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The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(/ˈfɔːlklənd/; Spanish: Islas Malvinas, pronounced [ˈislas malˈβinas]) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles (483 kilometres) east of South America's southern Patagonian coast, at a latitude of about 52°S. The archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles (12,000 square kilometres), comprises East Falkland, West Falkland
West Falkland
and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
takes responsibility for their defence and foreign affairs. The Falkland Islands' capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times, the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, although Argentina
Argentina
maintains its claim to the islands. In April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War. Most Falklanders favour the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory, but its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina
Argentina
and the United Kingdom. The population (2,932 inhabitants in 2012)[A] primarily consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarian and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, and Chile
Chile
has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983, Falkland Islanders
Falkland Islanders
are British citizens. The islands lie on the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 feet (700 m). They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Government

3.1 Sovereignty
Sovereignty
dispute

4 Geography 5 Biodiversity 6 Economy 7 Demographics 8 Culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology See also: List of Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
placenames The name "Falkland Islands" comes from Falkland Sound, the strait that separates the two main islands.[8] The name "Falkland" was applied to the channel by John Strong, captain of an English expedition which landed on the islands in 1690. Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy
Treasurer of the Navy
who sponsored his journey.[9] The Viscount's title originates from the town of Falkland, Scotland—the town's name likely comes from a Gaelic term referring to an "enclosure" (lann),[B] but it could less plausibly be from the Anglo-Saxon term "folkland" (land held by folk-right).[11] The name "Falklands" was not applied to the islands until 1765, when British captain John Byron
John Byron
of the Royal Navy, claimed them for King George III as "Falkland's Islands".[12] The term "Falklands" is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands. The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines—the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville
in 1764.[13] Bougainville, who founded the islands' first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo
Saint-Malo
(the point of departure for his ships and colonists).[14] The port, located in the Brittany
Brittany
region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo (or Maclou), the Christian evangelist who founded the city.[15] At the twentieth session of the United Nations General Assembly, the Fourth Committee determined that, in all languages other than Spanish, all UN documentation would designate the territory as Falkland Islands (Malvinas). In Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas (Falkland Islands).[16] The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands (Malvinas).[17] History Main articles: History of the Falkland Islands
History of the Falkland Islands
and Timeline of the history of the Falkland Islands Although Fuegians
Fuegians
from Patagonia
Patagonia
may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times,[18] the islands were uninhabited when Europeans first discovered them.[19] Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic.[20][21][C] The first recorded landing on the islands is attributed to English captain John Strong, who, en route to Peru's and Chile's littoral in 1690, discovered the Falkland Sound and noted the islands' water and game.[23] The Falklands remained uninhabited until the 1764 establishment of Port Louis on East Falkland
East Falkland
by French captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville, and the 1766 foundation of Port Egmont
Port Egmont
on Saunders Island by British captain John MacBride.[D] Whether or not the settlements were aware of each other's existence is debated by historians.[26] In 1766, France
France
surrendered its claim on the Falklands to Spain, which renamed the French colony Puerto Soledad
Puerto Soledad
the following year.[27] Problems began when Spain
Spain
discovered and captured Port Egmont in 1770. War was narrowly avoided by its restitution to Britain in 1771.[28] Both the British and Spanish settlements coexisted in the archipelago until 1774, when Britain's new economic and strategic considerations led it to voluntarily withdraw from the islands, leaving a plaque claiming the Falklands for King George III.[29] Spain's Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata became the only governmental presence in the territory. West Falkland
West Falkland
was left abandoned, and Puerto Soledad
Puerto Soledad
became mostly a prison camp.[30] Amid the British invasions of the Río de la Plata during the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in Europe, the islands' governor evacuated the archipelago in 1806; Spain's remaining colonial garrison followed suit in 1811, except for gauchos and fishermen who remained voluntarily.[30] Thereafter, the archipelago was visited only by fishing ships; its political status was undisputed until 1820, when Colonel David Jewett, an American privateer working for the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, informed anchored ships about Buenos Aires' 1816 claim to Spain's territories in the South Atlantic.[31][E] Since the islands had no permanent inhabitants, in 1823 Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
granted German-born merchant Luis Vernet
Luis Vernet
permission to conduct fishing activities and exploit feral cattle in the archipelago.[F] Vernet settled at the ruins of Puerto Soledad
Puerto Soledad
in 1826, and accumulated resources on the islands until the venture was secure enough to bring settlers and form a permanent colony.[35] Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
named Vernet military and civil commander of the islands in 1829,[36] and he attempted to regulate sealing to stop the activities of foreign whalers and sealers.[30] Vernet's venture lasted until a dispute over fishing and hunting rights led to a raid by the American warship USS Lexington in 1831,[37][G] when United States Navy
United States Navy
commander Silas Duncan declared the dissolution of the island's government.[38]

Depiction of a Falklands corral, shepherds and sheep in 1849 (painting by Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Admiral Edward Fanshawe)

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
attempted to retain influence over the settlement by installing a garrison, but a mutiny in 1832 was followed the next year by the arrival of British forces who reasserted Britain's rule.[39] The Argentine Confederation
Argentine Confederation
(headed by Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas) protested against Britain's actions,[40][H] and Argentine governments have continued since then to register official protests against Britain.[43][I] The British troops departed after completing their mission, leaving the area without formal government.[45] Vernet's deputy, the Scotsman Matthew Brisbane, returned to the islands that year to restore the business, but his efforts ended after, amid unrest at Port Louis, gaucho Antonio Rivero led a group of dissatisfied individuals to murder Brisbane and the settlement's senior leaders; survivors hid in a cave on a nearby island until the British returned and restored order.[45] In 1840, the Falklands became a Crown colony, and Scottish settlers subsequently established an official pastoral community.[46] Four years later, nearly everyone relocated to Port Jackson, considered a better location for government, and merchant Samuel Lafone began a venture to encourage British colonisation.[47] Stanley, as Port Jackson was soon renamed, officially became the seat of government in 1845.[48] Early in its history, Stanley had a negative reputation due to cargo-shipping losses; only in emergencies would ships rounding Cape Horn
Cape Horn
stop at the port.[49] Nevertheless, the Falklands' geographic location proved ideal for ship repairs and the "Wrecking Trade", the business of selling and buying shipwrecks and their cargoes.[50] Aside from this trade, commercial interest in the archipelago was minimal due to the low-value hides of the feral cattle roaming the pastures. Economic growth began only after the Falkland Islands Company, which bought out Lafone's failing enterprise in 1851,[J] successfully introduced Cheviot sheep
Cheviot sheep
for wool farming, spurring other farms to follow suit.[52] The high cost of importing materials, combined with the shortage of labour and consequent high wages, meant the ship repair trade became uncompetitive. After 1870, it declined as the replacement of sail ships by steamships was accelerated by the low cost of coal in South America; by 1914, with the opening of the Panama Canal, the trade effectively ended.[53] In 1881, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
became financially independent of Britain.[48] For more than a century, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Company dominated the trade and employment of the archipelago; in addition, it owned most housing in Stanley, which greatly benefited from the wool trade with the UK.[52]

