrous. More than ever, it seemed as though Disney's mouse was drawing audiences away from Sullivan's silent star. Not even entries such as the Fleischer-style off-beat Felix Woos Whoopee (1931) or the Silly Symphony-esque April Maze
April Maze
(both 1930) could regain the franchise's audience. Kopfstein finally canceled Sullivan's contract. Subsequently, he announced plans to start a new studio in California, but such ideas never materialized. Things went from bad to worse when Sullivan's wife, Marjorie, died in March 1932. After this, Sullivan completely fell apart. He slumped into an alcoholic depression, his health rapidly declined, and his memory began to fade. He could not even cash checks to Messmer because his signature was reduced to a mere scribble. He died in 1933. Messmer recalled, "He left everything a mess, no books, no nothing. So when he died the place had to close down, at the height of popularity, when everybody, RKO and all of them, for years they tried to get hold of Felix... I didn't have that permission [to continue the character] 'cause I didn't have legal ownership of it".[25] In 1935, Amadee J. Van Beuren of the Van Beuren Studios called Messmer and asked him if he could return Felix to the screen. Van Beuren even stated that Messmer would be provided with a full staff and all of the necessary utilities. However, Messmer declined his offer and instead recommended Burt Gillett, a former Sullivan staffer who was now heading the Van Beuren staff. So, in 1936, Van Beuren obtained approval from Sullivan's brother to license Felix to his studio with the intention of producing new shorts both in color and with sound. With Gillett at the helm, now with a heavy Disney
Disney
influence, he did away with Felix's established personality, rendering him a stock funny-animal character of the type popular in the day. The new shorts were unsuccessful, and after only three outings Van Beuren discontinued the series, leaving a fourth in the storyboard stages.[15] Revival[edit] Main article: Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
(TV series)

An ink drawing of Felix by Messmer dating from around 1975

In 1953, Official Films purchased the Sullivan–Messmer shorts, added soundtracks to them, and distributed them to the home movie and television markets. Messmer himself pursued the Sunday Felix comic strips until their discontinuance in 1943, when he began eleven years of writing and drawing Felix comic books for Dell Comics
Dell Comics
that were released every other month. In 1954, Messmer retired from the Felix daily newspaper strips, and his assistant Joe Oriolo (the creator of Casper the Friendly Ghost) took over. Oriolo struck a deal with Felix's new owner, Pat Sullivan's nephew, to begin a new series of Felix cartoons on television. Oriolo went on to star Felix in 260 television cartoons distributed by Trans-Lux
Trans-Lux
beginning in 1958. Like the Van Beuren studio before, Oriolo gave Felix a more domesticated and pedestrian personality geared more toward children and introduced now-familiar elements such as Felix's Magic Bag of Tricks, a satchel that could assume the shape and characteristics of anything Felix wanted. The show did away with Felix's previous supporting cast and introduced many new characters, all of which were performed by voice actor Jack Mercer. Oriolo's plots revolve around the unsuccessful attempts of the antagonists to steal Felix's Magic Bag, though in an unusual twist, these antagonists are occasionally depicted as Felix's friends as well. The cartoons proved popular, but critics have dismissed them as paling in comparison to the earlier Sullivan–Messmer works, especially since Oriolo aimed the cartoons at children. Limited animation (required due to budgetary restraints) and simplistic story lines did nothing to diminish the series' popularity.[15] In 1970, Oriolo gained complete control of the Felix character and continues to promote the character to this day. In the late 1980s, after his father's death, Don Oriolo teamed up with European animators to work on the character's first feature film, Felix the Cat: The Movie.[26] In the film, Felix visits an alternate reality along with the Professor and Poindexter. New World Pictures planned a 1987 Thanksgiving release for U.S. theaters, which did not happen;[26] the movie went direct-to-video in August 1991.[27] In 1994, Felix appeared on television again, to replace the popular Fido Dido bumpers on CBS, and then one year later in the series The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat. Baby Felix
Baby Felix
followed in 2000 for the Japanese market, and also the direct-to-video Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
Saves Christmas. Felix co-starred with Betty Boop
Betty Boop
in the Betty Boop
Betty Boop
and Felix comic strip (1984–1987). Oriolo has also brought about a new wave of Felix merchandising, including Wendy's
Wendy's
Kids Meal toys and a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System.

