This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter E. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.


Latin Translation Notes
e causa ignota of unknown cause Often used in medicine when the underlying disease causing a symptom is not known. Cf. idiopathic.
e pluribus unum out of many, one Literally, out of more (than one), one. Used on many U.S. coins and inscribed on the Capitol. Also used as the motto of S.L. Benfica. Less commonly written as ex pluribus unum.
ecce ancilla domini behold the handmaiden of the Lord name of oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, motto of Bishopslea Preparatory School.
Ecce homo Behold the man From the Latin Vulgate Gospel of John 19:5 (Douay-Rheims), where Pontius Pilate speaks these words as he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. It is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the theme music by Howard Goodall for the ITV comedy Mr. Bean, in which the full sung lyric is Ecce homo qui est faba ("Behold the man who is a bean").
ecce panis angelorum behold the bread of angels A quote from the Lauda Sion, occasionally inscribed near the altar in Catholic churches; it makes reference to the Host; the Eucharist; the bread of Heaven; the Body of Christ. See also: Panis Angelicus.
editio princeps first edition The first printed edition of a work.
ejusdem generis of the same kinds, class, or nature From the canons of statutory interpretation. When a list of two or more specific descriptors is followed by more general descriptors, the otherwise wide meaning of the general descriptors must be restricted to the same class, if any, of the specific words that precede them.
ego te absolvo I absolve you Part of the absolution-formula spoken by a priest as part of the sacrament of Penance (cf. absolvo).
ego te provoco I challenge you Used as a challenge, "I dare you". Can also be written as te provoco
eheu fugaces labuntur anni Alas, the fleeting years slip by From Horace's Odes II, 14.
eluceat omnibus lux let the light shine out from all The motto of Sidwell Friends School
emeritus veteran Retired from office. Often used to denote a position held at the point of retirement, as an honor, such as professor emeritus or provost emeritus. This does not necessarily mean that the honorand is no longer active.
ens causa sui existing because of oneself Or "being one's own cause". Traditionally, a being that owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a Supreme Being (cf. Primum Mobile).
ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem by the sword she seeks a serene repose under liberty State motto of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775.
entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity Occam's Razor or Law of Parsimony; that is, that arguments which do not introduce extraneous variables are to be preferred in logical argumentation.
entitas ipsa involvit aptitudinem ad extorquendum certum assensum reality involves a power to compel sure assent A phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the nature of truth.
eo ipso by that very (act) Technical term used in philosophy and the law. Similar to ipso facto. Example: "The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think." From Latin eo ipso, ablative form of id ipsum, "that (thing) itself".
eo nomine by that name
equo ne credite do not trust the horse Virgil, Aeneid, II. 48–49; a reference to the Trojan Horse
erga omnes in relation to everyone
ergo therefore Denotes a logical conclusion (cf. cogito ergo sum).
errare humanum est to err is human Sometimes attributed to Seneca the Younger, but not attested: Errare humanum est, perseverare autem diabolicum, et tertia non datur (To err is human; to persist [in committing such errors] is of the devil, and the third possibility is not given.) Several authors contemplated the idea before Seneca: Livy Venia dignus error is humanus (Storie, VIII, 35) and Cicero: is Cuiusvis errare: insipientis nullius nisi, in errore perseverare (Anyone can err, but only the fool persists in his fault) (Philippicae XII, ii, 5). Cicero - well-versed in ancient Greek - may well have been alluding to Euripides' play Hippolytus some four centuries earlier.[1] 300 years later Augustine of Hippo recycled the idea in his Sermones (164, 14): Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in errore manere.[2] The phrase gained currency in English language after Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism (1711): "To err is human, to forgive divine." (line 325).
erratum error Or "mistake". Lists of errors in a previous edition of a work are often marked with the plural, errata ("errors").
errantis voluntas nulla est the will of a mistaken party is void Roman legal principle formulated by Pomponius in the Digest of the Corpus Juris Civilis, stating that legal actions undertaken by man under the influence of error are ineffective.
eruditio et religio scholarship and duty Motto of Duke University
esse est percipi to be is to be perceived George Berkeley's motto for his subjective idealist philosophical position that nothing exists independently of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.
