Economic & Monetary Affairs
Employment and Social Affairs
Environment, Public Health & Food Safety
Industry, Research & Energy
Internal Market & Consumer Protection
Transport & Tourism
Agriculture & Rural Development
Culture & Education
Civil Liberties, Justice & Home Affairs
Women's Rights & Gender Equality
- Human Rights (Sub)
- Security & Defence (Sub)
Length of term
Party list, STV and First-past-the-post
22–25 May 2014
1st: Louise Weiss: Strasbourg,
2nd: Espace Léopold: Brussels, Belgium
Luxembourg & Brussels
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
President Juncker (EPP)
President Tajani (EPP)
EPP (Manfred Weber)
S&D (Gianni Pittella)
8th session (2014–19)
Council of the EU
Justice and Home
Court of Justice
Court of Auditors
Policies and issues
Ext. Action Service
Area of FS&J
United States of Europe
1979, 1984, 1989
1994, 1999, 2004, 2009
2014 (last election)
Treaty on European Union
Single European Act
Treaties of Accession
1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2003, 2005, 2011
President Tusk (EPP)
List of meetings
Building of the
European Parliament in Brussels
"European Parliament" on official languages of the
European Union (on
the Parliament building in Brussels)
European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary
institution of the
European Union (EU). Together with the Council of
European Union (the Council) and the European Commission, it
exercises the legislative function of the EU. The Parliament is
composed of 751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic
electorate in the world (after the Parliament of India) and the
largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world
(375 million eligible voters in 2009).
It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage
since 1979. However, voter turnout at
European Parliament elections
has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, and has
been under 50% since 1999.
Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of
all European voters.
European Parliament has legislative power that the
Council and Commission do not possess, it does not formally possess
legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union
member states do. The Parliament is the "first institution" of
the EU (mentioned first in the treaties, having ceremonial precedence
over all authority at European level), and shares equal legislative
and budgetary powers with the Council (except in a few areas where the
special legislative procedures apply). It likewise has equal control
over the EU budget. Finally, the European Commission, the executive
body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular,
Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and approves (or
rejects) the appointment of the Commission as a whole. It can
subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a
motion of censure.
President of the European Parliament
President of the European Parliament (Parliament's speaker) is
Antonio Tajani (EPP), elected in January 2017. He presides over a
multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the
European People's Party
European People's Party (EPP) and the Progressive Alliance of
Socialists and Democrats (S&D). The last union-wide elections were
the 2014 elections.
European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels
(Belgium), the city of
Luxembourg (Luxembourg) and Strasbourg
Luxembourg is home to the administrative offices (the
"General Secretariat"). Meetings of the whole Parliament ("plenary
sessions") take place in
Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee
meetings are held in Brussels.
1.1 Consultative assembly
1.2 Elected Parliament
1.3 Parliament pressure on the Commission
1.4 Recent history
2 Powers and functions
2.1 Legislative procedure
2.3 Control of the executive
2.4 Supervisory powers
3.1 Transitional arrangements
3.2 Salaries and expenses
3.3 Political groups
3.4 Grand coalition
4.1 President and organisation
4.2 Committees and delegations
4.4 Translation and interpretation
6 Channels of dialogue, information, and communication with European
6.1 Dialogue with religious and non-confessional organisations
European Parliament Mediator for International Parental Child
7 European Parliamentary Research Service
Eurobarometer of the European Parliament
Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought
9.2 European Charlemagne Youth Prize
9.3 European Citizens' Prize
9.4 LUX Prize
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Further information: History of the European Union
The Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its
current form when it first met on 10 September 1952. One of the oldest
common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European
Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It was a consultative assembly of 78
appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of
member states, having no legislative powers. The change since
its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the
University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European
Parliament could have been justly labeled a 'multi-lingual talking
Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's
structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as
Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have
deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the
EU". Even the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several
times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements.
Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John
Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit,
France engineered a treaty amendment to
maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was
assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved
to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A
separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as
an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive
while providing democratic legitimacy. The wording of the ECSC
Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal
consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the
people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was
highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the
draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this
document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952
with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European
Defence Community the project was dropped.
Session of the Council of Europe's Assembly in the former House of
Strasbourg in January 1967. Willy Brandt, German minister
for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.