Naval confrontation during the 1914 Battle of the Falkland Islands (painting by William Lionel Wyllie)

In the first half of the 20th century, the Falklands served an important role in Britain's territorial claims to subantarctic islands and a section of Antarctica. The Falklands governed these territories as the Falkland Islands Dependencies starting in 1908, and retained them until their dissolution in 1985.[54] The Falklands also played a minor role in the two world wars as a military base aiding control of the South Atlantic. In the First World War Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
fleet defeated an Imperial German squadron. In the Second World War, following the December 1939 Battle of the River Plate, the battle-damaged HMS Exeter steamed to the Falklands for repairs.[19] In 1942, a battalion en route to India was redeployed to the Falklands as a garrison amid fears of a Japanese seizure of the archipelago.[55] After the war ended, the Falklands economy was affected by declining wool prices and the political uncertainty resulting from the revived sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Argentina.[49] Simmering tensions between the UK and Argentina
Argentina
increased during the second half of the century, when Argentine President Juan Perón asserted sovereignty over the archipelago.[56] The sovereignty dispute intensified during the 1960s, shortly after the United Nations passed a resolution on decolonisation which Argentina
Argentina
interpreted as favourable to its position.[57] In 1965, the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 2065, calling for both states to conduct bilateral negotiations to reach a peaceful settlement of the dispute.[57] From 1966 until 1968, the UK confidentially discussed with Argentina
Argentina
the transfer of the Falklands, assuming its judgement would be accepted by the islanders.[58] An agreement on trade ties between the archipelago and the mainland was reached in 1971 and, consequently, Argentina built a temporary airfield at Stanley in 1972.[48] Nonetheless, Falklander dissent, as expressed by their strong lobby in the UK Parliament, and tensions between the UK and Argentina
Argentina
effectively limited sovereignty negotiations until 1977.[59] Concerned at the expense of maintaining the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
in an era of budget cuts, the UK again considered transferring sovereignty to Argentina
Argentina
in the early Thatcher government.[60] Substantive sovereignty talks again ended by 1981, and the dispute escalated with passing time.[61] In April 1982, the disagreement became an armed conflict when Argentina
Argentina
invaded the Falklands and other British territories in the South Atlantic, briefly occupying them until a UK expeditionary force retook the territories in June.[62] After the war, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
expanded its military presence, building RAF Mount Pleasant and increasing the size of its garrison.[63] The war also left some 117 minefields containing nearly 20,000 mines of various types, including anti-vehicle and anti-personnel mines.[64] Due to the large number of deminer casualties, initial attempts to clear the mines ceased in 1983.[64][K] Based on Lord Shackleton's recommendations, the Falklands diversified from a sheep-based monoculture into an economy of tourism and, with the establishment of the Falklands Exclusive Economic Zone, fisheries.[66][L] The road network was also made more extensive, and the construction of RAF Mount Pleasant
RAF Mount Pleasant
allowed access to long haul flights.[66] Oil exploration also began, with indications of possible commercially exploitable deposits in the Falklands basin.[67] Landmine clearance work restarted in 2009, in accordance with the UK's obligations under the Ottawa Treaty, and Sapper Hill
Sapper Hill
Corral
Corral
was cleared of mines in 2012, allowing access to an important historical landmark for the first time in 30 years.[68][69] Argentina
Argentina
and the UK re-established diplomatic relations in 1990; relations have since deteriorated as neither has agreed on the terms of future sovereignty discussions.[70] Disputes between the governments have led "some analysts [to] predict a growing conflict of interest between Argentina and Great Britain ... because of the recent expansion of the fishing industry in the waters surrounding the Falklands".[71] Government Main article: Politics of the Falkland Islands

Government House in Stanley is the Governor's official residence.

