The Info List - Evenki Language

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Evenki /eɪˈvɛnki/,[4] formerly known as Tungus[5] or Solon, is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language. The name is sometimes wrongly given as "Evenks". It is spoken by Evenks
in Russia
and China. In certain areas the influences of the Yakut and the Buryat languages are particularly strong. The influence of Russian in general is overwhelming (in 1979, 75.2% of the Evenkis spoke Russian, rising to 92.7% in 2002). Evenki children were forced to learn Russian at Soviet residential schools, and returned with a," poor ability to speak their mother tongue...".[6] The Evenki language varies considerably among its dialects which are divided into three large groups: the northern, the southern and the eastern dialects. These are further divided into minor dialects. A written language was created for Evenkis in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1931, first using a Latin alphabet, and from 1937 a Cyrillic
one.[7] In China, Evenki is written experimentally in the Mongolian script.[8] The language is generally considered endangered.[9]


1 Genetic affiliation 2 Dialects 3 Phonology

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels 3.3 Syllable structure

4 Alphabets

4.1 Russia 4.2 China

5 Morphology 6 Syntax 7 Literary traditions 8 Language shift and multilingualism 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Genetic affiliation[edit] Evenki is a member of the Tungusic family. Its similarity to Manchu, the best-documented member of the family, was noted hundreds of years ago, first by botanist P. S. Pallas in the late 18th century, and then in a more formal linguistic study by M. A. Castren in the mid-19th century, regarded as a "pioneer treatise" in the field of Tungusology.[10] The exact internal structure of the Tungusic family is a matter of some debate. Some scholars propose two sub-families: one for Manchu, and another for all the other Tungusic languages, including Evenki.[11] SIL International's Ethnologue
divides Tungusic into two sub-families Northern and Southern, with Evenki alongside Even and Negidal in the Northern sub-family, and the Southern family itself subdivided into Southwestern (among which Manchu) and Southeastern (Nanai and others).[12] Others propose three or more sub-families, or at the extreme a continuum with Manchu at one end and Evenki at the other.[11] Dialects[edit] Bulatova enumerated 14 dialects and 50 sub-dialects within Russia, spread over a wide geographical area ranging from the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
to Sakhalin. These may be divided into three major groups primarily on the basis of phonology:[13]

Northern (spirant)

Ilimpeya: Ilimpeya, Agata and Bol'shoi, Porog, Tura, Tutonchany, Dudinka/Khantai Yerbogachen: Yerbogachen, Nakanno

Southern (sibilant)


Sym: Tokma or Upper Nepa, Upper Lena or Kachug, Angara Northern Baikal: Northern Baikal, Upper Lena


Stony Tunguska: Vanavara, Kuyumba, Poligus, Surinda, Taimura or Chirinda, Uchami, Chemdal'sk Nepa: Nepa, Kirensk Vitim-Nercha/Baunt-Talocha: Baunt, Talocha, Tungukochan, Nercha

Eastern (sibilant-spirant)

Vitim-Olyokma dialect: Barguzin, Vitim/Kalar, Olyokma, Tungir, Tokko Upper Aldan: Aldan, Upper Amur, Amga, Dzheltulak, Timpton, Tommot, Khingan, Chul'man, Chul'man-Gilyui Uchur-Zeya: Uchur, Zeya Selemdzha-Bureya-Urmi: Selemdzha, Bureya, Urmi Ayan-Mai: Ayan, Aim, Mai, Nel'kan, Totti Tugur-Chumikan: Tugur, Chumikan Sakhalin
(no subdialects)

Evenki in China
also speak several dialects. According to Ethnologue, the Hihue or Hoy dialect is considered the standard; Haila’er, Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), and Morigele (Mergel) dialects also exist. Ethnologue
reports these dialects differ significantly from those in Russia. Some works focused on individual Russia
dialects include Gortsevskaya 1936 (Barguzin), Andreeva 1988 (Tommot), and Bulatova 1999 (Sakhalin). Phonology[edit] The Evenki language typically has CV syllables but other structures are possible.[14] Bulatova and Grenoble list Evenki as having 11 possible vowel phonemes; a classical five-vowel system with distinctions between long and short vowels (except in /e/) and the addition of a long and short /ə/,[15] while Nedjalkov claims that there are 13 vowel phonemes.[16] Evenki has a moderately small consonant inventory; there are 18 consonants (21 according to Nedjalkov 1997) in the Evenki language and it lacks glides or semivowels.[15] Consonants[edit] Below are tables of Evenki consonant phonemes, including those identified by Nedjalkov (1997) in italics.[17][18]