A Felix prototype in Feline Follies
Feline Follies
(1919)

According to Don Oriolo's Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
blog, as of September 2008 there were plans in development for a new television series. Oriolo's biography page also mentions a 52-episode cartoon series then in the works titled The Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
Show, which was slated to use computer graphics.[28] Home
Home
video[edit]

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DVD releases include Presenting Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
from Bosko Video; Felix! from Lumivision; Felix the Cat: The Collector's Edition from Delta Entertainment; and Before Mickey from Inkwell Images Ink. Some of the TV series cartoons (from 1958 to 1959) were released on DVD by Classic Media. Some of the 1990s series has also been released. Filmography[edit] Main article: Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
filmography Legacy[edit]

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In 1929, when television was in the experimental stages, the very first image to ever be seen was an illustration of Felix the Cat. It remained on screen for hours while engineers used it as a test pattern. In the 1992 film Batman Returns, the character Max Shreck uses a logo that resembles Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
for his department stores. In 2002, Felix was voted in TV Guide's 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time, ranking No. 28. In 2004, Felix was voted among the 100 Greatest Cartoons in a poll conducted by the British television channel Channel 4, ranking at No. 89.[29] In the same year, Felix was named No. 36 in Animal Planet's 50 Greatest Movie Animals. In 2016 Felix was featured in the 90th annual Thanksgiving parade. This was the first time the cat had returned to the parade since 1931.

See also[edit]

Cartoon
Cartoon
portal Animation portal Fictional characters portal

Animation in the United States during the silent era Baby Felix Golden Age of American animation Kit-Cat Klock Winsor McCay

Notes[edit]

^ Cart, Michael (31 March 1991). "The Cat With the Killer Personality". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-21.  ^ Mendoza, N.F. (27 August 1995). "For fall, a classically restyled puddy tat and Felix the Cat". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-08-24.  ^ Barrier, Michael (2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0.  ^ "Goldenagecartoons.com". Felix.goldenagecartoons.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  ^ TV Guide
TV Guide
Book of Lists. Running Press. 2007. p. 158. ISBN 0-7624-3007-9.  ^ McNary, Dave (17 June 2014). " DreamWorks Animation
DreamWorks Animation
Buys Felix the Cat". Variety. Retrieved 17 June 2014.  ^ Solomon, 34, says that the character was "the as yet unnamed Felix". ^ a b c Solomon 34. ^ "Felix exhibition guide (archived)" (PDF). Pandora.nla.gov.au. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ a b "All Media and legends...A thumbnail dipped in tar". Vixenmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.  ^ "Rewind (ABC TV): Felix the Cat". Abc.net.au. 1917-03-03. Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ Barrier 29 and Solomon 34. ^ Barrier 1999, p. 30. ^ a b c Solomon 1994, p. 34. ^ a b c Solomon 37. ^ For example, Solomon, 34, quotes Marcel Brion on these points. ^ Solomon 1994, p. 36. ^ Heritage Auctions: completed auctions, 9 August 2009 and was subtitled "Pat Sullivan's Famous Creation in Song." ^ "Laokay.com". Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ Los Angeles, CA (1970-01-01). "maps.google.com". Goo.gl. Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ Canemaker, John. (1991). Felix: the twisted tale of the world's most famous cat. Pantheon Books. p. 118. ISBN 067940127X.  ^ " The Queers
The Queers
– Interviews". Thequeersrock.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.  ^ " Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
(1988)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2 September 2017.  ^ Gordon, Ian (2002). "Felix the Cat". St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009.  ^ Quoted in Solomon 37. ^ a b Cawley, John; Korkis, Jim (1990). Cartoon
Cartoon
Superstars. Pioneer Books. pp. 88–89. ISBN 1-55698-269-0. Retrieved 2010-06-14.  ^ "New on Video". Beacon Journal. 23 August 1991. p. D21. Retrieved 2010-06-14.  ^ "Donsfelixblog.com". Donsfelixblog.com. Retrieved 2014-03-10.  ^ "The 100 Greatest Cartoons". Channel 4. Archived from the original on 6 March 2005. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 

References[edit]

Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1980-2079-0.  Beck, Jerry (1998). The 50 Greatest Cartoons. JG Press. ISBN 978-1-5721-5271-7.  Canemaker, John (1991). Felix: The Twisted Tale of the World's Most Famous Cat. Pantheon, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068-0731-2.  Crafton, Donald (1993). Before Mickey: The Animated Film 1898–1928. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11667-0.  Culhane, Shamus (1986). Talking Animals and Other People. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-03068-0830-2.  Gerstein, David (1996). Nine Lives to Live. Fantagraphics Books.  Gifford, Denis (1990). American Animated Films: The Silent Era, 1897–1929. McFarland and Company. ISBN 0-8995-0460-4.  Maltin, Leonard (1987). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-4522-5993-5.  Solomon, Charles (1994). The History of Animation: Enchanted Drawings. Outlet Books Company. ISBN 978-0-394-54684-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Patricia Vettel Tom (1996): Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
as Modern Trickster. JSTOR 3109216 American Art, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Spring, 1996), pp. 64–87

External links[edit]