The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
are a self-governing British Overseas Territory.[72] Under the 2009 Constitution, the islands have full internal self-government; the UK is responsible for foreign affairs, retaining the power "to protect UK interests and to ensure the overall good governance of the territory".[73] The Monarch of the United Kingdom is the head of state, and executive authority is exercised on the monarch's behalf by the Governor, who in turn appoints the islands' Chief Executive on the advice of members of the Legislative Assembly.[74] Both the Governor and Chief Executive serve as the head of government.[75] Governor Nigel Phillips
Nigel Phillips
was appointed in September 2017[76] and Chief Executive Barry Rowland was appointed in October 2016.[77] The UK minister responsible for the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
since 2016, Alan Duncan, administers British foreign policy regarding the islands.[78] The Governor acts on the advice of the islands' Executive Council, composed of the Chief Executive, the Director of Finance and three elected members of the Legislative Assembly (with the Governor as chairman).[74] The Legislative Assembly, a unicameral legislature, consists of the Chief Executive, the Director of Finance and eight members (five from Stanley and three from Camp) elected to four-year terms by universal suffrage.[74] All politicians in the Falkland Islands are independent; no political parties exist on the islands.[79] Since the 2013 general election, members of the Legislative Assembly have received a salary and are expected to work full-time and give up all previously held jobs or business interests.[80] Due to its link to the UK, the Falklands are part of the overseas countries and territories of the European Union.[81] The islands' judicial system, overseen by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, is largely based on English law,[82] and the constitution binds the territory to the principles of the European Convention on Human Rights.[73] Residents have the right of appeal to the European Court of Human Rights and the Privy Council.[83][84] Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Royal Falkland Islands Police
Royal Falkland Islands Police
(RFIP),[82] and military defence of the islands is provided by the United Kingdom.[85] A British military garrison is stationed on the islands, and the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
government funds an additional company-sized light infantry Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Defence Force.[86] The territorial waters of the Falklands extend to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its coastal baselines, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; this border overlaps with the maritime boundary of Argentina.[87] Sovereignty
Sovereignty
dispute Main article: Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
sovereignty dispute The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Argentina
Argentina
both claim the Falkland Islands. The UK bases its position on its continuous administration of the islands since 1833 and the islanders' "right to self-determination as set out in the UN Charter".[88][89][90] Argentina's position is that it acquired the Falklands from Spain
Spain
when it achieved independence in 1816, and that, in 1833, the UK expelled Argentine authorities and settlers from the islands with a threat of "greater force" and, afterwards, barred Argentines from resettling the islands.[91][92] In 2009, the British prime minister, Gordon Brown, had a meeting with the Argentine president, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, and said that there would be no further talks over the sovereignty of the Falklands.[93] In March 2013, the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
held a referendum on its political status, with 99.8 percent of voters favoured remaining under British rule.[94][95] Argentina
Argentina
does not recognise the Falkland Islanders
Falkland Islanders
as a partner in negotiations.[96][97][91] Geography Main article: Geography of the Falkland Islands

Map of the Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
have a land area of 4,700 square miles (12,000 km2) and a coastline estimated at 800 miles (1,300 km).[98] The archipelago consists of two main islands, West Falkland
West Falkland
and East Falkland, and about 776 smaller islands.[99] The islands are predominantly mountainous and hilly,[100] with the major exception being the depressed plains of Lafonia
Lafonia
(a peninsula forming the southern part of East Falkland).[101] The Falklands consists of continental crust fragments resulting from the break-up of Gondwana
Gondwana
and the opening of the South Atlantic that began 130 million years ago. The islands are located in the South Atlantic Ocean, on the Patagonian Shelf, about 300 miles (480 km) east of Patagonia
Patagonia
in southern Argentina.[102] The Falklands' approximate location is latitude 51°40′ – 53°00′ S and longitude 57°40′ – 62°00′ W.[103] The archipelago's two main islands are separated by the Falkland Sound,[104] and its deep coastal indentations form natural harbours.[105] East Falkland
East Falkland
houses Stanley (the capital and largest settlement),[103] the UK military base at RAF Mount Pleasant, and the archipelago's highest point: Mount Usborne, at 2,313 feet (705 m).[104] Outside of these significant settlements is the area colloquially known as "Camp", which is derived from the Spanish term for countryside (Campo).[106] The climate of the islands is cold, windy and humid maritime.[102] Variability of daily weather is typical throughout the archipelago.[107] Rainfall is common over half of the year, averaging 610 millimetres (24 in) in Stanley, and sporadic light snowfall occurs nearly all year.[100] The temperature has historically stayed between 21.1 and −11.1 °C (70.0 and 12.0 °F) in Stanley, with mean monthly temperatures varying from 9 °C (48 °F) early in the year to −1 °C (30 °F) in July.[107] Strong westerly winds and cloudy skies are common.[100] Although numerous storms are recorded each month, conditions are normally calm.[107] Biodiversity Main article: Wildlife of the Falkland Islands

Colony of southern rockhopper penguins on Saunders Island

The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
are a biogeographical part of the mild Antarctic zone,[108] with strong connections to the flora and fauna of Patagonia in mainland South America.[109] Land birds make up most of the Falklands' avifauna; 63 species breed on the islands, including 16 endemic species.[110] There is also abundant arthropod diversity on the islands.[111] The Falklands' flora consists of 163 native vascular species.[112] The islands' only native terrestrial mammal, the warrah, was hunted to extinction by European settlers.[113] The islands are frequented by marine mammals, such as the southern elephant seal and the South American fur seal, and various types of cetaceans; offshore islands house the rare striated caracara. The Falklands are also home to five different penguin species and a few of the largest albatross colonies on the planet.[114] Endemic fish around the islands are primarily from the genus Galaxias.[111] The Falklands are treeless and have a wind-resistant vegetation predominantly composed of a variety of dwarf shrubs.[115] Virtually the entire land area of the islands is used as pasture for sheep.[116] Introduced species
Introduced species
include reindeer, hares, rabbits, Patagonian foxes, brown rats and cats.[117] The detrimental impact several of these species have caused to native flora and fauna has led authorities to attempt to contain, remove or exterminate invasive species such as foxes, rabbits and rats. Endemic land animals have been the most affected by introduced species.[118] The extent of human impact on the Falklands is unclear, since there is little long-term data on habitat change.[109] Economy Main article: Economy of the Falkland Islands

Stanley is the financial centre of the Falkland Islands' economy.[119]

