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The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(FMS) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
and Pahang—established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former Straits Settlements ( Malacca
Malacca
and Penang) and the Unfederated Malay States, formed the Malayan Union. Two years later, the Union became the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
and finally Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo
North Borneo
(present-day Sabah), Sarawak
Sarawak
and Singapore. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was responsible for foreign affairs and defence of the federation, whilst the states continued to be responsible for their domestic policies. Even so, the British Resident General would give advice on domestic issues, and the states were bound by treaty to follow that advice. The federation had Kuala Lumpur, which was then part of Selangor, as its capital. The first FMS Resident General was Frank Swettenham. The federation, along with the other Malay states
Malay states
and British possessions of the peninsula, was overrun and occupied by the Japanese during World War II. After the liberation of Malaya following the Japanese surrender, the federation was not restored, but the federal form of government was retained as the principal model for consolidating the separate States as an independent Federation
Federation
of Malaya and the Federation's later evolution into Malaysia.

Contents

1 Constituent States and First Durbar 2 Flag and emblem of the Federation

2.1 Flag 2.2 Coat of arms 2.3 Naval Ensign

3 The Treaty of Federation
Federation
and Administration

3.1 British Protectorate 3.2 Structure of the Federated Malay States

3.2.1 Federal Council

3.2.1.1 Resident-General 3.2.1.2 Chief Secretary to the Government 3.2.1.3 Federal Secretaries

3.2.2 State Council

3.2.2.1 Residents

3.2.2.1.1 Selangor 3.2.2.1.2 Perak 3.2.2.1.3 Negeri Sembilan 3.2.2.1.4 Pahang

3.2.3 Administrative subdivisions

4 The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
as a forerunner to Malaysia 5 Justice

5.1 Judicial Commissioners 5.2 Chief Judges

6 Economy

6.1 Selangor 6.2 Perak 6.3 Negeri Sembilan 6.4 Pahang

7 Education 8 Press and Publications 9 Military History

9.1 WWI and the FMS 9.2 WWII – Japanese invasion and dissolution

10 Dissolution of the FMS 11 Postage stamps 12 Notable event 13 See also 14 References 15 Notes

Constituent States and First Durbar[edit] See also: Conference of Rulers Although the Resident General was the real administrator of the federation, each of the four constituent states of the federation retained their respective hereditary rulers (sultans). At the formation of the Federated Malay States, the reigning sultans were:

Sultan Alaiddin Sulaiman Shah of Selangor Sultan Idris Murshidul ‘Adzam Shah I of Perak Yamtuan Tuanku Muhammad Shah of Negeri Sembilan Sultan Ahmad Mu’adzam Shah of Pahang

In 1897 the first Durbar was convened in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak
Perak
as the platform for discussions for the four Rulers. This formed the basis for the Conference of Rulers
Conference of Rulers
that was created later on under Article 38 of the Malaysian Constitution on 27 August 1957. Flag and emblem of the Federation[edit] Flag[edit]

1:2. Flag of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946)

See also: Flag of Federated Malay States The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
had a flag of its own until its dissolution in 1946. The flag consisted of four different-coloured stripes, from top to bottom: white, red, yellow and black. Different combinations of these colours represent the four states that formed the FMS — red, black and yellow are for Negeri Sembilan; black and white for Pahang; black, white and yellow for Perak; and red and yellow for Selangor. The same design concept is used in Malaysian national emblem. In the middle is an oblong circle with a Malayan tiger
Malayan tiger
in it. The National History Museum located near the Dataran Merdeka
Dataran Merdeka
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Malaysia
has a replica of the federation's flag. Coat of arms[edit]

Coat of arms of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946)

The coat of arms of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
featured a shield guarded by two tigers. On the top of the shield is the crown (known as Eastern Crown in English heraldry), symbolising the federation of monarchies under the protection of the United Kingdom. A banner with the phrase "Dipelihara Allah" (Under God's (Allah) Protection) written in Jawi is located underneath the shield. The combinations of the four colours of the shield represents the colours of the flags of the states of the FMS in the same way the stripes of the FMS flag do.

