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Autumn, also known as fall in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
and
Canadian English Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. According to the 2016 census, English was the first language of more than 19.4 million Canadians or 58.1% of the total population; the remainde ...
, is one of the four
temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather, ecology, and the number of daylight hours in a given region. On Earth, seasons are the result of Earth's orbit around the Sun and Earth's axial tilt relative to the ecliptic plane. In ...
s. Outside the
tropics The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to the ...
, autumn marks the transition from
summer Summer is the hottest of the four temperate seasons, falling after spring and before autumn. At or around the summer solstice (about 3 days before Midsummer Day), the earliest sunrise and latest sunset occurs, the days are longest and the n ...
to
winter Winter is the coldest season of the year in polar and temperate zones; it does not occur in most of the tropical zone. It occurs after autumn and before spring in each year. Winter is caused by the axis of the Earth in that hemisphere being ...
, in September (
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth that is north of the Equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's N ...
) or March (
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere) of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continenta ...
), when the duration of
daylight Daylight is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime. This includes direct sunlight, diffuse sky radiation, and (often) both of these reflected by Earth and terrestrial objects, like landforms and buildings. Sunlight ...

daylight
becomes noticeably shorter and the temperature cools considerably. Day length decreases and night length increases as the season progresses until the Winter Solstice in December (Northern Hemisphere) and June (Southern Hemisphere). One of its main features in
temperate climates In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...
is the shedding of leaves from
deciduous trees In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, afte ...
. Some cultures regard the autumnal
equinox An equinox is the instant of time when the plane of Earth's equator passes through the geometric center of the Sun's disk. This occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 23 September. In other words, it is the moment at which the center of t ...
as "mid-autumn", while others with a longer temperature lag treat the equinox as the start of autumn. In the English-speaking world, Autumn traditionally began with
Lammas Day Lammas Day (Anglo-Saxon ''hlaf-mas'', "loaf-mass"), also known as Loaf Mass Day, is a Christian holiday celebrated in some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere on 1 August. The name originates from the word "loaf" in reference to ...
and ended around
Hallowe'en Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October , the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hall ...
, the approximate mid-points between
Midsummer Midsummer is the period of time in the middle of the summer. The exact dates vary among different cultures. The celebration predates Christianity, and existed under different names and traditions around the world. The undivided Christian Church ...
, the autumnal equinox, and
Midwinter Midwinter is the middle of the winter. The term is attested in the early Germanic calendars. Attestations Midwinter is attested in the early Germanic calendars, where it appears to have been a specific day or a number of days during the winter hal ...
. Meteorologists (and most of the
temperate countries In geography, the temperate climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes (40° to 60° N/S of Equator), which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the yea ...
in the southern hemisphere) use a definition based on
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a minor modification of the Julian calendar, reducing the average year from 365.25 days to 365.2425 days, and adjusting ...
months, with autumn being September, October, and November in the northern hemisphere, and March, April, and May in the southern hemisphere. In
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
, autumn traditionally starts with the
September equinox The September equinox (or southward equinox) is the moment when the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator, heading southward. Due to differences between the calendar year and the tropical year, the September equinox can occur at any time be ...
(21 to 24 September) and ends with the
winter solstice The winter solstice, hiemal solstice or hibernal solstice occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt away from the Sun. It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern and Southern). For that hemisphere, the winter sols ...
(21 or 22 December). Popular culture in the United States associates
Labor Day Labor Day is a federal holiday in the United States celebrated on the first Monday in September to honor and recognize the American labor movement and the works and contributions of laborers to the development and achievements of the United Stat ...
, the first Monday in September, as the end of summer and the start of autumn; certain summer traditions, such as wearing white, are discouraged after that date. As daytime and nighttime temperatures decrease, trees change color and then shed their leaves. In traditional East Asian
solar term A solar term is any of twenty-four periods in traditional Chinese lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon. The points are spaced 15° apart along the ecliptic and are used by lunisolar c ...
, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on or about 7 November. In
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...

Ireland
, the autumn months according to the national meteorological service,
Met Éireann Met Éireann (; meaning "Met of Ireland") is the State meteorological service in the Republic of Ireland, part of the Department of Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government. History The history of modern meteorology in Ireland dates bac ...
, are September, October and November. However, according to the
Irish Calendar#REDIRECT Irish calendar#REDIRECT Irish calendar {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, which is based on ancient
Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. Whe ...
traditions, autumn lasts throughout the months of August, September and October, or possibly a few days later, depending on tradition. In the
Irish language Irish (also called in Standard Irish) is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is itself a part of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated on the island of Ireland and was the popula ...
, September is known as ''Meán Fómhair'' ("middle of autumn") and October as ''Deireadh Fómhair'' ("end of autumn"). Persians celebrate the beginning of the autumn as Mehregan to honor Mithra (Mehr). In
southern hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere) of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continenta ...
countries such as
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of . New Zealand ...
, which base their seasonal calendars meteorologically rather than astronomically, autumn officially begins on 1 March and ends on 31 May.