The economy of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
is ranked the 222nd largest out of 229 in the world by GDP (PPP), but ranks 5th worldwide by GDP (PPP) per capita.[120] The unemployment rate was 4.1 percent in 2010, and inflation was last calculated at 1.2 percent rate in 2003.[116] Based on 2010 data, the islands have a high Human Development Index
Human Development Index
of 0.874[4] and a moderate Gini coefficient
Gini coefficient
for income inequality of 34.17.[3] The local currency is the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
pound, which is pegged to the British pound sterling.[121] Economic development
Economic development
was advanced by ship resupplying and sheep farming for high-quality wool.[122] The main sheep breeds in the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
are Polwarth and Corriedale.[123] During the 1980s, although synthetic fibres and ranch underinvestment hurt the sheep-farming sector, the government established a major revenue stream with the establishment of an exclusive economic zone and the sale of fishing licenses to "anybody wishing to fish within this zone".[124] Since the end of the Falklands War
Falklands War
in 1982, the islands' economic activity has increasingly focused on oil field exploration and tourism.[125] The port city of Stanley has regained the islands' economic focus, with an increase in population as workers migrate from Camp.[126] Fear of dependence on fishing licences and threats from overfishing, illegal fishing and fish market price fluctuations have increased interest on oil drilling as an alternative source of revenue; exploration efforts have yet to find "exploitable reserves".[119] Development projects in education and sports have been funded by the Falklands government, without aid from the United Kingdom.[124] The primary sector of the economy accounts for most of the Falkland Islands' gross domestic product, with the fishing industry alone contributing between 50% and 60% of annual GDP; agriculture also contributes significantly to GDP and employs about a tenth of the population.[127] A little over a quarter of the workforce serves the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
government, making it the archipelago's largest employer.[128] Tourism, part of the service economy, has been spurred by increased interest in Antarctic
Antarctic
exploration and the creation of direct air links with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and South America.[129] Tourists, mostly cruise ship passengers, are attracted by the archipelago's wildlife and environment, as well as activities such as fishing and wreck diving; the majority are based in accommodation found in Stanley.[130] The islands' major exports include wool, hides, venison, fish and squid; its main imports include fuel, building materials and clothing.[116] Demographics See also: Origins of Falkland Islanders
Falkland Islanders
and Religion in the Falkland Islands

The Christ Church Cathedral, the local parish church of the Anglican Communion. Most Falklanders identify themselves as Christian.

The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
population is homogeneous, with the majority of inhabitants having been descended from Scottish and Welsh immigrants who settled the territory in 1833.[131][M] The 2006 census listed some Falklands residents as descendants of French, Gibraltarians
Gibraltarians
and Scandinavians.[132] That census indicated that one-third of residents were born on the archipelago, with foreign-born residents assimilated into local culture.[133] The legal term for the right of residence is "belonging to the islands".[74] The British Nationality Act of 1983 gave British citizenship to Falkland Islanders.[131] A significant population decline affected the archipelago in the twentieth century, with many young islanders moving overseas in search of education, a modern lifestyle, and better job opportunities,[134] particularly to the British city of Southampton, which came to be nicknamed "Stanley north".[135] In recent years, the islands' population decline has reduced, thanks to immigrants from the United Kingdom, Saint Helena, and Chile.[136] In the 2012 census, a majority of residents listed their nationality as Falkland Islander
Falkland Islander
(59 percent), followed by British (29 percent), Saint Helenian (9.8 percent), and Chilean (5.4 percent).[7] A small number of Argentines also live on the islands.[137] The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
have a low population density.[138] According to the 2012 census, the average daily population of the Falklands was 2,932, excluding military personnel serving in the archipelago and their dependents.[N] A 2012 report counted 1,300 uniformed personnel and 50 British Ministry of Defence civil servants present in the Falklands.[128] Stanley (with 2,121 residents) is the most-populous location on the archipelago, followed by Mount Pleasant (369 residents, primarily air-base contractors) and Camp (351 residents).[7] The islands' age distribution is skewed towards working age (20–60). Males outnumber females (53 to 47 percent), and this discrepancy is most prominent in the 20–60 age group.[132] In the 2012 census, most islanders identified themselves as Christian (66 percent), followed by those with no religious affiliation (32 percent). The remaining 2 percent identified as adherents of other faiths, including Bahá'í, Buddhism, and Islam.[7] The main Christian denominations are Anglicans, other Protestants
Protestants
and Roman Catholics.[139] Education in the Falkland Islands, which follows England's system, is free and compulsory for residents aged between 5 and 16 years.[140] Primary education is available at Stanley, RAF Mount Pleasant
RAF Mount Pleasant
(for children of service personnel) and a number of rural settlements. Secondary education is only available in Stanley, which offers boarding facilities and 12 subjects to General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level. Students aged 16 or older may study at colleges in England
England
for their GCE Advanced Level
GCE Advanced Level
or vocational qualifications. The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
government pays for older students to attend institutions of higher education, usually in the United Kingdom.[140] Culture Main article: Culture of the Falkland Islands

Gauchos from mainland South America, such as these two men having mate at Hope Place
Hope Place
in East Falkland, influenced the local dialect

Falklands culture is based on the cultural traditions of its British settlers. It has also been influenced by Hispanic South America.[136] Falklanders still use some terms and place names from the former Gaucho
Gaucho
inhabitants.[141] The Falklands' predominant and official language is English, with the foremost dialect being British English; nonetheless, inhabitants also speak Spanish and other languages.[136] According to naturalist Will Wagstaff, "the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
are a very social place, and stopping for a chat is a way of life".[141] The islands have two weekly newspapers: Teaberry Express and The Penguin News,[142] and television and radio broadcasts generally feature programming from the United Kingdom.[136] Wagstaff describes local cuisine as "very British in character with much use made of the homegrown vegetables, local lamb, mutton, beef, and fish". Common between meals are "home made cakes and biscuits with tea or coffee".[143] Social activities are, according to Wagstaff, "typical of that of a small British town with a variety of clubs and organisations covering many aspects of community life".[144] See also