Red and yellow for Selangor Black, white and yellow for Perak Red, black and yellow for Negeri Sembilan Black and white for Pahang

This design forms the basis of the Federation
Federation
of Malaya's national emblem along with the guardian tigers and a quartered shield of the same, symbolic four colours mentioned above. The phrase "Dipelihara Allah" was also adopted as the current state motto for the state of Selangor. Naval Ensign[edit]

Naval ensign of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946)

See also: HMS Malaya
HMS Malaya
and Battle of Jutland In addition to a state flag, the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
also had a naval jack or ensign for use on government ships. The ensign, with the four colours of the FMS, was flown by HMS Malaya, commanded by Captain Boyle under the 5th Battle Squadron of the British Grand Fleet) during the Battle of Jutland
Battle of Jutland
in the North Sea. This was the largest and the only full-scale clash of battleships during World War I. The Treaty of Federation
Federation
and Administration[edit]

Malay Rulers at the first Durbar, Kuala Kangsar, Perak

British Protectorate[edit] The protectorate of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
was established after the four Rulers of Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
and Pahang
Pahang
agreed to a federation and centralised administration in 1895 and in which the Treaty of Federation
Federation
was drawn up and signed on 1 July 1896. By this treaty and the previous acceptance of the British Residents System in Selangor
Selangor
(1874), Perak
Perak
(1874), Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
(1874) and Pahang
Pahang
(1888), the FMS were officially turned into a nominally independent protectorate of Great Britain— not to be confused with nearby British possessions like the territories of the Straits Settlements and Unfederated Malay States. With the Treaty of Federation
Federation
the Malay Rulers effectively gave up their political power in their states, having to act after consulting and only with the due consent of their respective Residents. However, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
pledged not to interfere in matters relating to native Malay traditions and Islamic affair. Structure of the Federated Malay States[edit] A well-ordered system of public administration was established, public services were extended, and large-scale rubber and tin production was developed. This control was interrupted by the Japanese invasion and occupation from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. Federal Council[edit] The British established the Federal Council in 1898 to administer the FMS. It was headed by the High Commissioner (The Governor of the Straits Settlement), assisted by the Resident-General, the Sultans, the four state Residents and four nominated unofficial members. This structure remained until the Japanese invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. Resident-General[edit] From 1896 to 1936, real power lay in the hands of the Resident-General, later known as Chief Secretary of the Federation.

Residents-General of the FMS (1896–1911)

Frank Athelstane Swettenham 1896 1901

William Hood Treacher 1901 1904

William Thomas Taylor 1904 1910

Arthur Henderson Young 1910 1911

Chief Secretary to the Government[edit]

Flag of the Chief Secretary of the Federated Malay States

Chief Secretaries to the Government of the FMS (1911–1936)

Chief Secretaries From Until

Edward Lewis Brockman 1911 1920

William George Maxwell 1920 1926

William Peel 1926 1930

Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane 1930 1932

Andrew Caldecott 1932 1934

Malcolm Bond Shelley 1934 1935

Marcus Rex 1935 1936

Federal Secretaries[edit] After 1936 the Federal Secretaries were no more than co-ordinating officers, under the authority of the High Commissioners, which are always the Governors of the Straits Settlements

Federal Secretaries of the FMS (1936–1942)

Residents-General From Until

Christopher Dominic Ahearne 1936 1939

Hugh Fraser 1939 1942

State Council[edit] In the Federated Malay States, the individual State were still ruled by the Sultan but was now advised by the State Council for the purpose of administrating the State. The State Council was made up of the Resident (or in certain cases by the Secretary to the Resident), native chiefs, and representative(s) of the Chinese community nominated by the Sultan. The council discussed matters of interest for each respective state such as legislative and administrative issues as well as revision of all sentence of capital punishment. The Resident and his staff (mostly consist of European and Malay) carried on with the administrative work. Residents[edit] Selangor[edit]