Find more aboutFelix the Catat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Official website Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Pat Sulivan at the Internet Archive. The Classic Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
Page at Golden Age Cartoons Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
(Pat Sullivan) at the Big Cartoon
Cartoon
DataBase Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2004, Rewind "Felix the Cat" (Concerns the dispute over who created the character.) "State Library of New South Wales, 2005, "Reclaiming Felix the Cat"" (PDF). Archived from the original on 13 October 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)  (768 KiB). Exhibition guide, including many pictures.

v t e

Felix the Cat

Key people

Pat Sullivan Otto Messmer Joe Oriolo Don Oriolo

Films

Felix in Hollywood Felix Finds Out The Cat and the Kit Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
Trifles with Time The Non-Stop Fright Flim Flam Films Whys and Other Whys Eskimotive April Maze Woos Whoopee Forty Winks Felix the Cat: The Movie

TV

Felix the Cat The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat Baby Felix
Baby Felix
& Friends

Software

Felix the Cat
Felix the Cat
(video game) Big Top's Cartoon
Cartoon
Toolbox Starring Felix the Cat

Related

Betty Boop
Betty Boop
and Felix

Category

v t e

DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Animation

A subsidiary of NBCUniversal, a Comcast
Comcast
company

Feature films

Antz
Antz
(1998) The Prince of Egypt
The Prince of Egypt
(1998) The Road to El Dorado
The Road to El Dorado
(2000) Joseph: King of Dreams (2000) Shrek
Shrek
(2001) Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron (2002) Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas (2003) Shrek
Shrek
2 (2004) Shark Tale
Shark Tale
(2004) Madagascar
Madagascar
(2005) Over the Hedge (2006) Shrek
Shrek
the Third (2007) Bee Movie
Bee Movie
(2007) Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
(2008) Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (2008) Monsters vs. Aliens
Monsters vs. Aliens
(2009) How to Train Your Dragon (2010) Shrek
Shrek
Forever After (2010) Megamind
Megamind
(2010) Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
2 (2011) Puss in Boots
Puss in Boots
(2011) Madagascar
Madagascar
3: Europe's Most Wanted (2012) Rise of the Guardians
Rise of the Guardians
(2012) The Croods
The Croods
(2013) Turbo (2013) Mr. Peabody & Sherman (2014) How to Train Your Dragon 2
How to Train Your Dragon 2
(2014) Penguins of Madagascar
Madagascar
(2014) Home
Home
(2015) Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
3 (2016) Trolls
Trolls
(2016) The Boss Baby
The Boss Baby
(2017) Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie (2017)

Produced with Aardman

Chicken Run
Chicken Run
(2000) Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2005) Flushed Away
Flushed Away
(2006)

Upcoming

How to Train Your Dragon 3
How to Train Your Dragon 3
(2019)

Franchises

Shrek
Shrek
(since 2001) Madagascar
Madagascar
(since 2005) Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
(since 2008) Monsters vs. Aliens
Monsters vs. Aliens
(2009–14) How to Train Your Dragon (since 2010) Tales of Arcadia (since 2016)

TV series

Toonsylvania
Toonsylvania
(1998) Invasion America
Invasion America
(1998) Alienators: Evolution Continues (2001–02) Father of the Pride
Father of the Pride
(2004–05) The Penguins of Madagascar
Madagascar
(2008–15) Neighbors from Hell
Neighbors from Hell
(2010) Kung Fu Panda: Legends of Awesomeness (2011–16) DreamWorks Dragons (2012–18) Monsters vs. Aliens
Monsters vs. Aliens
(2013–14) Turbo FAST
Turbo FAST
(2013–16) VeggieTales in the House
VeggieTales in the House
(2014–16) All Hail King Julien
All Hail King Julien
(2014–17) The Adventures of Puss in Boots
The Adventures of Puss in Boots
(2015–18) Dawn of the Croods
Dawn of the Croods
(since 2015) Dinotrux
Dinotrux
(since 2015) The Mr. Peabody & Sherman Show (since 2015) Home: Adventures with Tip & Oh (since 2016) Noddy, Toyland Detective
Noddy, Toyland Detective
(since 2016) Trollhunters (since 2016) Voltron: Legendary Defender (since 2016) VeggieTales in the City (since 2017) Spirit
Spirit
Riding Free (since 2017) Trolls: The Beat Goes On! (since 2018) The Boss Baby: Back in Business (since 2018)

Upcoming

The Epic Tales of Captain Underpants
Captain Underpants
(2018) Harvey Street Kids (2018) 3 Below (2018) Wizards (2019)

Television specials

Shrek
Shrek
the Halls (2007) Monsters vs. Aliens: Mutant Pumpkins from Outer Space (2009) Merry Madagascar
Madagascar
(2009) Scared Shrekless
Scared Shrekless
(2010) Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
Holiday (2010) Madly Madagascar
Madagascar
(2013) Trolls
Trolls
Holiday (2017)