Index of Falkland Islands-related articles Outline of the Falkland Islands

Notes

^ The estimate excludes military personnel serving in the Falkland Islands and their dependents.[7] ^ According to researcher Simon Taylor, the exact Gaelic etymology is unclear as the "falk" in the name could have stood for "hidden" (falach), "wash" (failc), or "heavy rain" (falc).[10] ^ Based on his analysis of Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
discovery claims, historian John Dunmore concludes that "[a] number of countries could therefore lay some claim to the archipelago under the heading of first discoverers: Spain, Holland, Britain, and even Italy and Portugal – although the last two claimants might be stretching things a little."[22] ^ In 1764, Bougainville claimed the islands in the name of Louis XV of France. In 1765, British captain John Byron
John Byron
claimed the islands in the name of George III of Great Britain.[24][25] ^ According to Argentine legal analyst Roberto Laver, the United Kingdom disregards Jewett's actions because the government he represented "was not recognized either by Britain or any other foreign power at the time" and "no act of occupation followed the ceremony of claiming possession".[32] ^ Before leaving for the Falklands Vernet stamped his grant at the British Consulate, repeating this when Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
extended his grant in 1828.[33] The cordial relationship between the consulate and Vernet led him to express "the wish that, in the event of the British returning to the islands, HMG would take his settlement under their protection".[34] ^ The log of the "Lexington" only reports the destruction of arms and a powder store, but Vernet made a claim for compensation from the US Government stating that the entire settlement was destroyed.[37] ^ As discussed by Roberto Laver, not only did Rosas not break relations with Britain because of the "essential" nature of "British economic support", but he offered the Falklands "as a bargaining chip ... in exchange for the cancellation of Argentina's million-pound debt with the British bank of Baring Brothers".[41] In 1850, Rosas' government ratified the Arana–Southern Treaty, which put "an end to the existing differences, and of restoring perfect relations of friendship" between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Argentina.[42] ^ Argentina
Argentina
protested in 1841, 1849, 1884, 1888, 1908, 1927 and 1933, and has made annual protests to the United Nations since 1946.[44] ^ There were continual tensions with the colonial administration over Lafone's failure to establish any permanent settlers, and over the price of beef supplied to the settlement. Moreover, although his concession required Lafone to bring settlers from the United Kingdom, most of the settlers he brought were gauchos from Uruguay.[51] ^ The minefields were fenced off and marked; there remain unexploded ordnance and improvised explosive devices.[64] Detection and clearance of mines in the Falklands has proven difficult as some were air-delivered and not in marked fields; approximately 80% lie in sand or peat, where the position of mines can shift, making removal procedures difficult.[65] ^ In 1976, Lord Shackleton produced a report into the economic future of the islands; however, his recommendations were not implemented because Britain sought to avoid confronting Argentina
Argentina
over sovereignty.[66] Lord Shackleton was once again tasked, in 1982, to produce a report into the economic development of the islands. His new report criticised the large farming companies, and recommended transferring ownership of farms from absentee landlords to local landowners. Shackleton also suggested diversifying the economy into fishing, oil exploration, and tourism; moreover, he recommended the establishment of a road network, and conservation measures to preserve the islands' natural resources.[66] ^ Roberto Laver argues this is likely the result of government policies which successfully reduced the number of non-British populations that at one point also inhabited the archipelago. Laver states that "naturalization ordinances" in the first decades of the British colony "show a wide variety of settlers from places in Europe, Northern, and Central America, and a couple from Argentina".[131] ^ At the time of the 2012 census, 91 Falklands residents were overseas.[7]

References

^ "2016 Census Report". Policy and Economic Development Unit, Falkland Islands Government. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-01-24.  ^ "State of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Economy" (PDF). March 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ a b Avakov 2013, p. 54. ^ a b Avakov 2013, p. 47. ^ " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
will remain on summer time throughout 2011". MercoPress. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.  ^ Joshua Project. "Ethnic People Groups of Falkland Islands". Joshua Project. Retrieved 28 February 2010.  ^ a b c d e " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Census 2012: Headline results" (PDF). Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Government. 10 September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  ^ Jones 2009, p. 73. ^ See:

Dotan 2010, p. 165, Room 2006, p. 129.

^ Taylor & Márkus 2005, p. 158. ^ Room 2006, p. 129. ^ See:

Paine 2000, p. 45, Room 2006, p. 129.

^ Hince 2001, p. 121. ^ See:

Hince 2001, p. 121, Room 2006, p. 129.

^ Balmaceda 2011, Chapter 36. ^ Foreign Office 1961, p. 80. ^ "Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications". United Nations Statistics Division. 13 February 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ G. Hattersley-Smith (June 1983). "Fuegian Indians in the Falkland Islands". Polar Record. Cambridge University Press. 21 (135): 605–06. doi:10.1017/S003224740002204X. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ a b Carafano 2005, p. 367. ^ White, Michael (2 February 2012). "Who first owned the Falkland Islands?". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 July 2013.  ^ Goebel 1971, pp. xiv–xv. ^ Dunmore 2005, p. 93. ^ See:

Gustafson 1988, p. 5, Headland 1989, p. 66, Heawood 2011, p. 182.

^ Gustafson 1988, pp. 9–10. ^ Dunmore 2005, pp. 139–40. ^ See:

Goebel 1971, pp. 226, 232, 269, Gustafson 1988, pp. 9–10.

^ Segal 1991, p. 240. ^ Gibran 1998, p. 26. ^ Gibran 1998, pp. 26–27. ^ a b c Gibran 1998, p. 27. ^ See:

Gibran 1998, p. 27, Marley 2008, p. 714.

^ Laver 2001, p. 73. ^ Cawkell 2001, pp. 48–50. ^ Cawkell 2001, p. 50. ^ See:

Gibran 1998, pp. 27–28, Sicker 2002, p. 32.

^ Pascoe & Pepper 2008, pp. 540–46. ^ a b Pascoe & Pepper 2008, pp. 541–44. ^ Peterson 1964, p. 106. ^ Graham-Yooll 2002, p. 50. ^ Reginald & Elliot 1983, pp. 25–26. ^ Laver 2001, pp. 122–23. ^ Hertslet 1851, p. 105. ^ Gustafson 1988, pp. 34–35. ^ Gustafson 1988, p. 34. ^ a b Graham-Yooll 2002, pp. 51–52. ^ Aldrich & Connell 1998, p. 201. ^ See:

Bernhardson 2011, Stanley and Vicinity: History, Reginald & Elliot 1983, pp. 9, 27.

^ a b c Reginald & Elliot 1983, p. 9. ^ a b Bernhardson 2011, Stanley and Vicinity: History. ^ Strange 1987, pp. 72–74. ^ Strange 1987, p. 84. ^ a b See:

Bernhardson 2011, Stanley and Vicinity: History, Reginald & Elliot 1983, p. 9.