1875 – 1876 James Guthrie Davidson 1876 – 1882 Bloomfield Douglas (born 1822 – died 1906) 1882 – 1884 Frank Athelstane Swettenham (born 1850 – died 1946) 1884 – 1888 John Pickersgill Rodger (1st time) (acting) (born 1851 – died 1910) 1889 – 1892 William Edward Maxwell (born 1846 – died 1897) 1892 – 1896 William Hood Treacher (born 1849 – died 1919) 1896 – 1902 John Pickersgill Rodger (2nd time) (s.a.) 1902 – 1910 Henry Conway Belfield (born 1855 – died 1923) 1910 – 1913 Reginald George Watson (born 1862 – died 1926) 1913 – 1919 Edward George Broadrick (born 1864 – died 1929) 1919 – 1921 Arthur Henry Lemon (born 1864 – died 1933) 1921 – 1926 Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor (born 1872 – died 1940) 1926 – 1927 Henry Wagstaffe Thomson (born 1874 – died 1941) 1927 – 1931 James Lornie (born 1876 – died 1959) 1932 – 1933 G. E. Cater 1933 – 1935 George Ernest London (born 1889 – died 1957) 1935 – 1937 Theodore Samuel Adams (born 1885 – died 1961) 1937 – 1939 Stanley Wilson Jones (born 1888 – died 1962) 1939 – 1941 G. M. Kidd 1941 Norman Rowlstone Jarrett (acting) (born 1889 – died 1982)

Perak[edit]

1874 – 1875 James Wheeler Woodford Birch
James Wheeler Woodford Birch
(born 1826 – died 1875) 1876 – 1877 James Guthrie Davidson 1877 – 1889 Hugh Low (from 1883, Sir Hugh Low) (born 1824 – died 1905) 1889 – 1896 Frank Athelstane Swettenham (born 1850 – died 1946) 1896 – 1902 William Hood Treacher (born 1849 – died 1919) 1902 – 1903 John Pickersgill Rodger (born 1851 – died 1910) 1905 – 1910 Ernest Woodford Birch
Ernest Woodford Birch
(born 1857 – died 1929) 1910 – 1912 Henry Conway Belfield (born 1855 – died 1923) 1912 – 1913 William James Parke Hume (1st time) (acting) (born 1866 – died 1952) 1913 – 1919 Reginald George Watson (born 1862 – died 1926) 1919 – 1920 George Maxwell (born 1871 – died 1959) 1920 – 1921 William James Parke Hume (2nd time) (s.a.) 1921 – 1926 Cecil William Chase Parr (born 1871 – died 1943) 1926 – 1927 Oswald Francis Gerard Stonor (born 1872 – died 1940) 1927 – 1929 Henry Wagstaffe Thomson (born 1874 – died 1941) 1929 – 1930 Charles Walter Hamilton Cochrane (born 1876 – died 1932) 1931 – 1932 Bertram Walter Elles (born 1877 – died 19...) 1932 – 1939 G. E. Cater 1939 – 1941 Marcus Rex (born 1886 – died 1971)

Negeri Sembilan[edit]

1888 – 1891 Martin Lister (1st time) (born 1857 – died 1897) 1891 – 1894 W. F. B. Paul 1894 – 1895 Robert Norman Bland
Robert Norman Bland
(born 1859 – died 1948) 1895 – 1897 Martin Lister (2nd time) (s.a.) 1898 – 1901 Ernest Woodford Birch
Ernest Woodford Birch
(born 1857 – died 1929) 1901 – 1902 Henry Conway Belfield (born 1855 – died 1923) 1902 – 1903 Walter Egerton
Walter Egerton
(born 1858 – died 1947) 1904 – 1910 Douglas Graham Campbell (born 1867 – died 1918) 1910 – 1911 Richard James Wilkinson (born 1867 – died 1941) 1912 – 1919 Arthur Henry Lemon (born 1864 – died 1933) 1919 – 1921 J. R. O. Aldworth (acting) 1921 – 1925 Edward Shaw Hose (born 1871 – died 1946) 1925 – 1928 Ernest Charteris Holford Wolff (born 1875 – died 1946) 1928 – 1932 James William Simmons (born 1877 – died 19...) 1932 – 1937 John Whitehouse Ward Hughes (born 1883 – died 19...) 1937 – 1939 Gordon Lupton Ham (born 1885 – died 1965) 1939 – 1941 John Vincent Cowgill (born 1888 – died 1959)

Pahang[edit]

