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The FIM-92 Stinger
FIM-92 Stinger
is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). It can be adapted to fire from a wide variety of ground vehicles and helicopters (as an AAM). Developed in the United States, it entered service in 1981 and is used by the militaries of the United States
United States
and by 29 other countries. It is principally manufactured by Raytheon
Raytheon
Missile Systems and is produced under license by EADS
EADS
in Germany
Germany
and by Roketsan
Roketsan
in Turkey
Turkey
with 70,000 missiles produced.

Contents

1 Description 2 History 3 Variants 4 Service

4.1 Falklands War 4.2 Soviet War in Afghanistan 4.3 Angolan Civil War 4.4 Libyan invasion of Chad 4.5 Tajik civil war 4.6 Chechen War 4.7 Sri Lankan Civil War 4.8 United States 4.9 Syrian civil war

5 Operators

5.1 Current operators

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Description[edit]

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Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger
FIM-92 Stinger
is a passive surface-to-air missile that can be shoulder-fired by a single operator (although standard military procedure calls for two operators, spotter and gunner). The FIM-92B missile can also be fired from the M-1097 Avenger and the M6 Linebacker. The missile is also capable of being deployed from a Humvee
Humvee
Stinger rack, and can be used by airborne troops. A helicopter launched version exists called Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS). The missile is 5.0 ft (1.52 m) long and 2.8 in (70 mm) in diameter with 10 cm fins. The missile itself weighs 22 lb (10.1 kg), while the missile with launcher weighs approximately 34 lb (15.2 kg). The Stinger is launched by a small ejection motor that pushes it a safe distance from the operator before engaging the main two-stage solid-fuel sustainer, which accelerates it to a maximum speed of Mach 2.54 (750 m/s). The warhead is a 3 kg penetrating hit-to-kill warhead type with an impact fuze and a self-destruct timer.

Launcher with cage-like IFF antenna unfolded

Launcher with IFF antenna folded

To fire the missile, a BCU (Battery Coolant Unit) is inserted into the handguard. This shoots a stream of argon gas into the system, as well as a chemical energy charge that enables the acquisition indicators and missile to get power. The batteries are somewhat sensitive to abuse, with a limited amount of gas. Over time, and without proper maintenance, they can become unserviceable. The IFF system receives power from a rechargeable battery. Guidance to the target is initially through proportional navigation, then switches to another mode that directs the missile towards the target airframe instead of its exhaust plume. There are three main variants in use: the Stinger basic, STINGER-Passive Optical Seeker Technique (POST), and STINGER-Reprogrammable Microprocessor (RMP). These correspond to the FIM-92A, FIM-92B, and FIM-92C and later variants respectively. The POST has a dual-detector seeker: IR and UV. This allows it to distinguish targets from countermeasures much better than the Redeye and FIM-92A, which have IR-only. While modern flares can have an IR signature that is closely matched to the launching aircraft's engine exhaust, there is a readily distinguishable difference in UV signature between flares and jet engines.[2] The Stinger-RMP is so-called because of its ability to load a new set of software via ROM chip inserted in the grip at the depot. If this download to the missile fails during power-up, basic functionality runs off the on-board ROM. The four-processor RMP has 4 KB of RAM for each processor. Since the downloaded code runs from RAM, there is little space to spare, particularly for processors dedicated to seeker input processing and target analysis. History[edit]

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A U.S. Marine fires an FIM-92A Stinger missile during a July 2009 training exercise in California.