esse quam videri to be, rather than to seem Truly being something, rather than merely seeming to be something. Motto of many institutions. From chapter 26 of Cicero's De amicitia ('On Friendship'). Earlier than Cicero, the phrase had been used by Sallust in his Bellum Catilinae (54.6), where he wrote that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat (he preferred to be good, rather than to seem so). Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line 592, ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei (he wishes not to seem the best, but to be the best); also motto of North Carolina and Ashville College, Cranbrook School, Sydney, Royal Holloway College and the Episcopal Academy.
est modus in rebus there is measure in things there is a middle ground in things, there is a middle way; from Horace's Satires 1.1.106; see also: Golden mean (philosophy). According to Potempski & Galmarini (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9471–9489, 2009) the sentence should be translated as: "There is an optimal condition in all things" which in the original text is followed by the sentence: "There are therefore precise boundaries beyond which one cannot find the right thing" (sunt certi denique fines quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum).
esto perpetua may it be perpetual Said of Venice by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo Sarpi shortly before his death. Also the state motto of Idaho, adopted in 1867, and of S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. It is also used as the open motto of Sigma Phi Society, a collegiate Greek Letter Fraternity.
esto quod es be what you are Motto of Wells Cathedral School.
et adhuc sub iudice lis est it is still before the court Horace, Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry) 1.78.
et alibi (et al.) and elsewhere A less common variant on et cetera used at the end of a list of locations to denote unlisted places.
et alii (et al.) and others Used similarly to et cetera ("and the rest"), to stand for a list of names. Alii is masculine, so it can be used for men, or groups of men and women; the feminine, et aliae, is appropriate when the "others" are all female; but as with many loanwords, interlingual use (such as in reference lists) is often invariable. Et alia is neuter plural and thus in Latin text is properly used only for inanimate, genderless objects, but some use it as a gender-neutral alternative.[3] APA style uses et al. (normal font)[4] if the work cited was written by more than six authors; MLA style uses et al. for more than three authors; AMA style lists all authors if ≤6, and 3 + et al if >6. AMA style forgoes the period (because it forgoes the period on abbreviations generally) and it forgoes the italic (as it does with other loanwords naturalized into scientific English); many journals that follow AMA style do likewise.
et cetera (etc. (US English); etc (UK English)) or (&c. (US); &c (UK)) And the rest In modern usage, used to mean "and so on" or "and more".
et facta est lux And light came to be or was made From Genesis 1:3 "and there was light". Motto of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia.
’’’Et facere et pati fortia Romanum est’’’ Acting and suffering bravely is the attribute of a Roman The words of Gaius Mucius Scaevola when taken prisoner by Lars Porsena
et hoc genus omne And all that sort of thing Abbreviated to e.h.g.o. or ehgo
et in Arcadia ego and in Arcadia [am] I In other words, "I, too, am in Arcadia". See memento mori.
et lux in tenebris lucet And light shines in the darkness See also Lux in Tenebris; motto for the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.
et nunc reges intelligite erudimini qui judicatis terram And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth. From the Book of Psalms, II.x. (Vulgate), 2.10 (Douay-Rheims).
et sequentes (et seq.) and the following (masc./fem. plural) Also et sequentia ('and the following things': neut.), abbreviations: et seqq., et seq., or sqq. Commonly used in legal citations to refer to statutes spread over several sequential sections of a code of statutes (e.g. National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 159 et seq.; New Jersey Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:25-17 et seq.).
et cum spiritu tuo And with your spirit A phrase from the Sursum corda of Christian liturgy.
et suppositio nil ponit in esse and a supposition puts nothing in being More typically translated as "Sayin' it don't make it so".
et tu, Brute? And you, Brutus? Also "Even you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" Used to indicate a betrayal by someone close. From Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, based on the traditional dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were almost certainly not Caesar's true last words; Plutarch quotes Caesar as saying, in Greek, the language of Rome's elite at the time, καὶ σὺ τέκνον; (Kaì sù téknon?), in English "You too, (my) child?", quoting from Menander.
et uxor (et ux.) and wife A legal term.
et vir and husband A legal term.