Evenki consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar

Nasal m n

ɲ ŋ

Plosive voiceless p t

tʃ k

voiced b d

dʒ, dʲ ɡ

Fricative voiceless f



voiced β, v


Approximant w l




The phoneme (/β/) has a word-final allophone, [f], as well as an intervocalic variant, [w]. Likewise, some speakers pronounce intervocalic /s/ as [h]. Speakers of some dialects also alternate /b/ and /β/.[17] Consonant inventories given by researchers working on dialects in China
are largely similar. The differences noted: Chaoke and Kesingge et al. give /h/ instead of /x/ and lack /β/, /ɣ/, or /ɲ/; furthermore, Kesingge et al. give /dʐ/ instead of /dʒ/.[19][20] Vowels[edit] Below is a chart of Evenki vowels found among Russian dialects, including those identified by Nedjalkov (1997) in italics.[17][18]

Evenki vowels (Russian dialects)

Front Back

unrounded unrounded rounded

Close i, iː ɪ, ɪː

ɯ u, uː ʊ, ʊː

Mid eː je, jeː ə, əː ɛ, ɛː o, oː

Open a, aː

The vowel inventory of the Chinese dialects of Evenki, however, is markedly different (Chaoke, 1995, 2009):[21]

Evenki vowels (Chinese dialects)

Front Central Back

unrounded rounded unrounded rounded

Close i, iː ʉ, ʉː

u, uː

Mid e, eː ɵ, ɵː ə, əː o, oː

Open a, aː

Like most Tungusic languages, Evenki employs vowel harmony—suffix vowels are matched to the vowel in the root. However, some vowels – /i, iː, u, uː/ – and certain suffixes do not adhere to the rules of vowel harmony.[15] Knowledge of the rules of vowel harmony is fading, as vowel harmony is a complex topic for elementary speakers to grasp, the language is severely endangered (Janhunen), and many speakers are multilingual.[15] Syllable structure[edit] Possible syllable structures include V, VC, VCC, CV, CVC, and CVCC.[22] In contrast to dialects in Russia,[citation needed] dialects in China
do not have /k/, /ŋ/, nor /r/ in word-initial position.[19] Alphabets[edit] Russia[edit] The Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
is used by Evenkis living in Russia. The script has one additional letter, ӈ, to indicate /ŋ/; it is used only inconsistently in printed works, due to typographical limitations.[23] Boldyrev's dictionary uses ң instead.[24] Other sounds found in Evenki but not Russian, such as /dʒ/, lack devoted letters. Instead "д" stands in for both /d/ and /dʒ/; when the latter pronunciation is intended, it is followed by one of Cyrillic's iotified letters, similar to the way those letters cause palatalization of the preceding consonant in Russian. However orthographic decisions like these have resulted in some confusion and transfer of Russian phonetics to Evenki among younger speakers. For example, the spellings "ди" and "ды" were intended to record [dʒi] and [di] (i.e. the same vowel sound). However, in Russian "и" and "ы" are respectively two different vowels /i/ and /ɨ/.[25] Long vowels are indicated with macrons.

А а Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё Ж ж

З з И и Й й К к Л л М м Н н Ӈ ӈ

О о П п Р р С с Т т У у Ф ф Х х

Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э

Ю ю Я я

China[edit] In the "Imperial History of the National Languages of Liao, Jin, and Yuan" (Chinese: 欽定遼金元三史國語解; pinyin: Qīndìng liáo jīn yuán sān shǐ guóyǔ jiě) commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet
Manchu alphabet
is used to write Evenki words. Evenki in China
is now written in the Latin script
Latin script
and experimentally in the Mongolian script. Evenki scholars made an attempt in the 1980s to create standard written forms for their language, using both Mongolian script
Mongolian script
and a pinyin-like Latin spelling. They published an Evenki–Mongolian–Chinese dictionary (Kesingge et al. 1983) with Evenki words spelled in IPA, a pinyin-like orthography, and Mongolian script, as well as a collection of folk songs in IPA and Mongolian script (and Chinese-style numbered musical notation).[26] The orthographic system developed by Chinese Evenki scholars reflects differences between Evenki and Mongol phonology. It uses both and (usually romanised from Mongolian as "q" and "ɣ") for /g/.[27] The system uses double letters in both Mongolian and Latin to represent most long vowels; however for /ɔː/ "ao" is written instead of "oo." The same scholars' collection of songs has some orthographic differences from the table below; namely, long vowels are occasionally written not just doubled but also with an intervening silent ("ɣ"), showing clear orthographic influence from the Mongolian language. In medial and final positions, "t" is written in the Manchu script
Manchu script
form ᡨ.[28] "Evenki" itself is spelled /eweŋki/, although Mongolian orthography usually prohibits the letter combination /ŋk/. The vowel inventory of this system is also rather different from that of Chaoke (1995, 2009).