Etymology

The word ''autumn'' () is derived from Latin ''autumnus'', archaic ''auctumnus'', possibly from the ancient
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
root ''autu-'' and has within it connotations of the passing of the year. Alternative etymologies include
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...
*''h₃ewǵ''- ("cold") or *''h₂sows''- ("dry"). After the Greek era, the word continued to be used as the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified language, Old French was really a linkage of Romance dialects, mutually intelligible yet diverse, spoke ...
word ' (' in
modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in No ...
) or ' in Middle English, and was later normalised to the original Latin. In the
Medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages i ...
period, there are rare examples of its use as early as the 12th century, but by the 16th century, it was in common use. Before the 16th century, ''
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor ...

harvest
'' was the term usually used to refer to the season, as it is common in other
West Germanic languages#REDIRECT West Germanic languages#REDIRECT West Germanic languages {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
to this day (
cf. The abbreviation ''cf.'' (short for the la, confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. Style guides recommend that ''cf.'' be used only ...
Dutch ', German ' and Scots '). However, as more people gradually moved from working the land to living in towns, the word ''harvest'' lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and ''autumn'', as well as ''fall'', began to replace it as a reference to the season. The alternative word ''fall'' for the season traces its origins to old
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, English ...

Germanic languages
. The exact derivation is unclear, with the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
' or ' and the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse ...
' all being possible candidates. However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are clearly derived either from a common root or from each other. The term came to denote the season in
16th-century England The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch ...
, a contraction of
Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English language underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period. Scholarly ...
expressions like " fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year". Compare the origin of ''
spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (mathematics), a geometric surface in the shape of a heli ...
'' from "spring of the leaf" and "spring of the year". During the 17th century, English emigration to the British colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took the English language with them. While the term ''fall'' gradually became nearly obsolete in Britain, it became the more common term in North America. The name ''backend'', a once common name for the season in
Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the second most northern area of Great Britain, considered separate due to cultural differences from the other areas – Scotland, Wales, the Midlands of England and th ...

Northern England
, has today been largely replaced by the name ''autumn''.


Associations


Harvest

Association with the transition from warm to cold weather, and its related status as the season of the primary
harvest Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor ...

harvest
, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are usually pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits, vegetables and grains that ripen at this time. Many cultures feature autumnal
harvest festival#REDIRECT Harvest festival {{R from other capitalisation ...
s, often the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the autumn
Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, Canada, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Simila ...
holiday of the United States and Canada, and the Jewish
Sukkot or ("Booths, Tabernacles") , observedby = Jews, Hebrews, Israelites, Messianic Jews, Samaritans, Semitic Neopagans , type = Jewish , begins = 15th day of Tishrei , ends = 21st day of Tishrei (22nd in the Diaspora, over ...
holiday with its roots as a full-moon harvest festival of "tabernacles" (living in outdoor huts around the time of harvest). There are also the many festivals celebrated by
indigenous peoples of the Americas The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples. Although some indigenous peoples ...
tied to the harvest of ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or
Moon festival The Mid-Autumn Festival, also known as Moon Festival or Mooncake Festival, is a traditional festival celebrated by many East and Southeast Asian people. It is the second-most important holiday after Chinese New Year with a history dating back 3, ...
, and many others. The predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather. This view is presented in English poet
John Keats John Keats (; 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. He was prominent in the second generation of Romantic poets, with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, though his poems were in publication for only four years befo ...

John Keats
' poem ''
To Autumn "To Autumn" is a poem by English Romantic poet John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821). The work was composed on 19 September 1819 and published in 1820 in a volume of Keats's poetry that included ''Lamia'' and ''The Eve of St. Agnes'' ...
'', where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of 'mellow fruitfulness'. In North America, while most foods are harvested during the autumn, foods particularly associated with the season include
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''Cucu ...

pumpkin
s (which are integral parts of both Thanksgiving and
Halloween Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October , the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hall ...
) and
apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, ''Ma ...
s, which are used to make the seasonal beverage
apple cider Apple cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples. Though typically referred to simply as "cider" in the Un ...
.


Melancholia

Autumn, especially in poetry, has often been associated with
melancholia Melancholia or melancholy (from el, µέλαινα χολή ',Burton, Bk. I, p. 147 meaning black bile) is a concept found throughout ancient, medieval and premodern medicine in Europe that describes a condition characterized by markedly depres ...

melancholia
. The possibilities and opportunities of summer are gone, and the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, the amount of usable daylight drops rapidly, and many people turn inward, both physically and mentally. It has been referred to as an unhealthy season. Similar examples may be found in Irish poet
William Butler Yeats William Butler Yeats (13 June 186528 January 1939) was an Irish poet, dramatist, prose writer and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of the Irish literary establishment, he helped to found the Abbey Theatre, and in ...