Etiam si omnes, ego non Even if all others... I will never Peter to Jesus Christ (from Vulgate Matthew 26:33; New King James Version: Matthew 26:33).
etsi deus non daretur even if God were not a given Sentence synthesizing a famous concept of Grotius (1625).
ex abundanti cautela out of an abundance of caution In law, describes someone taking precautions against a very remote contingency. "One might wear a belt in addition to braces ex abundanti cautela".[5] In banking, a loan in which the collateral is more than the loan itself. Also the basis for the term "an abundance of caution" employed by United States President Barack Obama to explain why his oath of office had to be re-administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Roberts and again in reference to terrorist threats.
ex abundantia enim cordis os loquitur For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. From the Gospel according to St. Matthew, XII.xxxiv (Vulgate), 12.34 (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel according to St. Luke, VI.xlv (Vulgate), 6.45 (Douay-Rheims). Sometimes rendered without enim ('for').
ex aequo from the equal "On equal footing", i.e., "in a tie". Used for those two (seldom more) participants of a competition, that showed exactly the same performance.
ex Africa semper aliquid novi "(There's) always something new (coming) out of Africa" Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia 8.42 (unde etiam vulgare Graeciae dictum semper aliquid novi Africam adferre[6]), a translation of the Greek «Ἀεὶ Λιβύη φέρει τι καινόν».
Ex amicitia pax Peace from friendship Often seen on internal diplomatic event invitations. Motto sometimes found on flags and mission plaques Diplomatic corps
ex animo from the soul Thus, "sincerely".
ex ante from before "Beforehand", "before the event". Based on prior assumptions. A forecast.
ex astris scientia From the Stars, Knowledge The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy on Star Trek. Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn was modeled after ex scientia tridens.
ex cathedra from the chair A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Pope when, in communion with the college of cardinals, preserved from the possibility of error by the action of the Holy Spirit (see Papal infallibility), he solemnly declares or promulgates ("from the chair" that was the ancient symbol of the teacher and of the governor, in this case of the church) a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority.
ex cultu robur from culture [comes] strength The motto of Cranleigh School, Surrey.
ex Deo from God
ex dolo malo from fraud "From harmful deceit"; dolus malus is the Latin legal term for "fraud". The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio ("an action does not arise from fraud"). When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.
ex facie from the face Idiomatically rendered "on the face of it". A legal term typically used to note that a document's explicit terms are defective without further investigation.
ex fide fiducia from faith [comes] confidence Motto of St George's College, Harare and Hartmann House Preparatory School
ex fide fortis from faith [comes] strength Motto of Loyola School (New York City)
ex glande quercus from the acorn the oak Motto of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, London
ex gratia from kindness More literally "from grace". Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely out of kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being forced to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or legal obligation.
ex hypothesi from the hypothesis Thus, "by hypothesis".
ex infra (e.i.) cf. ex supra "from below" Recent academic notation for "from below in this writing"
ex juvantibus from that which helps The medical pitfall in which response to a therapeutic regimen substitutes proper diagnosis.
ex lege from the law
ex libris from the books Precedes a person's name, with the meaning of "from the library of..."; also a bookplate.
ex luna scientia from the moon, knowledge The motto of the Apollo 13 moon mission, derived from ex scientia tridens, the motto of Jim Lovell's Alma Mater, the United States Naval Academy.
ex malo bonum good out of evil From St. Augustine's "Sermon LXI" where he contradicts Seneca's dictum in Epistulae 87:22: bonum ex malo non fit (good does not come from evil). Also the alias of the Anberlin song, "Miserabile Visu" from their album New Surrender.
ex mea sententia in my opinion
ex mero motu out of mere impulse, or of one's own accord.
ex nihilo nihil fit nothing comes from nothing From Lucretius, and said earlier by Empedocles. Its original meaning is "work is required to succeed", but its modern meaning is a more general "everything has its origins in something" (cf. causality). It is commonly applied to the conservation laws in philosophy and modern science. Ex nihilo often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning "creation out of nothing". It is often used in philosophy or theology in connection with the proposition that God created the universe from nothing. It is also mentioned in the final ad-lib of the Monty Python song Always Look on the Bright Side of Life.
ex novo Anew Said of something that has been built from scratch. (Cf. de novo)
Ex Oblivione from oblivion The title of a short story by H. P. Lovecraft.