1888 – 1896 John Pickersgill Rodger (born 1851 – died 1910) 1896 – 1900 Hugh Clifford (1st time) (born 1866 – died 1941) 1900 – 1901 Arthur Butler (born 18... – died 1901) 1901 – D. H. Wise (acting) 1901 – 1903 Hugh Clifford (2nd time) (s.a.) 1905 – 1908 Cecil Wray 1908 – 1909 Harvey Chevallier (acting) 1909 – 1910 Edward Lewis Brockman (born 1865 – died 1943) 1910 – 1911 Warren Delabere Barnes (born 1865 – died 1911) 1911 – 1917 Edward John Brewster (born 1861 – died 1931) 1917 – 1921 Cecil William Chase Parr (born 1871 – died 1943) 1921 – 1922 F. A. S. McClelland (acting) (born 1873 – died 1947) 1922 – 1926 Henry Wagstaffe Thomson (born 1874 – died 1941) 1926 – 1929 Arthur Furley Worthington (born 1874 – died 1964) 1929 – 1930 C. F. J. Green 1931 – 1935 Hugh Goodwin Russell Leonard (born 1880 – died 19...) 1935 – 1941 C. C. Brown

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

For the purpose of efficient administration, all the states of the federation were further divided into districts (Malay: Daerah). Each district was administered by a District Office (Malay: Pejabat Daerah) headed by a District Officer (Malay: Pegawai Daerah).[1] Perak State capital : Taiping Districts:

1. Hulu Perak
Perak
(Upper Perak) 2. Selama 3. Larut 4. Kerian 5. Matang 6. Kuala Kangsar 7. Kinta 8. Hilir Perak
Perak
(Lower Perak) 9. Batang Padang

Notes: 1. The territories of Dinding and Pangkor Island
Pangkor Island
was ceded to the British, administered as part of the Straits Settlements. Returned to the government of Perak
Perak
in February 1935.[2] 2. The capital of Perak
Perak
was moved to Ipoh
Ipoh
in 1935 and has remained there ever since.

Selangor State capital : Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(also as the Federal capital) Districts:

10. Hulu Selangor 11. Kuala Selangor 12. Kuala Lumpur 13. Klang 14. Hulu Langat 15. Kuala Langat

Negeri Sembilan State capital : Seremban Districts:

16. Seremban 17. Port Dickson (Coastal District) 18. Jelebu 19. Kuala Pilah 20. Tampin

Notes: Tanjung Tuan
Tanjung Tuan
(also known as Cape Rachado) was a Dutch possession (originally Portuguese before 1641), passed to the British in 1824. Administered as an exclave of Malacca
Malacca
until today.

Pahang State capital : Kuala Lipis Districts:

21. Lipis 22. Raub 23. Bentong 24. Temerloh 25. Kuantan 26. Pekan

Notes: The capital of Pahang
Pahang
was Kuala Lipis
Kuala Lipis
until 1953 when it moved to Kuantan.

The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
as a forerunner to Malaysia[edit]

Evolution of Malaysia

Justice[edit] The first Supreme Court was established in 1906 and headed by the Judicial Commissioner, in whom supreme judicial authority was vested. The title of Judicial Commissioner was changed to Chief Judge in 1925. Judicial Commissioners[edit]

Lawrence Colvile Jackson 1913–1917 Sir Thomas de Multon Lee Braddell 1919–1920 Sir G. Aubrey Goodman 1920 Sir John Robert Innes (acting) 1921–1925 Sir Lionel Mabbot Woodward

Chief Judges[edit]

1925–1929 Sir Henry Hessey Johnston Gompertz 1929–1932 Sir Lancelot Henry Elphinstone 1933–1937 Sir Samuel Joyce Thomas [3] 1937–? Sir Roger Evans Hall [4]  ?–1941 Kenneth Elliston Poyser 1941–c.1945 Sir Harry Herbert Trusted