Despite this, the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community and
established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome. The Common Assembly was
shared by all three communities (which had separate executives) and it
renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first
meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg, it
elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to
sit according to political ideology rather than nationality. This
is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with
Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather
The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European
Communities in 1967, and the body's name was changed to the current
"European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted
power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to
the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament
should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree
a uniform voting system beforehand, which it failed to do. The
Parliament threatened to take the Council to the European Court of
Justice; this led to a compromise whereby the Council would agree to
elections, but the issue of voting systems would be put off till a
The emblem of Parliament until 1983
Session April 1985
In 1979, its members were directly elected for the first time. This
sets it apart from similar institutions such as those of the
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe or Pan-African
Parliament which are appointed. After that first election,
the parliament held its first session on 11 July 1979, electing Simone
Veil MEP as its president. Veil was also the first female president of
the Parliament since it was formed as the Common Assembly.
As an elected body, the Parliament began to draft proposals addressing
the functioning of the EU. For example, in 1984, inspired by its
previous work on the Political Community, it drafted the "draft Treaty
establishing the European Union" (also known as the 'Spinelli Plan'
after its rapporteur
Altiero Spinelli MEP). Although it was not
adopted, many ideas were later implemented by other treaties.
Furthermore, the Parliament began holding votes on proposed Commission
Presidents from the 1980s, before it was given any formal right to
Since it became an elected body, the membership of the European
Parliament has simply expanded whenever new nations have joined (the
membership was also adjusted upwards in 1994 after German
reunification). Following this, the
Treaty of Nice
Treaty of Nice imposed a cap on
the number of members to be elected, 732.
Palace of Europe, Parliament's
Strasbourg hemicycle until 1999
European Parliament Building in Strasbourg, France, view from street.
Like the other institutions, the Parliament's seat was not yet fixed.
The provisional arrangements placed Parliament in Strasbourg, while
the Commission and Council had their seats in Brussels. In 1985 the
Parliament, wishing to be closer to these institutions, built a second
Brussels and moved some of its work there despite protests
from some states. A final agreement was eventually reached by the
European Council in 1992. It stated the Parliament would retain its
formal seat in Strasbourg, where twelve sessions a year would be held,
but with all other parliamentary activity in Brussels. This two-seat
arrangement was contested by the Parliament, but was later enshrined
in the Treaty of Amsterdam. To this day the institution's locations
are a source of contention.
The Parliament gained more powers from successive treaties, namely
through the extension of the ordinary legislative procedure (then
called the codecision procedure), and in 1999, the Parliament
forced the resignation of the Santer Commission. The Parliament
had refused to approve the Community budget over allegations of fraud
and mis-management in the Commission. The two main parties took on a
government-opposition dynamic for the first time during the crisis
which ended in the Commission resigning en masse, the first of any
forced resignation, in the face of an impending censure from the
Parliament pressure on the Commission
In 2004, Parliament forced
President Barroso to change his proposed
In 2004, following the largest trans-national election in history,
European Council choosing a President from the largest
political group (the EPP), the Parliament again exerted pressure on
the Commission. During the Parliament's hearings of the proposed
Commissioners MEPs raised doubts about some nominees with the Civil
Liberties committee rejecting
Rocco Buttiglione from the post of
Commissioner for Justice, Freedom and Security over his views on
homosexuality. That was the first time the Parliament had ever voted
against an incoming Commissioner and despite Barroso's insistence upon
Buttiglione the Parliament forced Buttiglione to be withdrawn. A
number of other Commissioners also had to be withdrawn or reassigned
before Parliament allowed the
Barroso Commission to take
Rocco Buttiglione was the first Commission designate to be voted down
Along with the extension of the ordinary legislative procedure, the
Parliament's democratic mandate has given it greater control over
legislation against the other institutions. In voting on the
Bolkestein directive in 2006, the Parliament voted by a large majority
for over 400 amendments that changed the fundamental principle of the
Financial Times described it in the following terms:
That is where the European parliament has suddenly come into its own.
It marks another shift in power between the three central EU
institutions. Last week's vote suggests that the directly elected
MEPs, in spite of their multitude of ideological, national and
historical allegiances, have started to coalesce as a serious and
effective EU institution, just as enlargement has greatly complicated
negotiations inside both the Council and Commission.