Initial work on the missile was begun by General Dynamics
General Dynamics
in 1967 as the FM-43 Redeye II. Production of the Redeye II ran from 1969 to 1982 where some 85,000 were in circulation.[3] It was accepted for further development by the U.S. Army in 1971 and designated FIM-92; the Stinger appellation was chosen in 1972. Because of technical difficulties that dogged testing, the first shoulder launch was not until mid-1975. Production of the FIM-92A began in 1978 to replace the FIM-43 Redeye. An improved Stinger with a new seeker, the FIM-92B, was produced from 1983 alongside the FIM-92A. Production of both the A and B types ended in 1987 with around 16,000 missiles produced. The replacement FIM-92C had been developed from 1984 and production began in 1987. The first examples were delivered to front-line units in 1989. C-type missiles were fitted with a reprogrammable electronics system to allow for upgrades. The missiles which received a counter-measures upgrade were designated D and later upgrades to the D were designated G. The FIM-92E or Block I was developed from 1992 and delivered from 1995 (certain sources state that the FIM-92D is also part of the Block I development). The main changes were again in the sensor and the software, improving the missile's performance against smaller and low-signature targets. A software upgrade in 2001 was designated F. Block II development began in 1996 using a new focal plane array sensor to improve the missile's effectiveness in "high clutter" environments and increase the engagement range to about 25,000 feet (7,600 m). Production was scheduled for 2004, but Jane's reports that this may be on hold[when?]. Since 1984 the Stinger has been issued to many U.S. Navy warships for point defense, particularly in Middle Eastern waters, with a three-man team that can perform other duties when not conducting Stinger training or maintenance. Until it was decommissioned in September 1993, the U.S. Navy had at least one Stinger Gunnery Detachment attached to Beachmaster Unit Two in Little Creek Virginia. The sailors of this detachment would deploy to carrier battlegroups in teams of two to four sailors per ship as requested by Battle Group Commanders. Variants[edit]

FIM-92A, Stinger Basic: The basic model.[4] FIM-92B, Stinger POST: In this version, the infrared seeker head was replaced by a combined IR/UV seeker that utilized rosette scanning. This resulted in achieving significantly higher resistance to enemy countermeasures (flares) and natural disturbances. Production ran from 1981 to 1987; a total of 600 missiles were produced.[4] FIM-92C, Stinger RMP: The resistance to interference was increased again by adding more powerful digital computer components. Moreover, the software of the missile could now be reconfigured in a short time in order to respond quickly and efficiently to new types of countermeasures. Until 1991, some 20,000 units were produced for the U.S. Army alone.[4] FIM-92D: Various modifications were continued with this version in order to increase the resistance to interference.[4] FIM-92E: Stinger – RMP Block I: By adding a new rollover sensor and revised control software, the flight behavior was significantly improved. Additionally, the performance against small targets such as drones, cruise missiles and light reconnaissance helicopters was improved. The first deliveries began in 1995. Almost the entire stock of U.S. Stinger missiles was replaced by this version.[4] FIM-92F: A further improvement of the E version and the current production version.[4] FIM-92G: An unspecified upgrade for the D variant.[4] FIM-92H: Indicates a D variant that has been upgraded to the E standard.[4] FIM-92?, Stinger – RMP Block II: This variant was a planned developed based on the E version. The improvements included an imaging infrared seeker head from the AIM-9X. With this modification, the detection distance and the resistance to jamming was to be greatly increased. Changes to the airframe would furthermore enable a significant increase in range. Although the missile reached the testing phase, the program was dropped in 2002 for budgetary reasons.[4] FIM-92J, Block 1 missile upgrade to replace aging components to extend service life an additional 10 years. Upgrades include a proximity fuse warhead section, equipped with a target detection device to increase effectiveness against unmanned aerial vehicles,[5][6] a new flight motor and gas generator cartridge, as well as o-rings and desiccant cartridges.[7] ADSM, Air Defense Missile
Missile
Suppression: A variant with an additional passive radar seeker, this variant can also be used against radar wave transmitters.[4]

Service[edit]

U.S. Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade stand next to a FIM-92A Stinger portable missile launcher during the Persian Gulf War.

A Stinger missile being launched from a U.S. Marine Corps AN/TWQ-1 Avenger in April 2000.