ex officio from the office By virtue of office or position; "by right of office". Often used when someone holds one position by virtue of holding another: for example, the President of France is an ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. A common misconception is that all ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote, this may be the case, but it is not guaranteed by that title. In legal terms, ex officio refers to an administrative or judicial office taking action of its own accord, for example to invalidate a patent or prosecute copyright infringers.
ex opere operantis from the work of the one working A theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato, referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it.
ex opere operato from the work worked A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the minister or the recipient of the sacrament.
ex oriente lux light from the east Originally refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. Motto of several institutions.
ex parte from a part A legal term that means "by one party" or "for one party". Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.
ex pede Herculem from his foot, so Hercules From the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know his size; from a part, the whole.
ex post from after "Afterward", "after the event". Based on knowledge of the past. Measure of past performance.
ex post facto from a thing done afterward Said of a law with retroactive effect.
ex professo from one declaring [an art or science] Or 'with due competence'. Said of the person who perfectly knows his art or science. Also used to mean "expressly".[7]
ex rel. or ex relatio [arising] out of the relation/narration [of the relator] The term is a legal phrase; the legal citation guide called the Bluebook describes ex rel. as a "procedural phrase" and requires using it to abbreviate "on the relation of," "for the use of," "on behalf of," and similar expressions. An example of use is in court case titles such as Universal Health Services, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Escobar
ex scientia tridens from knowledge, sea power. The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon.
ex scientia vera from knowledge, truth The motto of the College of Graduate Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.
ex silentio from silence In general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum ex silentio ("argument from silence") is an argument based on the assumption that someone's silence on a matter suggests ("proves" when a logical fallacy) that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly.
ex situ out of position opposite of "in situ"
ex supra (e.s.) cf. ex infra "from above" Recent academic notation for "from above in this writing".
ex tempore from [this moment of] time "This instant", "right away" or "immediately". Also written extempore.
Ex turpi causa non oritur actio From a dishonorable cause an action does not arise A legal doctrine which states that a claimant will be unable to pursue a cause of action, if it arises in connection with his own illegal act. Particularly relevant in the law of contract, tort and trusts.
ex umbra in solem from the shadow into the light Motto of Federico Santa María Technical University.
ex undis from the waves [of the sea] motto in the coat of arms of Eemsmond
Ex Unitate Vires union is strength, or unity is strength motto of South Africa.
ex vi termini from the force of the term Thus, "by definition".
ex vita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio, non tanquam ex domo I depart from life as from an inn, not as from home Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute (On Old Age) 23
ex vivo out of or from life Used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism.
ex voto from the vow Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow.
ex vulgus scientia from crowd, knowledge used to describe social computing, in The Wisdom of Crowds and discourse referring to it.
excelsior higher "Ever upward!" The state motto of New York. Also a catchphrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee.
exceptio firmat (or probat) regulam in casibus non exceptis The exception confirms the rule in cases which are not excepted A juridical principle which means that the statement of a rule's exception (e.g., "no parking on Sundays") implicitly confirms the rule (i.e., that parking is allowed Monday through Saturday). Often mistranslated as "the exception that proves the rule".
excusatio non petita accusatio manifesta an excuse that has not been sought [is] an obvious accusation More loosely, "he who excuses himself, accuses himself"—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse.
exeat s/he may go out A formal leave of absence.
exegi monumentum aere perennius I have reared a monument more enduring than bronze Horace, Carmina III:XXX:I
exempli gratia (e.g.) for the sake of example, for example Exempli gratiā, 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e.g." (less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation is often read aloud in English as "for example" (see citation signal and compare how the ampersand is read as "and"), though it is also often applied as a substitute for similar phrases, like "such as" and "including". The abbreviation may be followed by a comma or not, depending on the style of the writer. The comma is more apt to be dropped before a simple expression with no punctuation of its own, and is more likely to be retained for multiple items.[8] A colon can also be used,[9] especially before a long or complex list. E.g. is often confused with i.e. (id est, 'that is', 'in other words').[10] Some writing styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie and eg.[a]
exercitus sine duce corpus est sine spiritu an army without a leader is a body without a spirit On a plaque at the former military staff building of the Swedish Armed Forces.