In 2007, for the first time, Justice Commissioner Franco Frattini
included Parliament in talks on the second Schengen Information System
even though MEPs only needed to be consulted on parts of the package.
After that experiment, Frattini indicated he would like to include
Parliament in all justice and criminal matters, informally pre-empting
the new powers they could gain as part of the Treaty of Lisbon.
Between 2007 and 2009, a special working group on parliamentary reform
implemented a series of changes to modernise the institution such as
more speaking time for rapporteurs, increase committee co-operation
and other efficiency reforms.
Further information: Barroso Commission
Parliament's overhaul of the
Bolkestein directive signalled a major
growth in status for Parliament
Lisbon Treaty finally came into force on 1 December 2009, granting
Parliament powers over the entire EU budget, making Parliament's
legislative powers equal to the Council's in nearly all areas and
linking the appointment of the Commission President to Parliament's
own elections. Despite some calls for the parties to put forward
candidates beforehand, only the EPP (which had re-secured their
position as largest party) had one in re-endorsing Barroso.
Barroso gained the support of the
European Council for a second term
and secured majority support from the Parliament in September 2009.
Parliament voted 382 votes in favour and 219 votes against (117
abstentions ) with support of the European People's Party, European
Conservatives and Reformists and the Alliance of Liberals and
Democrats for Europe. The liberals gave support after Barroso gave
them a number of concessions; the liberals previously joined the
socialists' call for a delayed vote (the EPP had wanted to approve
Barroso in July of that year).
Once Barroso put forward the candidates for his next Commission,
another opportunity to gain concessions arose. Bulgarian nominee
Rumiana Jeleva was forced to step down by Parliament due to concerns
over her experience and financial interests. She only had the support
of the EPP which began to retaliate on left wing candidates before
Jeleva gave in and was replaced (setting back the final vote
Before the final vote, Parliament demanded a number of concessions as
part of a future working agreement under the new Lisbon Treaty. The
deal includes that Parliament's President will attend high level
Commission meetings. Parliament will have a seat in the EU's
Commission-lead international negotiations and have a right to
information on agreements. However, Parliament secured only an
observer seat. Parliament also did not secure a say over the
appointment of delegation heads and special representatives for
foreign policy. Although they will appear before parliament after they
have been appointed by the High Representative. One major internal
power was that Parliament wanted a pledge from the Commission that it
would put forward legislation when parliament requests. Barroso
considered this an infringement on the Commission's powers but did
agree to respond within three months. Most requests are already
responded to positively.
During the setting up of the
European External Action Service
European External Action Service (EEAS),
Parliament used its control over the EU budget to influence the shape
of the EEAS. MEPs had aimed at getting greater oversight over the EEAS
by linking it to the Commission and having political deputies to the
High Representative. MEPs didn't manage to get everything they
demanded. However, they got broader financial control over the new
Powers and functions
The Parliament's hemicycle (debating chamber) during a plenary session
The Parliament and Council have been compared to the two chambers of a
bicameral legislature. However, there are some differences from
national legislatures; for example, neither the Parliament nor the
Council have the power of legislative initiative (except for the fact
that the Council has the power in some intergovernmental matters). In
Community matters, this is a power uniquely reserved for the European
Commission (the executive). Therefore, while Parliament can amend and
reject legislation, to make a proposal for legislation, it needs the
Commission to draft a bill before anything can become law. The
value of such a power has been questioned by noting that in the
national legislatures of the member states 85% of initiatives
introduced without executive support fail to become law. Yet it
has been argued by former Parliament president Hans-Gert Pöttering
that as the Parliament does have the right to ask the Commission to
draft such legislation, and as the Commission is following
Parliament's proposals more and more Parliament does have a de facto
right of legislative initiative.
The Parliament also has a great deal of indirect influence, through
non-binding resolutions and committee hearings, as a "pan-European
soapbox" with the ear of thousands of Brussels-based journalists.
There is also an indirect effect on foreign policy; the Parliament
must approve all development grants, including those overseas. For
example, the support for post-war Iraq reconstruction, or incentives
for the cessation of Iranian nuclear development, must be supported by
the Parliament. Parliamentary support was also required for the
transatlantic passenger data-sharing deal with the United States.