Falklands War[edit] The Stinger's combat debut occurred during the Falklands War
Falklands War
fought between the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Argentina. At the onset of the conflict soldiers of the British Army's Special Air Service
Special Air Service
had been clandestinely equipped with six missiles, although they had received little instruction in their use. The sole SAS trooper who had received training on the system, and was due to train other troops, was killed in a helicopter crash on 19 May.[8] Nonetheless, on 21 May 1982 an SAS soldier engaged and shot down an Argentine Pucará ground attack aircraft with a Stinger.[9] On 30 May, at about 11.00 a.m., an Aerospatiale SA-330 Puma helicopter was brought down by another missile, also fired by the SAS, in the vicinity of Mount Kent. Six National Gendarmerie Special
Special
Forces were killed and eight more wounded.[10] The main MANPADS
MANPADS
used by both sides during the Falklands War was the Blowpipe missile. Soviet War in Afghanistan[edit] See also: List of Soviet aircraft losses during the Soviet–Afghan War The story of the Stingers in Afghanistan was popularly told in the media by western sources primarily, notably in Charlie Wilson's War by George Crile, and Ghost Wars by Steve Coll. In late 1985, several groups, such as Free the Eagle, began arguing the CIA was not doing enough to support the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
in the Soviet–Afghan War. Michael Pillsbury, Vincent Cannistraro, and others put enormous bureaucratic pressure on the CIA to provide the Stinger to the rebels. The idea was controversial because up to that point, the CIA had been operating with the pretense that the United States was not involved in the war directly, for various reasons. All weapons supplied up to that point were non-U.S. made weapons, like Type 56
Type 56
rifles purchased from China,[11] and AK-47
AK-47
and AKM
AKM
AK derivatives purchased from Egypt. The final say-so came down to President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
of Pakistan, through whom the CIA had to pass all of its funding and weapons to the Mujahideen. President Zia constantly had to gauge how much he could "make the pot boil" in Afghanistan without provoking a Soviet invasion of his own country. According to George Crile III, U.S. Representative Charlie Wilson's relationship with Zia was instrumental in the final go-ahead for the Stinger introduction.[11] Wilson and his associates at first viewed the Stinger as "just adding another component to the lethal mix we were building."[11] Their increasingly successful Afghanistan strategy, formed largely by Michael G. Vickers, was based on a broad mix of weapons, tactics, and logistics, not a 'silver bullet solution' of a single weapon. Furthermore, the previous attempts to provide MANPADs to the Mujahideen, namely the SA-7
SA-7
and Blowpipe, hadn't worked very well.[11] Engineer Ghaffar, of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami, brought down the first Hind gunship with a Stinger on September 25, 1986 near Jalalabad.[11][12][13] As part of Operation Cyclone, the CIA eventually supplied nearly 500 Stingers (some sources claim 1,500–2,000) to the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
in Afghanistan,[14] and 250 launchers.[15] The impact of the Stinger on the outcome of the war is contested, particularly in the translation between the impact on the tactical battlefield to the strategic level withdrawal, and the influence the first had on the second.[16] Dr. Robert F. Baumann (of the Staff College at Fort Leavenworth) described its impact on "Soviet tactical operations" as "unmistakable". [17][18] This opinion was shared by Yossef Bodansky.[19][16] Soviet, and later, Russian, accounts give little significance to the Stinger for strategically ending the war.[14][20][21] According to the 1993 US US Air Defense Artillery Yearbook, the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
gunners used the supplied Stingers to score approximately 269 total aircraft kills in about 340 engagements, a 79-percent kill ratio.[22] If this report is accurate, Stingers would be responsible for over half of the 451 Soviet aircraft losses in Afghanistan.[16] But these statistics are based on Mujahedin self-reporting, which is of unknown reliability. Selig Harrison rejects such figures, quoting a Russian general who claims the United States
United States
"greatly exaggerated" Soviet and Afghan aircraft losses during the war. According to Soviet figures, in 1987-1988, only 35 aircraft and 63 helicopters were destroyed by all causes.[23] The Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