Economy[edit] See also: Straits dollar, Malayan dollar, and Rubber From the earlier period of the federation the currency in used was the Straits dollar
Straits dollar
issued by the Board of Commissioners of Currency. As the currency depreciated over time, it was pegged at two shillings four sterling pence in 1906. In 1939, the British government introduced a new currency, Malayan dollar (ringgit in Malay) for used in Malaya and Brunei replacing the Straits dollar
Straits dollar
at par value. It had the smallest denominations of 1 cent to a highest of 1000 Malayan dollar and retained the exchange rate as was from the Straits dollar. The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
main economic activity was mostly focused on agriculture and mining with emphasis on rubber and tin. FMS and Malaya as a whole was the main supplier of these two commodities for the British industrial need. Rubber
Rubber
estates or plantations were established in all four states and tin was mined primarily in the Klang valley in Selangor
Selangor
and the Kinta valley in Perak. This labour-intensive economic activities prompted the British to bring in immigrant workers from southern India to work at the plantations and workers from southern China to mine the tin. The economic condition in the period can be viewed as self-sustainable, as the income of the federation was more than what was expended in terms of maintaining the administration and economic activities. In the later period, many resources were poured into the development of the city of Kuala Lumpur, as the capital of the federation. This period also saw rapid growth in terms of communications infrastructure such as interstate roads, a narrow gauge railway line from Penang to Singapore, and the Port Swettenham (present day Port Klang). Public schools and academic institutions were also opened along with an improvement in public health. An area in the city was also gazetted as a settlement for the Malay called Kampung Baru. Public buildings were also constructed such as the Kuala Lumpur railway station, the Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad complex and Masjid Jamek. The table and section below illustrated the economic growth of the federation and its member states.

Growth of trade and government revenue and expenditure (1875–1922)