exeunt they leave Third-person plural present active indicative of the Latin verb exire; also seen in exeunt omnes, "all leave"; singular: exit.
experientia docet experience teaches This term has been used in dermatopathology to express that there is no substitute for experience in dealing with all the numerous variations that may occur with skin conditions.[26] The term has also been used in gastroenterology.[27] It is also the motto of San Francisco State University.
experimentum crucis experiment of the cross Or "crucial experiment". A decisive test of a scientific theory.
experto crede trust the expert Literally "believe one who has had experience". An author's aside to the reader.
expressio unius est exclusio alterius the expression of the one is the exclusion of the other "Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing". A principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others; e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to "lands, houses, tithes and coal mines" was held to exclude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, "the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else").
extra domum [placed] outside of the house Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part of a group like a monastery.
extra Ecclesiam nulla salus outside the Church [there is] no salvation This expression comes from the Epistle to Jubaianus, paragraph 21, written by Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century. It is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation.
extra omnes outside, all [of you] It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations before a session of the Papal conclave which will elect a new Pope. When spoken, all those who are not Cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel.
extra territorium jus dicenti impune non paretur he who administers justice outside of his territory is disobeyed with impunity Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in law of the sea cases on the high seas.


  1. ^ Assertions, such as those by Bryan A. Garner in Garner's Modern English Usage,[9] that "eg" and "ie" style versus "e.g.," and "i.e.," style are two poles of British versus American usage are not borne out by major style guides and usage dictionaries, which demonstrate wide variation. To the extent anything approaching a consistent general conflict can be identified, it is between American and British news companies' different approaches to the balance between clarity and expediency, without complete agreement on either side of the Atlantic, and with little evidence of effects outside journalism circles, e.g. in book publishing or academic journals.

    There is no consistent British style. For example, The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e." with points (periods);[11] Fowler's Modern English Usage takes the same approach,[12] and its newest edition is especially emphatic about the points being retained.[13] The Oxford Guide to Style (also republished in Oxford Style Manual and separately as New Hart's Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e.";[14] the examples it provides are of the short and simple variety that often see the comma dropped in American usage as well. None of those works prescribe specifically for or against a comma following these abbreviations, leaving it to writers' own judgment.

    Some specific publishers, primarily in news journalism, drop one or both forms of punctuation as a matter of house style. They seem more frequently to be British than American (perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook being treated as a de facto standard across most American newspapers, without a UK counterpart). For example, The Guardian uses "eg" and "ie" with no punctuation,[15] while The Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with commas and without points,[16] as does The Times of London.[17] A 2014 revision to New Hart's Rules states that it is now "Oxford style" to not use a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which retain the points), "to avoid double punctuation".[18] This is a rationale it does not apply to anything else, and Oxford University Press has not consistently imposed this style on its publications that post-date 2014, including Garner's Modern English Usage.

    By way of US comparison, The New York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.", without a rule about a following comma – like Oxford usage in actual practice.[19] The Chicago Manual of Style prefers "e.g.," and "i.e.,". However, it says of this entire class of expressions, including long phrases like "in other words" and "for example", that they are "traditionally" or "usually" followed by a comma, not that they must be, nor does it draw any dialectal distinctions on the matter[20] (despite usually making American versus British assertions throughout). The AP Stylebook preserves both types of punctuation for these abbreviations.[21]

    "British" and "American" are not accurate as stand-ins for Commonwealth and North American English more broadly; actual practice varies even among national publishers. The Australian government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers preserves the points in the abbreviations, but eschews the comma after them (it similarly drops the title's serial comma before "and", which most UK and many US publishers would retain).[22] Editing Canadian English by the Editors' Association of Canada uses the periods and the comma;[23] so does A Canadian Writer's Reference.[24] The government publication The Canadian Style uses the periods but not the comma.[25]

    Style guides are generally in agreement that both abbreviations are preceded by a comma or used inside a parenthetical construction, and are best confined to the latter and to footnotes and tables, rather than used in running prose.


  1. ^ Euripides (428 BCE [2003 CE]) Medea and other plays, Penguin Group, London, p.153, l.615 (trans.Davie, J.)