fired twenty-eight Stingers at enemy aircraft without a single kill.[16] According to Crile, who includes information from Alexander Prokhanov, the Stinger was a "turning point".[11] Milt Bearden saw it as a "force multiplier" and morale booster.[11] Representative Charlie Wilson, the politician behind Operation Cyclone, described the first Stinger Mi-24 shootdowns in 1986 as one of the three crucial moments of his experience in the war, saying "we never really won a set-piece battle before September 26, and then we never lost one afterwards."[24][25] He was given the first spent Stinger tube as a gift and kept it on his office wall.[11][25] That launch tube is now on exhibit at the US Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, OK. Many Russian military analysts tend to be dismissive of the impact to the Stinger. According to Alan J. Kuperman, The stingers did make an impact at first but within a few months flares, beacons, and exhaust baffles were installed to disorient the missiles, along with night operation and terrain-hugging tactics to prevent the rebels from getting a clear shot. By 1988, Kuperman states, the mujahideen had all but stopped firing them.[26] Another source (Jonathan Steele) states that Stingers forced Soviet helicopters and ground attack planes to bomb from higher altitudes with less accuracy, but did not bring down many more aircraft than Chinese heavy machine guns and other less sophisticated antiaircraft weaponry.[27] The last Stingers were supplied in 1988 after increasing reports of fighters selling them to Iran
Iran
and thawing relations with Moscow.[13][28] After the 1989 Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. attempted to buy back the Stinger missiles, with a $55 million program launched in 1990 to buy back around 300 missiles (US$183,300 each).[29] The U.S. government collected most of the Stingers it had delivered, but by 1996 around 600 were unaccounted for and some found their way into Croatia, Iran, Sri Lanka, Qatar, and North Korea.[30][31] According to the CIA, already in August 1988 the U.S. had demanded from Qatar
Qatar
the return of Stinger missiles.[32] Wilson later told CBS he "lived in terror" that a civilian airliner would be shot down by a Stinger, but he did not have misgivings about having provided Stingers to defeat the Soviets.[25] Angolan Civil War[edit] The Reagan administration provided 310 Stingers to Jonas Savimbi's UNITA
UNITA
movement in Angola
Angola
between 1986 and 1989.[33] As in Afghanistan, efforts to recover missiles after the end of hostilities proved incomplete. The battery of a Stinger lasts for four or five years, so any battery supplied in the 1980s would now be inoperative[34] but during the Syrian Civil War, insurgents showed how easily they switched to different batteries, including widespread car batteries, as power sources for several MANPADS
MANPADS
models.[35] Libyan invasion of Chad[edit] The French army used 15 firing positions and 30 missiles purchased in 1983/83 for operations in Chad. The 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment made an unsuccessful fire during a Libyan bombardment on 10 September 1987 and shot down a Hercules transport aircraft on 7 July 1988[36]. The Chadian government received Stinger missiles from the United States, when Libya invaded the northern part of the African country. On 8 October 1987, a Libyan Su-22MK was shot down by a FIM-92A fired by Chadian forces. The pilot, Capt. Diya al-Din, ejected and was captured. He was later granted political asylum by the French government. During the recovery operation, a Libyan MiG-23MS was shot down by a FIM-92A.[37] Tajik civil war[edit] Tajik Islamist opposition forces operating from Afghanistan during the 1992–97 Tajik civil war encountered a heavy air campaign launched by Russia and Uzbekistan to prop up the government in Dushanbe
Dushanbe
that included border and cross-border raids. During one of these operations, a Sukhoi Su-24M was shot down on 3 May 1993 with a Stinger fired by fundamentalists. Both Russian pilots were rescued.[38][39] Chechen War[edit] Russian officials claimed several times the presence of US-made Stinger missiles in the hands of the Chechen militia and insurgents. They attributed few of their aerial losses to the American MANPADS. The presence of such missiles was confirmed by photo evidence even if it is not clear their actual number nor their origin.[40] It is believed one Sukhoi Su-24
Sukhoi Su-24
was shot down by a Stinger missile during the Second Chechen War.[41] Sri Lankan Civil War[edit] The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
also managed to acquire one or several Stingers, possibly from former Mujahideen
Mujahideen
stocks, and used at least one to down a Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Air Force Mi-24
Mi-24
on November 10, 1997.[31][42] United States[edit] The current U.S. inventory contains 13,400 missiles. The total cost of the program is $7,281,000,000.[1] It is rumored that the United States Secret Service has Stinger missiles to defend the President, a notion that has never been dispelled; however, U.S. Secret Service plans favor moving the President to a safer place in the event of an attack rather than shooting down the plane, lest the missile (or the wreckage of the target aircraft) hit innocents.[43] During the 1980s, the Stinger was used to support different US-aligned guerrilla forces, notably the Afghan Mujahidins, the Chad
Chad
government against the Libyan invasion and the Angolan UNITA. The Nicaraguan contras were not provided with Stingers due to the lack of fixed wing aircraft of the Sandinista government, as such the previous generation FIM-43 Redeye
FIM-43 Redeye
was considered adequate.[20] Syrian civil war[edit] In the Syrian civil war, Turkey
Turkey
reportedly helped to transport to the anti-government rebels a limited amount of FIM-92 Stingers.[44][45] Operators[edit]