^ Strange 1987, pp. 72–73. ^ Day 2013, p. 129–30. ^ Haddelsey & Carroll 2014, Prologue. ^ Zepeda 2005, p. 102. ^ a b Laver 2001, p. 125. ^ Thomas 1991, p. 24. ^ Thomas 1991, pp. 24–27. ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard; Evans, Rob (28 June 2005). "UK held secret talks to cede sovereignty: Minister met junta envoy in Switzerland, official war history reveals". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 June 2014.  ^ Thomas 1991, pp. 28–31. ^ See:

Reginald & Elliot 1983, pp. 5, 10–12, 67, Zepeda 2005, pp. 102–03.

^ Gibran 1998, pp. 130–35. ^ a b c "The Long Road to Clearing Falklands Landmines". BBC News. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ Ruan, Juan Carlos; Macheme, Jill E. (August 2001). "Landmines in the Sand: The Falkland Islands". The Journal of ERW and Mine Action. James Madison University. 5 (2). ISSN 1533-6905. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ a b c d Cawkell 2001, p. 147. ^ "Falklands Drilling Will Resume in Second Quarter of 2015, Announced Premier Oil". MercoPress. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ "The Falkland Islands, 30 Years After the War with Argentina". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ Grant Munro (8 December 2011). "Falklands' Land Mine Clearance Set to Enter a New Expanded Phase in Early 2012". MercoPress. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ See:

Lansford 2012, p. 1528, Zepeda 2005, pp. 102–03.

^ Zepeda 2005, p. 103. ^ Cahill 2010, "Falkland Islands". ^ a b "New Year begins with a new Constitution for the Falklands". MercoPress. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ a b c d "The Falkland Islands Constitution
Falkland Islands Constitution
Order 2008" (PDF). The Queen in Council. 5 November 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2013.  ^ Buckman 2012, p. 394. ^ "Falklands' Swearing in Ceremony for Governor Phillips on 12 September". MercoPress. 2017-09-02. Retrieved 2017-09-12.  ^ "Falklands' new Chief Executive has 30 years experience in England's public sector". MercoPress. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  ^ "Minister of State at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office". United Kingdom Government. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Government". ^ "Falklands lawmakers: "The full time problem"". MercoPress. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2014.  ^ EuropeAid (4 June 2014). "EU relations with Overseas Countries and Territories". European Commission. Archived from the original on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ a b Sainato 2010, pp. 157–158. ^ "A New Approach to the British Overseas Territories" (PDF). London: Ministry of Justice. 2012. p. 4. Retrieved 25 August 2013.  ^ UK Parliament. The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(Appeals to Privy Council) (Amendment) Order 2009 as made, from legislation.gov.uk. ^ Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Transportation". ^ Martin Fletcher (6 March 2010). "Falklands Defence Force better equipped than ever, says commanding officer". The Times. Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ International Boundaries Research Unit. " Argentina
Argentina
and UK claims to maritime jurisdiction in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans". Durham University. Retrieved 26 June 2014.  ^ Lansford 2012, p. 1528. ^ Watt, Nicholas (27 March 2009). " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
sovereignty talks out of the question, says Gordon Brown". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ "Supporting the Falkland Islanders' right to self-determination". Policy. United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Foreign & Commonwealth Office and Ministry of Defence. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ a b Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. "La Cuestión de las Islas Malvinas" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto (República Argentina). Retrieved 10 October 2013.  ^ Michael Reisman (January 1983). "The Struggle for The Falklands". Yale Law Journal. Faculty Scholarship Series. 93 (287): 306. Retrieved 23 October 2013.  ^ "No talks on Falklands, says Brown". BBC News. 28 March 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ "Falklands referendum: Islanders vote on British status". BBC News. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ Brindicci, Marcos; Bustamante, Juan (12 March 2013). "Falkland Islanders vote overwhelmingly to keep British rule". Reuters. Retrieved 24 August 2013.  ^ "Timerman rejects meeting Falklands representatives; only interested in 'bilateral round' with Hague". MercoPress. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ Laura Smith-Spark (11 March 2013). " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
hold referendum on disputed status". CNN. Retrieved 26 January 2014.  ^ See:

Guo 2007, p. 112, Sainato 2010, p. 157.

^ Sainato 2010, p. 157. ^ a b c Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Geography". ^ Trewby 2002, p. 79. ^ a b Klügel 2009, p. 66. ^ a b Guo 2007, p. 112. ^ a b Hemmerle 2005, p. 318. ^ See:

Blouet & Blouet 2009, p. 100, Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
2011, "Falkland Islands (Malvinas) – Geography"

^ Hince 2001, "Camp". ^ a b c Gibran 1998, p. 16. ^ Jónsdóttir 2007, pp. 84–86. ^ a b Helen Otley; Grant Munro; Andrea Clausen; Becky Ingham (May 2008). " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
State of the Environment Report 2008" (PDF). Environmental Planning Department Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011.  ^ Clark & Dingwall 1985, p. 131. ^ a b Clark & Dingwall 1985, p. 132. ^ Clark & Dingwall 1985, p. 129. ^ Hince 2001, p. 370. ^ Chura, Lindsay R. (June 30, 2015). "Pan-American Scientific Delegation Visit to the Falkland Islands". Science and Diplomacy. The ocean’s fecundity also draws globally important seabird populations to the archipelago; the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
host some of the world’s largest albatross colonies and five penguin species.  ^ Jónsdóttir 2007, p. 85. ^ a b c " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas)". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 July 2013.  ^ Bell 2007, p. 544. ^ Bell 2007, pp. 542–545. ^ a b Royle 2001, p. 171. ^ The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2017-09-20. ^ "Regions and territories: Falkland Islands". BBC News. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2014.  ^ See:

Calvert 2004, p. 134, Royle 2001, p. 170.

^ "Agriculture". Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Government. Retrieved 13 February 2016.  ^ a b Royle 2001, p. 170. ^ Hemmerle 2005, p. 319. ^ Royle 2001, pp. 170–171. ^ "The Economy". Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Government. Retrieved 26 June 2014.  ^ a b "The Falkland Islands: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know in Data and Charts". The Guardian. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2014.  ^ See:

Bertram, Muir & Stonehouse 2007, p. 144, Prideaux 2008, p. 171.