Short films

Shrek
Shrek
4-D (2003) Far Far Away Idol
Far Far Away Idol
(2004) The Madagascar
Madagascar
Penguins in a Christmas Caper (2005) First Flight (2006) Hammy's Boomerang Adventure
Hammy's Boomerang Adventure
(2006) Secrets of the Furious Five
Secrets of the Furious Five
(2008) B.O.B.'s Big Break (2009) Legend of the Boneknapper Dragon
Legend of the Boneknapper Dragon
(2010) Megamind: The Button of Doom (2011) Night of the Living Carrots
Night of the Living Carrots
(2011) Gift of the Night Fury
Gift of the Night Fury
(2011) Book of Dragons
Book of Dragons
(2011) Kung Fu Panda: Secrets of the Masters (2011) Puss in Boots: The Three Diablos (2012) Rocky and Bullwinkle (2014) Dawn of the Dragon Racers
Dawn of the Dragon Racers
(2014) Kung Fu Panda: Secrets of the Scroll (2016)

People

Bill Damaschke Chris Meledandri Jeffrey Katzenberg

Subsidiaries

DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Channel DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Classics

Big Idea Entertainment Harvey Entertainment

DreamWorks
DreamWorks
New Media ( AwesomenessTV
AwesomenessTV
(51%)) Pearl Studio

Related topics

Amblimation DreamWorks DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Records DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Television DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Interactive Go Fish Pictures In amusement parks

DreamWorks
DreamWorks
Experience

Pacific Data Images List of DreamWorks Animation
DreamWorks Animation
programs List of unproduced DreamWorks Animation
DreamWorks Animation
projects

v t e

King Features Syndicate
King Features Syndicate
comics

Current

The Amazing Spider-Man Arctic Circle Baby Blues Barney Google and Snuffy Smith Beetle Bailey Between Friends Bizarro Blondie The Brilliant Mind of Edison Lee Buckles Carpe Diem Crankshaft Curtis Deflocked Dennis the Menace Dustin The Family Circus Flash Gordon Funky Winkerbean Hägar the Horrible Hazel Henry Hi and Lois Intelligent Life Judge Parker The Katzenjammer Kids Kevin and Kell Laff-a-Day The Lockhorns Mallard Fillmore Mandrake the Magician Mark Trail Marvin Mary Worth Moose & Molly Mother Goose and Grimm Mutts On the Fastrack The Pajama Diaries Pardon My Planet The Phantom Piranha Club Popeye Prince Valiant Pros & Cons Retail Rex Morgan, M.D. Rhymes with Orange Safe Havens Sally Forth Sam and Silo Sherman's Lagoon Shoe Six Chix Slylock Fox & Comics for Kids Take It from the Tinkersons Tiger Todd the Dinosaur Zippy Zits

Historical

Abie the Agent Ace Drummond Agatha Crumm Alphonse and Gaston And Her Name Was Maud Apartment 3-G Archie Art Linkletter's Kids Barney Baxter Baron Bean The Better Half Betty Boop Betty Boop
Betty Boop
and Felix Big Ben Bolt Bleeker: The Rechargeable Dog Boner's Ark Brick Bradford Bringing Up Father Buz Sawyer Captain Kate Count Screwloose from Tooloose Crock Dr. Kildare Donald Duck Dumb Dora Edge City Etta Kett Felix the Cat Flapper
Flapper
Filosofy Franklin Fibbs Gil Grandma Grin and Bear It Gummi Bears Half Hitch Happy Hooligan The Heart of Juliet Jones Heaven's Love Thrift Shop Hejji Inside Woody Allen Johnny Hazard José Carioca Jungle Jim King of the Royal Mounted Krazy Kat Little Annie Rooney Little Iodine Little Jimmy The Little King The Lone Ranger Mister Breger Mickey Mouse My Cage Norb The Norm Oh, Brother! Ollie and Quentin Ozark Ike Pete the Tramp Polly and Her Pals Quincy Radio Patrol Red Barry Redeye Reg'lar Fellers Rip Kirby Room and Board Rusty Riley Sam's Strip Scamp Skippy Secret Agent X-9 Steve Canyon Steve Roper and Mike Nomad Strictly Richter Teena They'll Do It Every Time Tillie the Toiler Tim Tyler's Luck Tina's Groove Toots and Casper Triple Take Trudy Tumbleweeds Tundra Uncle Remus Walt Disney's Treasury of Classic Tales What a Guy! Winnie the Pooh Wonder Woman

Related

Billy Ireland Cartoon
Cartoon
Library & Museum Central Press Association DailyINK Jay Kennedy King Comics King Features Syndicate National Cartoonists Society The Sunday Funnies Kings Watch

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 5733510 GND: 119095653 MusicBrainz: 44e48641-913c-4150-8d13-

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