Map with FIM-92 operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

Afghan Mujahideen  Bangladesh[4]  Bosnia and Herzegovina[4]  Croatia[4]  Chad[4]  Chile[4]  Colombia[46]  Denmark[4]  Egypt[4]  Finland[47]  Georgia[4]  Germany: Stingers made under license by EADS.[48]  Greece[4]  Iran[49][50][51]  Iraq[4]  Israel[4]  India[4]   Italy
Italy
150 launchers, 450 FIM-92A missiles delivered in 1986–1988 for 51 million dollars, 50 missiles delivered in 2000–2002 for 10 million dollars to operate from A-129 Mangusta and 200 missiles delivered in 2003–2004 (SIPRI).[4]  Japan[4]  South Korea[52]  Latvia[4][53]  Lithuania[4]  Netherlands[4]  Norway[4]  Pakistan: 350 in service with the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army.[54][55]  Portugal[4]  Republic of China (Taiwan): Republic of China Marine Corps, Republic of China Army[56]  Slovenia[4]   Switzerland[4]  Turkey: Stingers made under license by Roketsan.[57] UNITA[33]  United Kingdom[4]  United States[4]

See also[edit]

9K38 Igla
9K38 Igla
(SA-18 "Grouse") – the Soviet Union's equivalent missile during the Cold War 9K333 Verba
9K333 Verba
– in Russia developed replacement for 9K38 Igla AIM-92 Stinger Anti-aircraft warfare Anza (missile) Grom – a man-portable air-defence system produced in Poland Mistral missile Operation MIAS QW-1 Vanguard – the Chinese equivalent Starstreak
Starstreak
– a British MANPADS United States Army
United States Army
Aviation and Missile
Missile
Command List of crew served weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces

References[edit]