  2. ^ Sancti Aurelii Augustini Opera, vol. IV, p. 412
  3. ^ "University of Minnesota Style Manual: Correct Usage". .umn.edu. 2010-11-22. Archived from the original on 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 
  4. ^ Lee, Chelsea (3 November 2011). "The Proper Use of Et Al. in APA Style". blog.apastyle.org. American Psychological Association. 
  5. ^ Gray, John (2006), "Lawyer's Latin (a vade-mecum)", Hale, London, ISBN 9780709082774.
  6. ^ "Pliny the Elder: the Natural History, Liber VIII". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-19. 
  7. ^ Entry for "expressly" in: Meltzer, Peter E. The Thinker's Thesaurus: Sophisticated Alternatives to Common Words. W. W. Norton & Company, 2015 (3rd edition). ISBN 0393338975, ISBN 9780393338973.
  8. ^ Strauss, Jane; Kaufman, Lester; Stern, Tom, eds. (2014). The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation (11th ed.). Jossey-Bass/Wiley. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or germs, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. 
  9. ^ a b Garner, Bryan A. (2016). "e.g." and "i.e.". Garner's Modern English Usage (4th ed.). pp. 322–323, 480.  This is an internationalized expansion of what was previously published as Garner's Modern American Usage.
  10. ^ "Word Fact: What's the Difference Between i.e. and e.g.?". blog.Dictioanry.com. IAC Publishing. August 19, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  11. ^ Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "e.g." and "i.e.". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. pp. 704, 768. . Material previously published separately as The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors.
  12. ^ Burchfield, R. W.; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2004). "e.g." and "i.e.". Fowler's Modern English Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford U. Pr. pp. 240, 376. 
  13. ^ Butterfield, Jeremy; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2015). "e.g." and "i.e.". Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4th ed.). Oxford U. Pr. pp. 248, 393. Both should always be printed lower case roman with two points and no spaces." 
  14. ^ Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "3.8: e.g., i.e., etc.". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford U. Pr. pp. 69–70. 
  15. ^ "abbreviations and acronyms". Guardian and Observer style guide. Guardian Media Group/Scott Trust. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  16. ^ "Abbreviations". The Economist Style Guide. Economist Group. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  17. ^ ", eg," and ", ie,". The Times Online Style Guide. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  18. ^ Waddingham, Anne, ed. (2014). "4.3.8: Other uses [of the comma]". New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide (2nd ed.). Oxford U. Pr. p. 79. 
  19. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William G.; Corbett, Philip B.; et al., eds. (2015). "e.g." and "i.e.". The New York Times Manual of Style (2015 ed.). New York Times Company/Three Rivers Press.  E-book edition v3.1, ISBN 978-1-101-09322-3 Parameter error in {{isbn}}: Invalid ISBN..
  20. ^ "6.43: Commas with 'that is,' 'namely,' 'for example,' and similar expressions". The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2010. 
  21. ^ "e.g." and "i.e.". Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (2009 ed.). Associated Press/Basic Books. pp. 95, 136. 
  22. ^ "6.73". Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (5th ed.). Australian Government Publishing Service. 1996. p. 84. 
  23. ^ "4.22: Latin Abbreviations". Editing Canadian English: The Essential Canadian Guide (Revised and Updated (2nd) ed.). McClelland & Stewart/Editors' Association of Canada. 2000. pp. 52–53. . States no rule about the comma, but illustrates use with it in §4.23 on the same page.
  24. ^ Hacker, Diana; et al. (2008). "M4-d: Be sparing in your use of Latin abbreviations". A Canadian Writer's Reference (4th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. pp. 308–309.  This is a Canadian revision of an originally American publication.
  25. ^ "12.03: Words commonly misused or confused". The Canadian Style (Revised and Expanded (2nd) ed.). Dundurn Press/Public Works and Government Services Canada Translation Bureau. 1997. pp. 233–234. 
  26. ^ Rapini, Ronald P. (2005). Practical dermatopathology. Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01198-5. 
  27. ^ Webb-Johnson AE (May 1950). "Experientia docet". Rev Gastroenterol. 17 (5): 337–43. PMID 15424403. 

Additional sources:

  • Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). Thomas J. Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough, Jr., eds. World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0865164223. 
  • Stone, Jon R. (1996). Latin for the Illiterati. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415917751.