ᠠ a /a/ ᠡ e /ə/ ᠢ y*, i /i/ ᠣ o /ʊ/ ᠤ o /ɔ/ ᠥ u /o/ ᠦ u /u/ ᠧ* e /ə/

ᠨ n /n/ ᠩ ng /ŋ/ ᠪ b /b/ ᠫ p /p/ ᠬ g /g/ ᠭ g /g/ ᠮ m /m/ ᠯ l /l/

ᠰ s /s/ ᠱ x, sh /ʃ/ ᠲ t /t/ ᠳ d /d/ ᠴ q, ch /tʃ/ ᠵ j, zh /dʐ/ ᠶ y /j/ ᠷ r /r/

ᠸ w /w/ ᠹ f /f/ ᠺ k /k/ ᠾ h /h/ * used only word-initially

Du (2007) uses a different version of Latin script, which distinguishes certain vowels and consonants more clearly than the system of Kesingge et al.:

A a /a/ B b /b/ C c /ts/ D d /d/ E e /ə/ Ē ē /e/ F f /f/ G g /ɡ/ ḡ /ɣ/

H h /x. h/ I i /i/ J j /dʒ/ K k /k/ L l /l/ M m /m/ N n /n/ Ng ng /ŋ/, /ˠ/

Ō ō /ɔ/ O o /ʊ/ P p /p/ Q q /tʃ/ R r /r/ S s /s/ T t /t/

U u /u/ V v /ɵ/ W w /w/ X x /ʃ/ Y y /j/ Z z /dz/

Morphology[edit] Evenki is highly agglutinating, suffixing, and not flexive: Each morpheme is easily recognizable and carries only one piece of meaning. Evenki pronouns distinguish between singular and plural as well as inclusive and exclusive in the first person.[29] The Evenki language has a rich case system—13 cases, though there is some variation among dialects—and it is a nominative–accusative language.[30] Evenki differentiates between alienable and inalienable possession:[31] alienable possession marks the possessor in the nominative case and the possessum in the possessed case, while inalienable possession is marked by personal indices.[32]

Evenki personal indices

Singular Plural

First person -v -vun (exclusive) -t (inclusive)

Second person -s, -si, -ni -sun

Third person -n, -in -tyn

Below is a table of cases and suffixes in Evenki, following Nedjalkov (1997):

Evenki cases and suffixes

Case Suffix Example Meaning

Nominative - asatkan the girl

Accusative indefinite -ja e-ja what?

definite -va, -ma bi kete-ve himmikte-ve tevle-che-v I much-ACD cowberry-ACD gather-PST-1SG I gathered much cowberry

reflexive-genitive definite -vi (sg.), -ver (pl.) hute-kle-vi child-LOCDIR-REF to/for [her] own child

"Old genitive" unproductive -ngi e:kun-ngi who-GEN whose?

Ablative -duk e:kun-duk who-ABL from whom/where?

Locative Locative-Directive -kle, ikle hute-kle child-LOCDIR for the child

Dative-Locative -du, -tu tatkit-tu school-DAT at/in school

Allative-Locative -tki, -tyki agi-tki forest-ALLLOC (in)to the forest

Allative -la d'u-la house-ALL [enter] into the house

Elative -ditk oron-ditk reindeer-ELA from the reindeer

Prolative -li, -duli nadalla-li week-PRO singilgen-duli snow-PRO in a week's time

in the snow

Instrumental -t, -di pektyre:vun-di gun-INS with the gun

Possessed -gali, -chi, -lan, -tai muri-chi beje horse-POS man a man with a horse; a horseman