^ a b "FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic". Federation of American Scientists.  ^ John Pike. "FIM-92A Stinger Weapons System: RMP & Basic". globalsecurity.org.  ^ " General Dynamics
General Dynamics
/ Raytheon
Raytheon
FIM-92 Stinger
FIM-92 Stinger
- Development and Operational History, Performance Specifications and Picture Gallery". Retrieved 2016-08-26.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag " General Dynamics
General Dynamics
/ Raytheon
Raytheon
FIM-92 Stinger
FIM-92 Stinger
– Man-Portable, Air Defense Missile
Missile
System – History, Specs and Pictures – Military, Security and Civilian Guns and Equipment". militaryfactory.com.  ^ http://www.army-technology.com/news/newsus-army-starts-upgrade-of-fim-92e-stinger-block-i-missiles-4425281 ^ Osborn, Kris (6 November 2014). "Army Upgrades Stinger Missiles". Kitup.Military.com. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ Stinger upgrade to increase service life, capabilities - Army.mil, 29 October 2014 ^ "Britain's Small Wars". Facebook. Archived from the original on 2009-11-07.  ^ "San Carlos Air Battles - Falklands War
Falklands War
1982". naval-history.net.  ^ "Argentine Puma shot down by american "Stinger" missile. — MercoPress". MercoPress.  ^ a b c d e f g h Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History, George Crile, 2003, Grove/Atlantic. ^ Military engineer recounts role in Soviet-Afghan war, By Michael Gisick, Stars and Stripes, Published: September 11, 2008 ^ a b "Successful surface-to-air missile attack shows threat to airliners". HomeLand1.  ^ a b Malley, William (2002) The Afghanistan wars. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 80. ISBN 0-333-80290-X ^ Hilali, A. Z. (2005). US- Pakistan
Pakistan
relationship: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. p. 169. ISBN 0-7546-4220-8 ^ a b c d Alan J. Kuperman. "The Stinger missile and U.S. intervention in Afghanistan" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. 114 (Summer 1999): 219.  ^ Robert F. Baumann "Compound War Case Study: The Soviets in Afghanistan". In Compound warfare: That fatal knot Thomas M. Huber (ed.) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Press, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. pg 296 ^ John Pike. "COMPOUND WAR CASE STUDY: THE SOVIETS IN AFGHANISTAN". globalsecurity.org.  ^ Yossef Bodansky. "SAMs in Afghanistan: assessing the impact." Jane's Defence Weekly, vol. 8, no. 03, 1987 PP. 153-154 ^ a b CUSHMAN Jr, JOHN H. (17 January 1988). "THE WORLD: The Stinger Missile; HELPING TO CHANGE THE COURSE OF A WAR". The New York Times.  ^ Scott, Peter (2003). Drugs, oil, and war: the United States
United States
in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina. Rowman & Littlefield, p. 5. ISBN 0-7425-2522-8 ^ Blair Case, Lisa B. Henry. "Air Defense Artillery Yearbook 1993" (PDF). US Army Air Defense Artillery Branch. p. 20.  ^ Hammerich, Helmut (2010). Die Grenzen des Militärischen. Berlin: Hartmann, Miles-Verl. p. 195. ISBN 9783937885308.  ^ A conversation with Charlie Wilson Archived 2012-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., Charlie Rose, PBS, April 24, 2008, via charlierose.com ^ a b c Charlie Did It, CBS News, 60 minutes. December 19, 2007 9:51 AM, From March 13, 2001: Former Rep. Charlie Wilson looks back on his efforts to arm the Mujahedeen against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
back in the 1980s. Mike Wallace reports. ^ Kuperman, Alan J. (January–February 2002). "Stinging Rebukes". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 16 July 2015.  ^ Steele, Jonathan (2010). "Afghan Ghosts: American Myths". World affairs journal. Retrieved 16 July 2015.  ^ "Afghanistan PSYOP Leaflet". psywarrior.com.  ^ Weiner, Tim (24 July 1993). "U.S. Increases Fund To Outbid Terrorists For Afghan Missiles". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-12.  ^ Stinger missile system Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Matthew Schroeder (July 28, 2010). "Stop Panicking About the Stingers". Foreign Policy.  ^ " Middle East
Middle East
brief (deleted) for 2 August 1988: In brief: x—Qatar" (pdf). Central Intelligence Agency. 1988-08-02. p. 3. Retrieved 2010-11-14.  ^ a b "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Retrieved 2013-06-20.  ^ Silverstein, Ken (3 October 2001). "Stingers, Stingers, Who's Got the Stingers?". Slate. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ "Improvised MANPADS
MANPADS
batteries employed in Syria Armament Research Services". armamentresearch.com. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ Arnaud Delalande, The Ghost Plane of Faya-Largeau, 9 january 2018. ^ http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_360.shtml ^ John Pike. "Uzbekistan- Air Force". globalsecurity.org.  ^ Human Rights in Tajikistan: In the Wake of Civil War By Escrito por Rachel Denber, Barnett R. Rubin, Jeri Laber. Google Books. ^ "Militaryphotos.net". www.militaryphotos.net. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ Pashin, Alexander. "Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya". Moscow Defense Brief. Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2014.  ^ Harro Ranter. "ASN Aircraft accident 10-NOV-1997 Mil Mi-24
Mil Mi-24
CH619". aviation-safety.net.  ^ Stephen Labaton (September 13, 1994). "Crash at the White House: The defenses; Pilot's Exploit Rattles White House Officials". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-08.  ^ "Clinton: Chemical warfare is planned for. Rebels get first anti-air Stingers". Debka.com. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ "Syrian Rebels Claim to Have Brought Down a Jet". New York Times. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ Infodefensa.com (2015-09-23). " Colombia
Colombia
adquiere 60 misiles antiaéreos Stinger y 100 TOW antitanques - Noticias Infodefensa América" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ "HS: Finland
Finland
to splurge 90 million on US Stinger missiles". Yle Uutiset.  ^ Tiger Attack Helicopter, Europe. Retrieved on October 24, 2008.[unreliable source?] ^ Times, Stephen Engelberg With Bernard E. Trainor, Special
Special
To The New York (1987-10-17). "Iranians Captured Stinger Missiles From Afghan Guerrillas, U.S. Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ "Pak general says Iran
Iran
stole Stinger missiles". iran-times.com.  ^ https://books.google.se/books?id=bgmqCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA76&lpg=PA76&dq=Stinger+iran+iraq+war&source=bl&ots=fUZxfiB0TW&sig=GqLIbNmo7--TvgB6t_3eaS64iDM&hl=sv&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi_hOeanPLXAhXIIpoKHfXrByQQ6AEIRzAI#v=onepage&q=Stinger%20iran%20iraq%20war&f=false ^ "Stingers for South Korea
South Korea
AH-64E Apaches". Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ Tomkins, Richard (23 August 2017). " Latvia
Latvia
buying Stinger air-defense missiles from Denmark". United Press International. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.  ^ Singh, R.S.N. (2005). Asian Strategic And Military Perspective. Lancer Publishers. p. 238. ISBN 9788170622451.  ^ Sumit Ganguly & S. Paul Kapur (2008). Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia: Crisis Behaviour and the Bomb. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-203-89286-2.  ^ "defpro.com". www.defpro.com. Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  ^ Official Roketsan
Roketsan
Stinger Page. Archived 2009-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on October 23, 2008.