William Butler Yeats
' poem ''
The Wild Swans at Coole ''The Wild Swans at Coole'' is the name of two collections of poetry by W. B. Yeats, published in 1917 and 1919. Publication history ''The Wild Swans at Coole'', a collection of twenty-nine poems and the play ''At the Hawk's Well'', was first pub ...
'' where the maturing season that the poet observes symbolically represents his own ageing self. Like the natural world that he observes, he too has reached his prime and now must look forward to the inevitability of old age and death. French poet
Paul Verlaine Paul may refer to: *Paul (name), a given name (includes a list of people with that name) *Paul (surname), a list of people People Christianity *Paul the Apostle (AD 5–67), also known as Saul of Tarsus or Saint Paul, early Christian missionar ...
's "'' Chanson d'automne''" ("Autumn Song") is likewise characterised by strong, painful feelings of sorrow.
Keats John Keats (; 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. He was prominent in the second generation of Romantic poets, with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, though his poems were in publication for only four years befo ...

Keats
' ''
To Autumn "To Autumn" is a poem by English Romantic poet John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821). The work was composed on 19 September 1819 and published in 1820 in a volume of Keats's poetry that included ''Lamia'' and ''The Eve of St. Agnes'' ...
'', written in September 1819, echoes this sense of melancholic reflection, but also emphasises the lush abundance of the season. The song " Autumn Leaves", based on the French song "Les Feuilles mortes", uses the melancholic atmosphere of the season and the end of summer as a metaphor for the mood of being separated from a loved one.


Halloween

Autumn is associated with
Halloween Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October , the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hall ...
(influenced by
Samhain Samhain (; , Manx: ''Sauin'') is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or "darker half" of the year. In the northern hemisphere, it is held on 1 November, but with celebrations beginning on the evening ...
, a Celtic autumn festival), and with it a widespread marketing campaign that promotes it. Halloween, 31 October, is in autumn in the northern hemisphere. The television, film, book, costume, home decoration, and confectionery industries use this time of year to promote products closely associated with such a holiday, with promotions going from late August or early September to 31 October, since their themes rapidly lose strength once the holiday ends, and advertising starts concentrating on Christmas.


Other associations

In some parts of the northern hemisphere, autumn has a strong association with the end of summer holiday and the
start of a new school year
start of a new school year
, particularly for children in primary and secondary education. "
Back to School ''Back to School'' is a 1986 American comedy film starring Rodney Dangerfield, Keith Gordon, Sally Kellerman, Burt Young, Terry Farrell, William Zabka, Ned Beatty, Sam Kinison, Paxton Whitehead and Robert Downey Jr. It was directed by Alan Metter. ...
" advertising and preparations usually occurs in the weeks leading to the beginning of autumn.
Easter Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the ''Book of Common Prayer''; "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher''The Whole Works of the Most Rev. James Ussher, Volume 4'' and Samuel Pepys''The Diary of Samuel Pe ...
falls in autumn in the southern hemisphere.
Thanksgiving Day Thanksgiving is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, Canada, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Simila ...
is a national holiday celebrated in Canada, in the United States, in some of the
Caribbean islands A list of islands in the Caribbean Sea, in alphabetical order by country of ownership and/or those with full independence and autonomy. Antigua and Barbuda Antigua * NEMMA reserve ** Prickly Pear Island ** Great Bird Island ** Galley Island M ...
and in
Liberia Liberia (), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It has a po ...
. Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Canada and on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States, and around the same part of the year in other places. Similarly named festival holidays occur in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German , demonym = German , government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...
and
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
. Television stations and networks, particularly in North America, traditionally begin their regular seasons in their autumn, with new series and new episodes of existing series debuting mostly during late September or early October (series that debut outside the fall season are usually known as
mid-season replacement In American and Canadian television, a mid-season replacement is a television series that premieres in the second half of the traditional television season, usually between January and May. Mid-season replacements usually take place after a show tha ...
s). A sweeps period takes place in November to measure
Nielsen Ratings Nielsen TV ratings (commonly referred to as Nielsen ratings) are the audience measurement systems operated by Nielsen Media Research that seek to determine the audience size and composition of television programming in the United States using a rati ...
.
American football American football, referred to simply as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team with ...
is played almost exclusively in the autumn months; at the high school level, seasons run from late August through early November, with some playoff games and holiday rivalry contests being played as late as Thanksgiving. In many American states, the championship games take place in early December.
College football College football is gridiron football consisting of American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by C ...