Semblative case -ngachin, -gechin lang-ngachin trap-SEM like a trap

Plurals are marked with -il-, -l-, or -r- before the case marker, if any: tyge-l-ve (cup-PL-ACD) "the cups (accusative);" Ivul-ngi oro-r-in (Ivul-GEN reindeer-PL-3SG-POS), "the reindeer (pl.) of Ivul."[33] Syntax[edit] Evenki is a subject–object–verb and head-final language. The subject is marked according to the nominative case, and the object is in the accusative. In Evenki, the indirect object precedes the direct object. Literary traditions[edit] The Manchu script
Manchu script
was used to write Evenki (Solon) words in the "Imperial History of the National Languages of Liao, Jin, and Yuan". The Evenki did not have their own writing system until the introduction of the Latin script
Latin script
in 1931 and the subsequent change to Cyrillic
in 1936-7.[34] The literary language was first based on the Nepa dialect of the Southern subgroup, but in the 1950s was redesigned with the Stony Tunguska dialect as its basis.[7] Ethnographer S. M. Shirokogoroff harshly criticised the "child-like" literary language, and in a 1930s monograph predicted it would quickly go extinct.[35] Although textbooks through the 8th grade have been published, "Literary Evenki has not yet achieved the status of a norm which cut across dialects and is understood by speakers of some dialects with great difficulty".[34] However, despite its failure to gain widespread acceptance, within its dialectal base of roughly 5,000 people, it survived and continues in use up to the present.[36] Since the 1930s, "folklore, novels, poetry, numerous translations from Russian and other languages", textbooks, and dictionaries have all been written in Evenki.[37] In Tura (former administrative center of the Evenk Autonomous Okrug), the local newspaper includes a weekly supplement written in Evenki.[36] Language shift and multilingualism[edit] There is a large quantity of Russian loan words in Evenki, especially for technologies and concepts that were introduced by the Russian pioneers in Siberia. "Evenki is spoken in regions with heavy multilingualism. In their daily life the people come into contact with Russian, Buriat and Yakut, and each of these languages had affected the Evenki language. Russian is the lingua franca of the region, part of the Evenki population is bilingual, and part trilingual. All Evenki know Russian relatively well."[34] In 1998 there were approximately 30,000 ethnic Evenkis living in Russia
and about 1/3 of them spoke the language. Even a decade ago Bulatova was trying to warn speakers and linguists alike: "There is widespread loss of Evenki and the language can be considered seriously endangered".[34] According to the 2002 Russian census, there are 35,527 citizens of the Russian Federation who identify themselves as ethnically Evenki, but only 7,580 speakers of the language.[38] In China, there is an ethnic population of 30,500 but only 19,000 are fluent in Evenki and there are only around 3,000 people who are monolingual in Evenki.[38] Juha Janhunen investigated multilingualism in Hulunbuir
(northern Inner Mongolia) and the adjoining section of Heilongjiang
(e.g. Qiqihar) in 1996. He found that most Solons still spoke Evenki, and about half knew Daur language as well.[39] Furthermore, Mongolian functioned as a lingua franca among members of all minority groups there, as they tended to do their education in Mongolian-medium schools. The only Evenki-speakers whom Janhunen knew not to speak Mongolian as a second language were the Reindeer Evenki (sometimes called "Yakut") in the northern part of Hulunbuir, who used Russian as their "language of intercultural communication".[40] Janhunen predicted that all of these languages, including Mongolian, were likely to lose ground to Chinese in coming years.[41] However Chaoke noted more than a decade later that the usage rate of Evenki remained quite high, and that it was still common to find Evenki-speakers who were proficient in three, four, or even five languages.[42] There is a small population of Mongolized Hamnigan speakers in Mongolia as well, numbering around 1,000.[38] There is little information regarding revival efforts or Evenki's status now. In 1998, the language was taught in preschools and primary schools and offered as an option in 8th grade. The courses were regarded as an 'ethnocultural component' to bring Evenki language and culture into the curriculum.[43] Instruction as a second language is also available in the Institute of the Peoples of the North
Institute of the Peoples of the North
at Herzen University (the former St. Petersburg State Pedagogical University).[37] In the 1980s, Christian missionaries working in Siberia translated the Bible into Evenki and a Christian group called the Global Recordings Network records Christian teaching materials in Evenki.[44] Notes[edit]