Year Revenue Expenditure Import Export

1875 $409,394 $436,872 $831,375 $739,972

1880 $881,910 $794,944 $2,231,048 $1,906,952

1885 $2,208,709 $2,261,954 $8,667,425 $9,961,786

1890 $4,840,065 $5,237,275 $15,443,809 $17,602,093

1895 $8,481,007 $7,582,553 $22,653,271 $31,622,805

1900 $15,609,807 $12,728,930 $38,402,581 $60,361,045

1905 $23,964,593 $20,750,395 $50,575,455 $80,057,654

1910 $26,553,018 $23,598,610 $53,255,151 $102,851,990

1915 $40,774,984 $42,838,631 $61,343,935 $162,429,254

1920 $72,277,146 $100,433,471 $175,916,712 $289,112,016

1921 $54,449,568 $114,386,546 $102,914,877 $134,955,549

1922 $52,494,110 $49,811,007 $78,822,349 $140,429,775

Note: All values are in Straits dollars (One dollar fixed at two shillings and four pence sterling). Data for Pahang
Pahang
included only from 1890 onwards Ref: Harrison, Cuthbert Woodville. An Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay States. 1923 Selangor[edit] The revenue of Selangor
Selangor
in 1875 amounted to only $115,656; in 1905 it had increased to $8,857,793. Of this latter sum $3,195,318 was derived from duty on tin exported, $1,972,628 from finance, federal receipts, and $340,360 from land revenue. The trade balance was chiefly derived from the revenue farms, which included the right to collect import duty on opium and spirits. The expenditure for 1905 amounted to $7,186,146, of which sum $3,717,238 was on account of federal charges and $1,850,711 for public works. The value of the imports in 1905 was $24,643,619 and that of the exports was $26,683,316, making a total of $51,326,935 equivalent to £5,988,000. Tin
Tin
is the principal export. The amount exported in 1905 was 17,254 tons. The total area of alienated mining land at the end of 1905 amounted to 65,573 acres (265 km2). Perak[edit] The revenue of Perak
Perak
in 1874 amounted to $226,333. That for 1905 amounted to $12,242,897. Of this latter sum $4,876,400 was derived from duty on exported tin, $2,489,300 from railway receipts, $505,300 from land revenue and $142,800 from postal and telegraphic revenue. The remainder is mainly derived from the revenue farms, which are leased for a short term of years, conveying to the lessee the right to collect import duties upon opium, wine and spirits, to keep pawnbroking shops, and to keep public licensed gambling-houses for the use of non-Malay only. The expenditure for 1905 amounted to $10,141,980. Of this sum $4,236,000 was expended upon railway upkeep and construction and $2,176,100 upon public works. The value of the imports into Perak
Perak
during 1905 was over $20,000,000, and that of the exports exceeded $40,000,000, making a total of over $60,000,000, equivalent to about seven million sterling. The output of tin from Perak
Perak
ranged between 18,960 tons, valued at $23,099,506 in 1899, and 26,600 tons, valued at $35,500,000, in 1905. The fluctuating character of the output was due to the uncertainty of the labour supply. The mining population was recruited exclusively from the districts of southern China, and during certain years an increased demand for labourers in China itself, in French Indo-China, in the Dutch colonies, and in South Africa temporarily and adversely affected immigration to the Straits of Malacca. The output had, moreover, been affected from time to time by the price of tin, which was $32.20 per pikul in 1896, rose to $42.96 in 1898, to $74.15 in 1900, and averaged $80.60 in 1905. Exclusive of tin, the principal exports were $108,000 worth of Para rubber, $181,000 of copra, $54,000 of hides, $48,000 of patchouli, and considerable quantities of timber, rattans and other jungle produce. Negeri Sembilan[edit] The revenue of the Negri Sembilan amounted to only $223,435 in 1888. In 1898 it had increased to $701,334, in 1900 to $1,251,366, and in 1905 to $2,335,534. The revenue for 1905 was derived mainly as follows: – customs $1,268,602, land revenue $145,475, land sales $21,407, while the revenue farms contributed $584,459. The expenditure in 1905 amounted to $2,214,093, of which $1,125,355 was expended upon public works. The trade returns for 1905, which are not, however, complete, showed an aggregate value of about $13,000,000. The value of the tin exported during 1905 exceeded $6,900,000, and the value of the agricultural produce, of which gambier represented $211,000 and damar $80,000, amounted to $407,990. Pahang[edit] The revenue of Pahang
Pahang
in 1899 amounted to only $62,077; in 1900 to $419,150. In 1905 it was $528,368. The expenditure in 1905 amounted to $1,208,176. Of this sum $736,886 was expended on public works. Pahang is still a source of expense to the federation, its progress having been retarded by the disturbances which lasted from December 1891 until 1895, with short intervals of peace, but the revenue was steadily increasing, and the ultimate financial success of the state is considered to be secure. Pahang
Pahang
owed something over $3,966,500 to Selangor
Selangor
and $1,175,000 to Perak, which had financed it for some years out of surplus revenue. The value of the imports in 1905 was $1,344,346, that of the exports was $3,838,928, thus making a total trade value of $5,183,274. The most valuable export is tin, the value of which in 1905 amounted to $2,820,745. The value of the gutta exported exceeded $140,000, that of dried and salted fish amounted to nearly $70,000, and that of timber to $325,000. Education[edit] See also: Malay College Kuala Kangsar Press and Publications[edit] See also: Malay Mail
Malay Mail
and New Straits Times Military History[edit] WWI and the FMS[edit] See also: HMS Malaya
HMS Malaya
and Battle of Penang With the threat of Germany, the British Navy was in a drive for expansion. As a contribution, the Government and people of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
agreed to finance the commissioning of HMS Malaya; this was a motion proposed in the Federal Council by the Sultan of Perak
Perak
in 1913 and supported by the Sultan of Selangor. The battleship which cost $25,000,000 (approximately £2,945,709) was one of five of the Queen Elizabeth class, displacing 31,000 tons, mounting fifteen-inch guns and capable of 25 knots (46 km/h). The most modern ships of their day, they formed the 5th Battle Squadron and fought as such at Jutland in 1916. HMS Malaya
HMS Malaya
was also refurbished and was in service throughout World War II. WWII – Japanese invasion and dissolution[edit] See also: Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse
Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse
and Battle of Malaya After the Japanese landed in Malaya on 8 December 1941, the Japanese forces began their invasion of the Malay Peninsula. Japanese forces began their invasion of the FMS by crossing the Thailand–FMS border at Kroh. Ipoh, the state capital of Perak, fell on 26 December 1941. Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
and the State of Selangor, was captured on 11 January 1942. Seremban, the state capital of Negeri Sembilan, was captured two days later. Kuantan, in the eastern component state of Pahang, fell on 30 December 1941, meanwhile the capital, Kuala Lipis
Kuala Lipis
was taken by the Japanese on 7 January 1942. With the conclusion of the Battle of Gemas
Battle of Gemas
on 15 January 1942, the entire FMS was now in Japanese hands. All of Malaya including Singapore
Singapore
remained under Japanese occupation until the surrender of the Japanese home islands. Dissolution of the FMS[edit] After the war the federation was dissolved formally on 1 April 1946, and was incorporated into the Malayan Union
Malayan Union
thereafter. This in turn was succeeded by the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
in 1948, which gained independence in 1957, and finally the establishment of Malaysia
Malaysia
in 1963. Postage stamps[edit]