Further reading[edit]

O'Halloran James C., and Christopher F. Foss (eds.). Jane's Land-Based Air Defence 2005–2006. Couldson, Surrey: Jane's Information Group, 2005. ISBN 0-7106-2697-5.

External links[edit]

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AN/MSQ-18 Battalion Missile
Missile
Operations System AN/PAS-13 AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite AN/SPS-49 AN/SQQ-32 Mine-hunting sonar AN/TPQ-36 Firefinder radar AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder radar AN/TPQ-53 Quick Reaction Capability Radar ASARS-2 Beechcraft AQM-37 Jayhawk Tomahawk Controlled Impact Rescue Tool Counter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar FGM-148 Javelin FIM-92 Stinger FMRAAM GBU-53/B Ground-Based Midcourse Defense HARM targeting system JLENS Mark 48 torpedo Mark 54 MAKO Lightweight Torpedo MIM-23 Hawk MIM-104 Patriot Network Centric Airborne Defense Element Paveway Paveway
Paveway
IV Phalanx CIWS Pyros RAYDAC Raytheon
Raytheon
Coyote Raytheon
Raytheon
Lectron Raytheon
Raytheon
Sentinel RIM-116 Rolling Airframe
Airframe
Missile RIM-66 Standard RIM-67 Standard RIM-161 Standard Missile
Missile
3 Sea-based X-band Radar SLAMRAAM Space Fence Vigilant Eagle XM501 Non-Line-of-Sight Launch System