^ Boldyrev 1994, p. 494 ^ Evenki at Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Evenki". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Also spelled Ewenki, Ewenke, or Owenke and previously conflated with Solon or Suolun ^ The people speaking Evenki were also called "Tungusy". According to Nedjalkov 1997, p. xix, "Tungus" could be a Chinese exonym. ^ Sivtseva, Mira (20 May 2015). "The role of the new Evenkiness in the Evenki language revitalization: the case of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)". Muin Open Research Archive.  ^ a b Atknine 1997, p. 117 ^ Kara 2006, p. 146 ^ Grenoble; Janhunen ^ Atknine 1997, p. 111 ^ a b Whaley, Grenoble & Li 1999, p. 286 ^ Lewis 2009, [1] ^ Atknine 1997, p. 116 ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 314 ^ a b c d Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 4 ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 309 ^ a b c Nedjalkov 1997, pp. 310–311 ^ a b Campbell 2000, p. 548 ^ a b Dular 2009, p. 339 ^ Kesingge et al. 1983, p. 6 ^ Dular 2009, pp. 330–332 ^ Dular 2009, p. 348 ^ Grenoble & Whaley 2003, p. 116 ^ E.g. the entry for кто; Boldyrev 1994, p. 173 ^ Grenoble & Whaley 2003, p. 117 ^ Kara 2006, p. 133 ^ Kara 2006, p. 142 ^ Kara 2006, pp. 139–142 ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, pp. 6, 21 ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, pp. 7–8 ^ Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 13 ^ Nedjalkov 1997, pp. 82, 158 ^ Nedjalkov 1997, p. 229 ^ a b c d Bulatova & Grenoble 1999, p. 3 ^ Inoue 1991, pp. 35–37 ^ a b Atknine 1997, p. 118 ^ a b Nedjalkov 1997, p. xxi ^ a b c Lewis 2009, [2] ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 828 ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 833 ^ Janhunen 1996, p. 834 ^ Dular 2009, p. 6 ^ Mamontova, Nadezhda (5 December 2014). "What Language Do Real Evenki Speak?". Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 52: 37–75.  ^ Global Recordings Network 2011


Atknine, Victor (1997), "The Evenki Language from the Yenisei to Sakhalin", in Shōji, Hiroshi; Janhunen, Juha, Northern Minority Languages: Problems of Survival (PDF), Senri Ethnological Studies, pp. 109–121, OCLC 37261684, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22  Boldyrev, B. V. (1994), Русско-эвенкийский словарь: около 20 000 слов, Novosibirsk: Institute of Philology, Russian Academic of Sciences, ISBN 5-02-029805-0  Bulatova, Nadezhda; Grenoble, Lenore (1999), Evenki, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-222-3  Campbell, George L. (2000), "Evenki", Compendium of the World's Languages: Abaza to Kurdish, 1 (2, revised ed.), Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-20298-1  Dular, O. Chaoke (2009), 《鄂温克语参考语法》, 北京: 中国社会科学出版社, ISBN 978-7-5004-8143-0  杜·道尔基 [Du Dao'erji], ed. (2007), 《鄂温克地名考》 [On Evenki Placenames], Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House, ISBN 978-7-105-08286-5, OCLC 289003364  Grenoble, Lenore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J. (2003), "Evaluating the impact of literacy: the case of Evenki", in Joseph, Brian D., When languages collide: perspectives on language conflict, language competition, and language coexistence, Ohio State University Press, pp. 109–121, ISBN 978-0-8142-0913-4  Inoue, Koichi (1991), "Tungus Literary Language" (PDF), Asian Folklore Studies, 50 (1): 35–66, doi:10.2307/1178185, JSTOR 1178185  Janhunen, Juha (1996), " Mongolic languages
Mongolic languages
as idioms of intercultural communication in Northern Manchuria", in Wurm, Stephen Adolphe; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T., Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas, Walter de Gruyter, pp. 827–835, ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9  Kara, György (2006), "Solon Ewenki in Mongolian Script", in Pozzi, Alessandra; Janhunen, Juha Antero; Weiers, Michael, Tumen jalafun jecen akū: Manchu studies in honour of Giovanni Stary, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. 133–148, ISBN 978-3-447-05378-5  Kesingge; Cidaltu; Alta (authors); Norbu (reviewer) (1983), "Eweŋki Moŋɣol Kitad Kelen-ü Qaričaɣoloɣsan Üges-ün Tegübüri", 《鄂温克语蒙汉对照词汇》, Beɣejing: Ündüsüten-ü Keblel-ün Qoriy-a, 民族出版社, OCLC 43657472, Unknown ID:M9049(2)10  Nedjalkov, Igor (1997), Evenki, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02640-7  Whaley, Lindsay J.; Grenoble, Lenore A.; Li, Fengxiang (June 1999), "Revisiting Tungusic Classification from the Bottom up: A Comparison of Evenki and Oroqen", Language, 75 (2): 286–321, doi:10.2307/417262, JSTOR 417262  Global Recordings Network (2011), Words of Life 1 – Evenki, retrieved 2011-04-22 