College football
's regular season runs from September through November, while the main
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular know ...
circuit, the
National Football League The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major ...
, plays from September through to early January. Summer sports, such as
Major League Soccer Major League Soccer (MLS) is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation, which represents the sport's highest level in the United States and Canada. The league comprises 27 teams – 24 in the U.S. and ...
,
Canadian football Canadian football () is a sport played in Canada in which two teams of 12 players each compete for territorial control of a field of play long and wide attempting to advance a pointed oval-shaped ball into the opposing team's scoring area (en ...

Canadian football
,
stock car racing Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, the United Kingdom and Brazil also having forms of stock car auto racing. Traditionally, race ...
,
tennis Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered w ...
,
golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping w ...
,
cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking th ...
, and professional
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hi ...

baseball
, wrap up their seasons in early to late autumn;
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is an American professional baseball organization and the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in Major League Baseball: 15 teams in the National L ...
's championship
World Series The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, contested since 1903 between the champion teams of the American League (AL) and the National League (NL). The winner of the Worl ...
is known popularly as the "Fall Classic". (Amateur baseball is usually finished by August.) Likewise, professional winter sports, such as
ice hockey#REDIRECT Ice hockey#REDIRECT Ice hockey {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, basketball, and most leagues of association football in Europe, are in the early stages of their seasons during autumn; American college basketball and college ice hockey play teams outside their athletic conferences during the late autumn before their in-conference schedules begin in winter. The Christianity, Christian religious holidays of All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day are observed in autumn in the Northern hemisphere. Since 1997, Autumn (given name), Autumn has been one of the top 100 names for girls in the United States. In Indian mythology, autumn is considered to be the preferred season for the goddess of learning Saraswati, who is also known by the name of "goddess of autumn" (Sharada). In Asian mysticism, Autumn is associated with the Wuxing (Chinese philosophy), element of Metal (Wu Xing), metal, and subsequently with the colour white, the Bai Hu, White Tiger of the West, and death and mourning.


Tourism

Although Autumn leaf color, colour change in leaves occurs wherever deciduous trees are found, coloured autumn foliage is noted in various regions of the world: most of
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
, Eastern Asia (including China, Korea, and Japan), Europe, southeast, south and part of the midwest of Brazil, the forest of Patagonia, eastern
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of . New Zealand ...
's South Island. Eastern Canada and New England are famous for their autumnal foliage, and this attracts major tourism (worth billions of US dollars) for the regions.


Images of autumn

File:Maple Trees by Creek.jpg, Maple leaves changing colour by a creek. File:Outono na serra.jpg, Autumn in Brazil File:Pumpkin-Pie-Whole-Slice.jpg, Pumpkin pie is commonly served on and around
Thanksgiving Thanksgiving is a national holiday celebrated on various dates in the United States, Canada, Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Liberia. It began as a day of giving thanks and sacrifice for the blessing of the harvest and of the preceding year. Simila ...
in North America File:01259 All Saints Day Sanok, 2011.jpg, All Saints' Day at a cemetery in Sanok – flowers and lit candles are placed to honor the memory of deceased relatives. File:Harvest Straw Bales in Schleswig-Holstein.jpg, Harvest straw bales in a field of Schleswig-Holstein,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German , demonym = German , government_type = Federal parliamentary republi ...
File:Pumpkins-2009.jpg,
Halloween Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of "All Hallows' evening"), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in many countries on 31 October , the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hall ...
pumpkin A pumpkin is a cultivar of winter squash that is round with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and is most often deep yellow to orange in coloration. The thick shell contains the seeds and pulp. The name is most commonly used for cultivars of ''Cucu ...

pumpkin
s File:Halloween pumpkins.jpg, Halloween pumpkins File:Mount Wilson.jpg, Autumn in New South Wales,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
File:Armenian Autumn.jpg, Autumn in Armenia File:Чарівна мить жовтневого світанку.jpg, Autumn in Sedniv, Ukraine


Allegories of autumn in art

File:Allegory_of_Autumn_-_sala_di_Prometeo.jpg, ''Autumn'', by Giuseppe Collignon File:Autumn_Legros_Louvre_MR1981.jpg, ''Autumn'', by Pierre Le Gros the Elder File:Giuseppe Arcimboldo - Autumn, 1573.jpg, ''Autumn'' (1573), by Giuseppe Arcimboldo File:Alfons_Mucha_-_1896_-_Autumn.jpg, ''Autumn'' (1896), by Art Nouveau artist Alphonse Mucha File:Autumn_LCCN90708855.jpg, ''Autumn'' (1871), by Currier & Ives File:Maxfield_Parrish_-_Autumn_(1905).jpg, This 1905 print by Maxfield Frederick Parrish illustrated
John Keats John Keats (; 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English Romantic poet. He was prominent in the second generation of Romantic poets, with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, though his poems were in publication for only four years befo ...

John Keats
' poem ''Autumn''


See also

* Autumn in New England * Diwali


References


External links

* {{Authority control Autumn, Etymologies