Finally, Parliament holds a non-binding vote on new EU treaties but
cannot veto it. However, when Parliament threatened to vote down the
Nice Treaty, the Belgian and Italian Parliaments said they would veto
the treaty on the European Parliament's behalf.
With each new treaty, the powers of the Parliament, in terms of its
role in the Union's legislative procedures, have expanded. The
procedure which has slowly become dominant is the "ordinary
legislative procedure" (previously named "codecision procedure"),
which provides an equal footing between Parliament and Council. In
particular, under the procedure, the Commission presents a proposal to
Parliament and the Council which can only become law if both agree on
a text, which they do (or not) through successive readings up to a
maximum of three. In its first reading, Parliament may send amendments
to the Council which can either adopt the text with those amendments
or send back a "common position". That position may either be approved
by Parliament, or it may reject the text by an absolute majority,
causing it to fail, or it may adopt further amendments, also by an
absolute majority. If the Council does not approve these, then a
"Conciliation Committee" is formed. The Committee is composed of the
Council members plus an equal number of MEPs who seek to agree a
compromise. Once a position is agreed, it has to be approved by
Parliament, by a simple majority. This is also aided by
Parliament's mandate as the only directly democratic institution,
which has given it leeway to have greater control over legislation
than other institutions, for example over its changes to the
Bolkestein directive in 2006.
The few other areas that operate the special legislative procedures
are justice & home affairs, budget and taxation and certain
aspects of other policy areas: such as the fiscal aspects of
environmental policy. In these areas, the Council or Parliament decide
law alone. The procedure also depends upon which type of
institutional act is being used. The strongest act is a regulation,
an act or law which is directly applicable in its entirety. Then there
are directives which bind member states to certain goals which they
must achieve. They do this through their own laws and hence have room
to manoeuvre in deciding upon them. A decision is an instrument which
is focused at a particular person or group and is directly applicable.
Institutions may also issue recommendations and opinions which are
merely non-binding, declarations. There is a further document
which does not follow normal procedures, this is a "written
declaration" which is similar to an early day motion used in the
Westminster system. It is a document proposed by up to five MEPs on a
matter within the EU's activities used to launch a debate on that
subject. Having been posted outside the entrance to the hemicycle,
members can sign the declaration and if a majority do so it is
forwarded to the President and announced to the plenary before being
forwarded to the other institutions and formally noted in the
The legislative branch officially holds the Union's budgetary
authority with powers gained through the Budgetary Treaties of the
1970s and the Lisbon Treaty. The EU budget is subject to a form of the
ordinary legislative procedure with a single reading giving Parliament
power over the entire budget (before 2009, its influence was limited
to certain areas) on an equal footing to the Council. If there is a
disagreement between them, it is taken to a conciliation committee as
it is for legislative proposals. If the joint conciliation text is not
approved, the Parliament may adopt the budget definitively.
The Parliament is also responsible for discharging the implementation
of previous budgets based on the annual report of the European Court
of Auditors. It has refused to approve the budget only twice, in 1984
and in 1998. On the latter occasion it led to the resignation of the
Santer Commission; highlighting how the budgetary power gives
Parliament a great deal of power over the Commission.
Parliament also makes extensive use of its budgetary, and other
powers, elsewhere; for example in the setting up of the European
External Action Service, Parliament has a de facto veto over its
design as it has to approve the budgetary and staff changes.