Stamp issued by the Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
in 1906

While the four states issued their own postage stamps as before, there were additional issues for the Federated States as a whole. Notable event[edit] The Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
were within the flight path of American aviator Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart
on the Thailand– Singapore
Singapore
leg of her final and fatal attempt to cross the globe in 1937. She was given permission to enter FMS airspace with provision to land at Taiping Airport
Taiping Airport
on 7 June 1937. See also[edit]

Unfederated Malay States Malay states The Straits Settlements Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
Railway HMS Malaya Pangkor Treaty of 1874 Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
Appeals Order in Council, 1912

References[edit]

^ "Map of British Malaya
British Malaya
Including The Straits Settlements Federated Malay States and Malay States Not Included In The Federation
Federation
1924". Raremaps.com. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ "Sejarah Manjung". Laman Web Rasmi Majlis Perbandaran Manjung. Manjung
Manjung
Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~taylgl34/ind00001.html ^ http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/straitstimes19370906-1.2.50.aspx

Notes[edit]

Harrison, Cuthbert Woodville. An Illustrated Guide to the Federated Malay States. 1923 George Palmer Putnam Collection of Amelia Earhart
Amelia Earhart
Papers © Purdue University Benfield, H. Conway. Handbook of The Federated Malay States sabrizain.org Retrieved 23 January 2018.

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Lieutenant-Governor of Berbice Governor of British Guiana Governor of British Honduras Governor of Cuba Governor of Dominica Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo Governor of Grenada Governor of Jamaica Governor of the Leeward Islands Governor of St. Lucia Governor of St. Vincent Governor of Trinidad and Tobago Lieutenant governors of Tobago Governor of Trinidad Governor of Newfoundland Governor General of Canada Governor of British Columbia Governor of New Brunswick Governor of Nova Scotia Governor of Prince Edward Island Lieutenant Governor of Quebec Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis
Nevis
and Anguilla Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands Governor-General of the West Indies Federation Colonial Governors of Connecticut Colonial governors of Delaware Colonial Governors of Florida Colonial Governors of Georgia Colonial Governors of Maryland Colonial Governors of Massachusetts Colonial Governors of New Hampshire Colonial Governors of New Jersey Colonial Governor of New York Colonial Governors of North Carolina Colonial Governors of Pennsylvania Colonial Governors of Rhode Island Colonial Governors of South Carolina Colonial Governors of Virginia

Former (Asia)

Governor of Aden Governor of Burma Governor of Ceylon High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States

Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states

General Adviser to the Government of Johore Adviser to the Sultan of Kedah Adviser to the Government of Kelantan Adviser to the Government of Perlis Adviser, Trengganu

Governor of Hong Kong Viceroy and Governor-General of India

Heads of the provinces of British India

Governor of Aden Governor of Bengal Governor of Bombay Governor of Madras Governor of Sind

Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states

Resident of Gwalior

High Commissioner for Iraq Governor of Labuan High Commissioner for Malaya Governor of the Malayan Union Governor of North Borneo Resident Minister in Nepal High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan Governor of Penang Governor of Sarawak Governor of Singapore

Former (Australasia)

Governor-General of Australia

Government Resident of Central Australia Governor of New South Wales Government Resident of North Australia Governor of Queensland Governor of South Australia Governor of Tasmania Governor of Victoria Governor of Western Australia

Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony Governor-General of New Zealand Governor-General of Papua New Guinea Consul in Tonga

Former (Europe)

Governor of Cyprus Lieutenant Governor of Heligoland High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands Governor of the Isle of Wight Governor of Malta Governor of Minorca Governor of Northern Ireland

Former (Oceania)