Related

Raytheon
Raytheon
9

Current U.S. infantry service weapons and cartridges

Handguns

M9 M11 Mk 25 P229R DAK M45A1 Mk 23 Mk 24 Glock 19 Ruger KP95D

Rifles

Assault rifles and Battle rifles

M16 M27 Mk 16

Mk 17 Mk 14 M14

Carbines and Personal defense weapons

HK416 M4 GUU-5/P M231

Mk 18

Designated marksman rifles

Mk 14 M39 M14 M21A5 M25 Mk 12 SDMR SEAL Recon Rifle

Anti-materiel rifles and Sniper rifles

M40 Mk 21 M2010 Mk 13 M110 Mk 11 Mk 20

M82 Mk 15

Shotguns

M870 M500 M26 M1014

Submachine guns

MP5 MP7A1 Colt 9mm SMG

Machine guns

M2 M249 Mk 46 M27 M240 M60 Mk 48

Ordnance

Grenade launchers

Mk 13 M320 M203 M79 XM25 M32 Mk 19 Mk 47

Mortars

M120 M224 M252 M327

Rockets

M72 M202 Mk 153 M141 M3 M136

Missiles

BGM-71 TOW FGM-148 Javelin FIM-92 Stinger

AFV Guns

M242 M68 M256

Cartridges

12-gauge 9×19mm NATO .45 ACP 5.56×45mm NATO 7.62×51mm NATO .300 Winchester Magnum 338 Lapua .50 BMG 40×46mm & 40×53mm 25×137mm

v t e

1962 United States
United States
Tri-Service missile and drone designation system

1–50

MGM-1 RIM-2 MIM-3 AIM-4 MGM-5 RGM-6 AIM-7/RIM-7 RIM-8 AIM-9 CIM-10 PGM-11 AGM-12 CGM-13/MGM-13 MIM-14 RGM-15 CGM-16 PGM-17 MGM-18 PGM-19 ADM-20 MGM-21 AGM-22 MIM-23 RIM-24 HGM-25A/LGM-25C AIM-26 UGM-27 AGM-28 MGM-29 LGM-30 MGM-31 MGM-32 MQM-33 AQM-34 AQM-35 MQM-36 AQM-37 AQM-38 MQM-39 MQM-40 AQM-41 MQM-42 FIM-43 UUM-44 AGM-45 MIM-46 AIM-47 AGM-48 XLIM-49 LIM-49 RIM-50

51–100

MGM-51 MGM-52 AGM-53 AIM-54 RIM-55 PQM-56 MQM-57 MQM-58 RGM-59 AQM-60 MQM-61 AGM-62 AGM-63 AGM-64 AGM-65 RIM-66 RIM-67 AIM-68 AGM-69 LEM-70 BGM-71 MIM-72 UGM-73 BQM-74 BGM-75 AGM-76 FGM-77 AGM-78 AGM-79 AGM-80 AQM-81 AIM-82 AGM-83 AGM-84/RGM-84/UGM-84 AGM-84E AGM-84E/H/K RIM-85 AGM-86 AGM-87 AGM-88 UGM-89 BQM-90 AQM-91 FIM-92/AIM-92 XQM-93 YQM-94 AIM-95 UGM-96 AIM-97 YQM-98 LIM-99 LIM-100

101–150

RIM-101 PQM-102 AQM-103 MIM-104 MQM-105 BQM-106 MQM-107 BQM-108 BGM-109/AGM-109/RGM-109/UGM-109 BGM-110 BQM-111 AGM-112 RIM-113 AGM-114 MIM-115 RIM-116 FQM-117 LGM-118 AGM-119 AIM-120 CQM-121/CGM-121 AGM-122 AGM-123 AGM-124 RUM-125/UUM-125 BQM-126 AQM-127 AQM-128 AGM-129 AGM-130 AGM-131 AIM-132 UGM-133 MGM-134 ASM-135 AGM-136 AGM-137 CEM-138 RUM-139 MGM-140 ADM-141 AGM-142 MQM-143 ADM-144 BQM-145 MIM-146 BQM-147 FGM-148 PQM-149 PQM-150

151–

FQM-151 AIM-152 AGM-153 AGM-154 BQM-155 RIM-156 MGM-157 AGM-158A/B/AGM-158C AGM-159 ADM-160 RIM-161 RIM-162 GQM-163 MGM-164 RGM-165 MGM-166 BQM-167 MGM-168 AGM-169 MQM-170 MQM-171 FGM-172 GQM-173 RIM-174 MQM-175 AGM-176 BQM-177 MQM-178 AGM-179 AGM-180 AGM-181

Undesignated

Aequare ASALM Brazo Common Missile Ground-Based Interceptor Have Dash Kinetic Energy Interceptor MA-31 NCADE NLOS Pershing II Senior Prom Sprint Wagtail

See also: United States
United States
tri-service rocket designations post-1962 Drones designated in

.