^ See:

Prideaux 2008, p. 171, Royle 2006, p. 183.

^ a b c Laver 2001, p. 9. ^ a b " Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Census Statistics, 2006" (PDF). Falkland Islands Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.  ^ "Falklands questions answered". BBC News. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ See:

Gibran 1998, p. 18, Laver 2001, p. 173.

^ Falklands still home to optimists as invasion anniversary nears, The Guardian, Andy Beckett, 19 March 2012 ^ a b c d Minahan 2013, p. 139. ^ "Falklands Referendum: Voters from many countries around the world voted Yes". MercoPress. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.  ^ Royle 2006, p. 181. ^ Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes] by J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, ABC-CLIO, p. 1093. ^ a b "Education". Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Government. Retrieved 29 May 2014.  ^ a b Wagstaff 2001, p. 21. ^ Wagstaff 2001, p. 66. ^ Wagstaff 2001, pp. 63–64. ^ Wagstaff 2001, p. 65.

Bibliography

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Antarctic
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Central Intelligence Agency
(2011). The CIA World Factbook 2012. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-61608-332-8.  Clark, Malcolm; Dingwall, Paul (1985). Conservation of Islands in the Southern Ocean. Cambridge, England: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-503-9.  Day, David (2013). Antarctica: A Biography (Reprint ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967055-0.  Dotan, Yossi (2010). Watercraft on World Coins: America and Asia, 1800–2008. 2. Portland, Oregon: The Alpha Press. ISBN 978-1-898595-50-2.  Dunmore, John (2005). Storms and Dreams. Auckland, New Zealand: Exisle Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-0-908988-57-0.  Foreign Office (1961). Report on the Proceedings of the General Assembly of the United Nations. London: H.M. Stationery Office.  Gibran, Daniel (1998). The Falklands War: Britain Versus the Past in the South Atlantic. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-0406-3.  Goebel, Julius (1971). The Struggle for the Falkland Islands: A Study in Legal and Diplomatic History. Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press. ISBN 978-0-8046-1390-3.  Graham-Yooll, Andrew (2002). Imperial Skirmishes: War and Gunboat Diplomacy in Latin America. Oxford, England: Signal Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-902669-21-2.  Guo, Rongxing (2007). Territorial Disputes and Resource Management. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-1-60021-445-5.  Gustafson, Lowell (1988). The Sovereignty
Sovereignty
Dispute Over the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504184-2.  Haddelsey, Stephen; Carroll, Alan (2014). Operation Tabarin: Britain's Secret Wartime Expedition to Antarctica 1944–46. Stroud, England: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-5511-9.  Headland, Robert (1989). Chronological List of Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions and Related Historical Events. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-30903-5.  Heawood, Edward (2011). F. H. H. Guillemard, ed. A History of Geographical Discovery in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Reprint ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-60049-2.  Hemmerle, Oliver Benjamin (2005). "Falkland Islands". In R. W. McColl. Encyclopedia of World Geography. 1. New York: Golson Books, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8160-5786-3.  Hertslet, Lewis (1851). A Complete Collection of the Treaties and Conventions, and Reciprocal Regulations, At Present Subsisting Between Great Britain and Foreign Powers, and of the Laws, Decrees, and Orders in Council, Concerning the Same. 8. London: Harrison and Son.  Hince, Bernadette (2001). The Antarctic
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Dictionary. Collingwood, Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9577471-1-1.  Jones, Roger (2009). What's Who? A Dictionary of Things Named After People and the People They are Named After. Leicester, England: Matador. ISBN 978-1-84876-047-9.  Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg (2007). "Botany during the Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901–1903". In Jorge Rabassa; Maria Laura Borla. Antarctic Peninsula
Antarctic Peninsula
and Tierra del Fuego. Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-41379-4.  Klügel, Andreas (2009). "Atlantic Region". In Rosemary Gillespie; David Clague. Encyclopedia of Islands. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25649-1.  Lansford, Tom (2012). Thomas Muller; Judith Isacoff; Tom Lansford, eds. Political Handbook of the World 2012. Los Angeles, California: CQ Press. ISBN 978-1-60871-995-2.  Laver, Roberto (2001). The Falklands/Malvinas Case. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-1534-8.  Marley, David (2008). Wars of the Americas (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-100-8.  Minahan, James (2013). Ethnic Groups of the Americas. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-163-5.  Paine, Lincoln (2000). Ships of Discovery and Exploration. New York: Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-395-98415-4.  Pascoe, Graham; Pepper, Peter (2008). "Luis Vernet". In David Tatham. The Dictionary of Falklands Biography (Including South Georgia): From Discovery Up to 1981. Ledbury, England: David Tatham. ISBN 978-0-9558985-0-1.  Peterson, Harold (1964). Argentina
Argentina
and the United States
United States
1810–1960. New York: University Publishers Inc. ISBN 978-0-87395-010-7.  Prideaux, Bruce (2008). Michael Lück, ed. Falkland Islands. The Encyclopedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments. Oxon, England: CAB International. ISBN 978-1-84593-350-0.  Reginald, Robert; Elliot, Jeffrey (1983). Tempest in a Teapot: The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
War. Wheeling, Illinois: Whitehall Co. ISBN 978-0-89370-267-0.  Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World (2nd ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.  Royle, Stephen (2001). A Geography of Islands: Small Island Insularity. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-16036-7.  Royle, Stephen (2006). Godfrey Baldacchino, ed. The Falkland Islands. Extreme Tourism: Lessons from the World's Cold Water Islands. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-044656-1.  Sainato, Vincenzo (2010). "Falkland Islands". In Graeme Newman; Janet Stamatel; Hang-en Sung. Crime and Punishment around the World. 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35133-4.  Segal, Gerald (1991). The World Affairs Companion. New York: Simon & Schuster/Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-671-74157-0.  Sicker, Martin (2002). The Geopolitics of Security in the Americas. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-97255-4.  Strange, Ian (1987). The Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and Their Natural History. Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-8833-4.  Taylor, Simon; Márkus, Gilbert (2005). The Place-Names of Fife: Central Fife between the Rivers Leven and Eden. Donington, England: Shaun Tyas. ISBN 978-1900289-93-1.  Thomas, David (1991). Wayne Smith, ed. The View from Whitehall. Toward Resolution? The Falklands/Malvinas Dispute. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-265-6.  Trewby, Mary (2002). Antarctica: An Encyclopedia from Abbott Ice Shelf to Zooplankton. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55297-590-9.  Wagstaff, William (2001). Falkland Islands: The Bradt Travel Guide. Buckinghamshire, England: Bradt Travel Guides, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84162-037-4.  Zepeda, Alexis (2005). "Argentina". In Will Kaufman; Heidi Slettedahl Macpherson. Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-431-8. 