Governor of Fiji Governor of the Solomon Islands High Commissioner for the Western Pacific

v t e

Protectorates and Crown colonies of British Malaya
British Malaya
and Borneo

Malaya

Straits Settlements (1826–1946) Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
(1895–1946) Unfederated Malay States
Unfederated Malay States
(1800s–1946) Crown Colony of Malacca
Malacca
(1946–1957) Crown Colony of Penang
Crown Colony of Penang
(1946–1957)

Borneo

Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
(1841–1946) Crown Colony of Sarawak
Crown Colony of Sarawak
(1946–1963) Crown Colony of Labuan
Crown Colony of Labuan
(1848–1946) North Borneo
North Borneo
(1882–1946) Crown Colony of North Borneo
North Borneo
(1946–1963)

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan
Bhutan
(protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation
Federation
of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Chief Justices of the Territories of the British Empire
British Empire
and the United Kingdom

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations

Europe

Since 1234 England and Wales Since c.1200 Scotland 1175-1921 Ireland 1708–1757 Menorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1763–1782 Menorca 1798–1802 Menorca 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State Since 1922 Northern Ireland

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth Colony 1623–1883 Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
*( Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis) 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis
Nevis
*( Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis) 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay Colony 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua
Antigua
*( Antigua
Antigua
& Barbuda) 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven Colony

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast
Mosquito Coast
(protectorate) 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 British Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 Dominion
Dominion
of New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Province of Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stikine Territory 1866–1871 Vancouver Island and British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 British Honduras
British Honduras
(*Belize) 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Dominion
Dominion
of Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Canada's name. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion
Dominion
until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1651–1667 Willoughbyland
Willoughbyland
(Suriname) 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 British Guiana
British Guiana
(Guyana) Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now the San Andrés y Providencia Department
San Andrés y Providencia Department
of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape Colony 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1868–1966 Basutoland
Basutoland
(Lesotho) 1874–1957 Gold Coast (Ghana) 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1966 Bechuanaland (Botswana) 1884–1960 British Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(Tanzania) 1891–1964 Nyasaland
Nyasaland
(Malawi) 1891–1907 British Central Africa Protectorate 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa Protectorate 1899–1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River Colony 1900–1910 Transvaal Colony 1903–1976 Seychelles 1906–1954 Nigeria Colony 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1954 Nigeria Colony and Protectorate 1915–1931 South West Africa
South West Africa
(Namibia) 1919–1960 Cameroons
Cameroons
(Cameroon)6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika (Tanzania)6 1923–1965 Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
(Zimbabwe)7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
(Zambia) 1953–1963 Federation
Federation
of Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and Nyasaland 1954–1960 Nigeria 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
(Zimbabwe)7

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen (Sumatra) 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757-1862 Bengal (to 1862) 1862–1947 Bengal (from 1862) (West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh) 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1786–1946 Penang (Malaysia) 1795–1948 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 1796–1965 Maldives

1812–1824 Banka (Sumatra) and Billiton (Sumatra) 1819–1826 British Malaya
British Malaya
(West Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore) 1826–1946 Straits Settlements ( Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore) 1839–1967 Colony of Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Kingdom of Sarawak
Kingdom of Sarawak
(Malaysia) 1848–1946 Labuan (Malaysia) 1858–1947 British India (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Burma) • Bombay • Calcutta • Madras • North-Western Provinces/Allahabad) 1874–1963 British Borneo
British Borneo
(East Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei)

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 British North Borneo
North Borneo
(Malaysia) 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Sultanate of Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman
Muscat and Oman
protectorate 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai Garrison

1907–1949 Bhutan
Bhutan
(protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait protectorate 1920–1932 Iraq8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo
North Borneo
(Malaysia) 1946–1963 Sarawak
Sarawak
(Malaysia) 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
(Malaysia) Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides
New Hebrides
(Vanuatu) 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 Colony of New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 British Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Territory of Papua 1888–1901 Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands
Union Islands
(Tokelau)9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 British Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga (protected state) 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Commonwealth of Australia*Northern Territory 1907–1953 * Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand 1919–1942 Nauru 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 Territory of New Guinea 1949–1975 Territory of Papua
Territory of Papua
and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

Coordinates: 3°09′35″N 101°42′00″E / 3.1597°N 101.7000°E

.