Further reading[edit]

Andreeva, T. E. (1988). Звуковой строй томмотского говора эвенкийского языка: Экспериментально-фонетическое исследование [Sound structure of the Tommot dialect of Evenki: an experimental phonetic study]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. ISBN 978-5-02-029187-4. OCLC 21826474.  Bulatova, N. (1999). Язык сахалинских эвенков [Language of the Sakhalin
Evenki]. St. Petersburg: North Without Conflicts Fund. ISBN 5-88925-009-4.  Chaoke, D. O.; Tsumugari, Toshiro; Kazama, Shinjiro (1991). ソロン語基本例文集 [Solon Basic Sentences]. Sapporo: Faculty of Letters, Hokkaido University. JPNO 95049777.  Gortsevskaya, V. A. (1936). Характеристика говоров баргузинских эвенков: По материалам Н. Н. Поппе [Characteristics of Barguzin Evenki dialects: Based on NN Poppe]. Moscow-Leningrad: Gosudarstvennoye Uchebno-Pedagogicheskoye Izdatel'stvo. OCLC 41824692.  Myreeva, A. N. (2004). Эвенкийско-русский словарь: около 30 000 слов [Evenki–Russian dictionary: about 30,000 words]. Novosibirsk: Nauka. ISBN 978-5-02-030684-4. OCLC 61282240.  Vasilevich G. M. (1958). Эвенкийско-русский словарь. [Evenki-Russian dictionary. With an appendix and an outline of Evenki grammar]. Moscow. ISBN 978-5-458-59022-8.

External links[edit]

Evenki language test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Omniglot Kara, György (2007), "Course List: Evenki Grammar", Department of Central Asian Studies, Indiana University at Bloomington, retrieved 2011-04-22  http://www.evengus.ru/ Эвенкитека – Эвенкийская библиотека [Evenkiteka – The Evenki Library] (in Russian and Evenki). Retrieved 2011-09-08. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)

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Bai Caijia Derung Jingpho Longjia Nung Tujia Waxianghua

Other languages


Bit Blang Bolyu Bugan Bumang Hu Kuan Mang Man Met Muak Sa-aak Palaung Riang U Va Wa



A-Hmao Bu-Nao Gejia Guiyang Hm Nai Hmong Hmu Huishui Kiong Nai Luobohe Mashan Pa-Hng Pa Na Pingtang Qo Xiong Raojia She Small Flowery Xixiu Younuo


Biao Min Dzao Min Iu Mien Kim Mun


Bonan Buryat Daur Eastern Yugur Kangjia Khamnigan Monguor Oirat Ordos Santa Torgut



Bouyei Dai Min Ningming Nong Tai Dam Tai Dón Tai Hongjin Tai Lü Tai Nüa Tai Ya Yang Yei


Ai-Cham Biao Buyang Cao Miao Chadong Cun Gelao Hlai Jiamao Kam Lakkja Mak Maonan Mulam Naxi Yao Ong Be Paha Qabiao Sui Then


Evenki Manchu Nanai Oroqen Xibe


Äynu Fuyu Kyrgyz Ili Turki Lop Salar Western Yugur


Sarikoli(Indo-European) Tsat(Austronesian) Languages with Taiwan Origin(Austronesian)


Kazakh Korean Kyrgyz Russian Tatar Tuvan Uzbek Wakhi

Varieties of Chinese

Gan Hakka Huizhou Jin Min


Pinghua Wu Xiang Yue


E Kinh (Việt) Hezhou Lingling Macanese Maojia Qoqmončaq Sanqiao Tangwang Wutun


Ba-Shu Jie Khitan Ruan-ruan Saka Tangut Tocharian Tuoba Tuyuhun Xianbei Zhang-Zhung


Chinese Sign

Hong Kong SignHK/MC

Tibetan SignXZ

GX = Guangxi HK = Hong Kong MC = Macau NM = Inner Mongolia XJ = Xinjiang XZ = Tibet

v t e

Tungusic languages


Northern proper

Even Evenki Kile Negidal Oroqen


Oroch Udege


Nanai group

Nanai Orok Ulch

Manchu group