Further reading

Caviedes, César (1994). "Conflict Over The Falkland Islands: A Never-Ending Story?". Latin American Research Review. 29 (2): 172–187. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.  Darwin, Charles (1846). "On the Geology of the Falkland Islands" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 2: 267–274. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1846.002.01-02.46. Retrieved 9 March 2013.  Escudé , Carlos; Cisneros, Andrés, eds. (2000). Historia de las Relaciones Exteriores Argentinas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: GEL/Nuevohacer. ISBN 978-950-694-546-6.  Work developed and published under the auspices of the Argentine Council for International Relations (CARI). Freedman, Lawrence (2005). The Official History of the Falklands Campaign. Oxon, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-5207-8.  Greig, D. W. (1983). " Sovereignty
Sovereignty
and the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Crisis" (PDF). Australian Year Book of International Law. 8: 20–70. ISSN 0084-7658.  Ivanov, L. L.; et al. (2003). The Future of the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
and Its People. Sofia, Bulgaria: Manfred Wörner Foundation. ISBN 978-954-91503-1-5.  Printed in Bulgaria by Double T Publishers.

External links

Wikimedia Atlas of Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Government
Falkland Islands Government
(official site) Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Development Corporation (official site) Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
News Network (official site) Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Profile (BBC)  "Falkland Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). 1911. 

Places adjacent to Falkland Islands

 Argentina Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean

 Chile Strait
Strait
of Magellan

Falkland Islands

Atlantic Ocean South Georgia

Tierra del Fuego Drake Passage Drake Passage South Shetland Islands Antarctic
Antarctic
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v t e

Falkland Islands articles

History

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
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Geography

Islands

Arch Bald Barclay Barren Beaver Beauchene Bird Bleaker Burdwood Bank Carcass Dunbar Dyke East Falkland

Lafonia

Elephant Cays Eddystone Rock Fox George Golding Great Hummock Island Jason Keppel Kidney Lively Long New Passage Patagonian Shelf Pebble Penn Quaker Ruggles Saunders Sea Lion Speedwell Staats Swan Tea Tyson Weddell West Falkland West Point

Locations

Airport Ajax Bay Bay of Harbours Bertha's Beach Brenton Loch Bull Point Camp Cape Bougainville Cape Pembroke Chatham Darwin Eagle Passage Falkland Sound Fox Bay French Goose Green Grantham Sound Green Patch Gull Hill Cove Hope Harbour Hornby Mountains Horse Johnson's Harbour Lafonia Loop Mount Adam Mount Maria Mount Usborne Mount Weddell New Haven New Year Cove No Man's Land North Arm Pebble Island
Pebble Island
Settlement Pillar Pleasant Peak Port Albemarle Port Howard Port Louis Port Patterson Port San Carlos Port Stephens Quaker Harbour Race Salvador San Carlos Seal Bay Smylie Channel Stanley Stanley Harbour Swan Volunteer Point Weddell Point Weddell Settlement

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Outline Index

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 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 51°42′S 57°51′W / 51.700°S 57.850°W / -51.700; -57.850 (Stanley)

v t e

Countries, territories and dependencies of the United Kingdom

Constituent countries

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

Overseas territories

Akrotiri and Dhekelia1 Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic
Antarctic
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Crown dependencies

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Isle of Man Jersey

Former colonies

List of countries that have gained independence from the United Kingdom

1 Sovereign Base Areas.   2 Partial suspension of sovereignty due to the Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty.

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta
Malta
(Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta
Malta
(Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

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1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada
Canada
and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada
Canada
in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina
Argentina
during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

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Peri- Antarctic
Antarctic
countries and overseas territories

Argentina Australia

Heard Island and McDonald Islands Macquarie Island

Bouvet Island Chile Falkland Islands French Southern and Antarctic
Antarctic
Lands

Kerguelen Islands

New Zealand

New Zealand
New Zealand
Subantarctic
Subantarctic
Islands

South Africa

Prince Edward Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

"Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims in Antarctica itself.

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Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic
Antarctic
Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

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Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru
Peru
(Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their freedom by Spain

Territorial disputes

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Territorial disputes involving the United Kingdom

Gibraltar Falkland Islands Rockall South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands British Antarctic
Antarctic
Territory British Indian Ocean Territory

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Territorial disputes involving Argentina

Argentine Antarctica Falkland Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Southern Patagonian Ice Field

List of violent incidents at the Argentine border

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English-speaking world

Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region

Further links

Articles

English-speaking world History of the English language British Empire English in the Commonwealth of Nations Anglosphere

Lists

List of countries by English-speaking population List of countries where English is an official language

 

Countries and territories where English is the national language or the native language of the majority

Africa

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Americas

Anguilla Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Europe

Guernsey Ireland Isle of Man Jersey United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand Norfolk Island Pitcairn Islands

 

Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

Botswana Cameroon The Gambia Ghana Kenya Lesotho Liberia Malawi Mauritius Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Sierra Leone Somaliland South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Americas

Puerto Rico

Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

Gibraltar Malta

Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Coordinates: 51°41′S 59°10′W / 51.683°S 59.167°W / -51.683; -59.167

Portals Access related topics

Argentina
Argentina
portal Latin America portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155354899 GND: 40711

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