Control of the executive
Unlike most EU states, which usually operate parliamentary systems,
there is a separation of powers between the executive and legislative
which makes the
European Parliament more akin to the United States
Congress than an EU state legislature. The President of the
European Commission is proposed by the
European Council on the basis
of the European elections to Parliament. That proposal has to be
approved by the Parliament (by a simple majority) who "elect" the
President according to the treaties. Following the approval of the
Commission President, the members of the Commission are proposed by
the President in accord with the member-states. Each Commissioner
comes before a relevant parliamentary committee hearing covering the
proposed portfolio. They are then, as a body, approved or rejected by
the Parliament. In practice, the Parliament has never voted
against a President or his Commission, but it did seem likely when the
Barroso Commission was put forward. The resulting pressure forced the
proposal to be withdrawn and changed to be more acceptable to
parliament. That pressure was seen as an important sign by some of
the evolving nature of the Parliament and its ability to make the
Commission accountable, rather than being a rubber stamp for
candidates. Furthermore, in voting on the Commission, MEPs also voted
along party lines, rather than national lines, despite frequent
pressure from national governments on their MEPs. This cohesion and
willingness to use the Parliament's power ensured greater attention
from national leaders, other institutions and the public—who
previously gave the lowest ever turnout for the Parliament's
The Parliament also has the power to censure the Commission if they
have a two-thirds majority which will force the resignation of the
entire Commission from office. As with approval, this power has never
been used but it was threatened to the Santer Commission, who
subsequently resigned of their own accord. There are a few other
controls, such as: the requirement of Commission to submit reports to
the Parliament and answer questions from MEPs; the requirement of the
President-in-office of the Council to present its programme at the
start of their presidency; the obligation on the President of the
European Council to report to Parliament after each of its meetings;
the right of MEPs to make requests for legislation and policy to the
Commission; and the right to question members of those institutions
(e.g. "Commission Question Time" every Tuesday). At present,
MEPs may ask a question on any topic whatsoever, but in July 2008 MEPs
voted to limit questions to those within the EU's mandate and ban
offensive or personal questions.
The Parliament also has other powers of general supervision, mainly
granted by the Maastricht Treaty. The Parliament has the power to
set up a Committee of Inquiry, for example over mad cow disease or CIA
detention flights—the former led to the creation of the European
veterinary agency. The Parliament can call other institutions to
answer questions and if necessary to take them to court if they break
EU law or treaties. Furthermore, it has powers over the
appointment of the members of the Court of Auditors and the
president and executive board of the European Central Bank. The ECB
president is also obliged to present an annual report to the
European Ombudsman is elected by the Parliament, who deals with
public complaints against all institutions. Petitions can also be
brought forward by any EU citizen on a matter within the EU's sphere
of activities. The
Committee on Petitions hears cases, some 1500 each
year, sometimes presented by the citizen themselves at the Parliament.
While the Parliament attempts to resolve the issue as a mediator they
do resort to legal proceedings if it is necessary to resolve the
National apportionment of MEP seats (total 751)
Main article: Member of the European Parliament
The parliamentarians are known in English as Members of the European
Parliament (MEPs). They are elected every five years by universal
adult suffrage and sit according to political allegiance; about a
third are women. Before 1979 they were appointed by their national
Under the Lisbon Treaty, seats are allocated to each state according
to population and the maximum number of members is set at 751
(however, as the President cannot vote while in the chair there will
only be 750 voting members at any one time).
The seats are distributed according to "degressive proportionality",
i.e., the larger the state, the more citizens are represented per MEP.
As a result, Maltese and Luxembourgish voters have roughly 10x more
influence per voter than citizens of the six large countries.
As of 2014[update],
Germany (80.9 million inhabitants) has 96 seats
(previously 99 seats), i.e. one seat for 843,000 inhabitants. Malta
(0.4 million inhabitants) has 6 seats, i.e. one seat for 70,000
The new system implemented under the Lisbon Treaty, including revising
the seating well before elections, was intended to avoid political
horse trading when the allocations have to be revised to reflect
Pursuant to this apportionment, the constituencies are formed. In six
EU member states (Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Poland, and the
United Kingdom), the national territory is divided into a number of
constituencies. In the remaining member states, the whole country
forms a single constituency. All member states hold elections to the
European Parliament using various forms of proportional
Due to the delay in ratifying the Lisbon Treaty, the seventh
parliament was elected under the lower
Nice Treaty cap. A small scale
treaty amendment was ratified on 29 November 2011. This amendment
brought in transitional provisions to allow the 18 additional MEPs
created under the
Lisbon Treaty to be elected or appointed before the
2014 election. Under the
Lisbon Treaty reforms,
Germany was the
only state to lose members from 99 to 96. However, these seats were
not removed until the 2014 election.
Salaries and expenses
Before 2009, members received the same salary as members of their
national parliament. However, from 2009 a new members statute came
into force, after years of attempts, which gave all members an equal
monthly pay, of 8,020.53 euro each in 2014, subject to a European
Union tax and which can also be taxed nationally. MEPs are entitled to
a pension, paid by Parliament, from the age of 63. Members are also
entitled to allowances for office costs and subsistence, and
travelling expenses, based on actual cost.[needs update] Besides
their pay, members are granted a number of privileges and immunities.
To ensure their free movement to and from the Parliament, they are
accorded by their own states the facilities accorded to senior
officials travelling abroad and, by other state governments, the
status of visiting foreign representatives. When in their own state,
they have all the immunities accorded to national parliamentarians,
and, in other states, they have immunity from detention and legal
proceedings. However, immunity cannot be claimed when a member is
found committing a criminal offence and the Parliament also has the
right to strip a member of their immunity.
Main article: Political groups of the European Parliament
MEPs in Parliament are organised into seven different parliamentary
groups, including thirty non-attached members known as non-inscrits.
The two largest groups are the
European People's Party
European People's Party (EPP) and the
Socialists & Democrats (S&D). These two groups have dominated
the Parliament for much of its life, continuously holding between 50
and 70 percent of the seats between them. No single group has ever
held a majority in Parliament. As a result of being broad
alliances of national parties, European group parties are very
decentralised and hence have more in common with parties in federal
Germany or the United States than unitary states like the
majority of the EU states. Nevertheless, the European groups were
actually more cohesive than their US counterparts between 2004 and
Groups are often based on a single
European political party
European political party such as
the socialist group (before 2009). However, they can, like the liberal
group, include more than one European party as well as national
parties and independents. For a group to be recognised, it needs
25 MEPs from seven different countries. Once recognised, groups
receive financial subsidies from the parliament and guaranteed seats
on committees, creating an incentive for the formation of groups.
However, some controversy occurred with the establishment of the
Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty
Identity, Tradition, Sovereignty (ITS) due to its
ideology; the members of the group were far-right, so there were
concerns about public funds going towards such a group. There were
attempts to change the rules to block the formation of ITS, but they
never came to fruition. The group was, however, blocked from gaining
leading positions on committees — traditionally (by agreement,
not a rule) shared among all parties. When this group engaged in
infighting, leading to the withdrawal of some members, its size fell
below the threshold for recognition causing its collapse.
Given that the Parliament does not form the government in the
traditional sense of a Parliamentary system, its politics have
developed along more consensual lines rather than majority rule of
competing parties and coalitions. Indeed, for much of its life it has
been dominated by a grand coalition of the
European People's Party
European People's Party and
the Party of European Socialists. The two major parties tend to
co-operate to find a compromise between their two groups leading to
proposals endorsed by huge majorities. However, this does not
always produce agreement, and each may instead try to build other
alliances, the EPP normally with other centre-right or right wing
Groups and the PES with centre-left or left wing Groups. Sometimes,
the Liberal Group is then in the pivotal position. There are also
occasions where very sharp party political divisions have emerged, for
example over the resignation of the Santer Commission.
When the initial allegations against the Commission emerged, they were
directed primarily against
Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín, both
socialist members. When the parliament was considering refusing to
discharge the Community budget, President
Jacques Santer stated that a
no vote would be tantamount to a vote of no confidence. The Socialist
group supported the Commission and saw the issue as an attempt by the
EPP to discredit their party ahead of the 1999 elections. Socialist
Pauline Green MEP, attempted a vote of confidence and the EPP
put forward counter motions. During this period the two parties took
on similar roles to a government-opposition dynamic, with the
Socialists supporting the executive and EPP renouncing its previous
coalition support and voting it down. Politicisation such as this
has been increasing, in 2007 Simon Hix of the London School of
Economics noted that:
Our work also shows that politics in the
European Parliament is
becoming increasingly based around party and ideology.
increasingly split along left-right lines, and the cohesion of the
party groups has risen dramatically, particularly in the fourth and
fifth parliaments. So there are likely to be policy implications here
During the fifth term, 1999 to 2004, there was a break in the grand
coalition resulting in a centre-right coalition between the Liberal
and People's parties. This was reflected in the Presidency of the
Parliament with the terms being shared between the EPP and the ELDR,
rather than the EPP and Socialists. In the following term the
liberal group grew to hold 88 seats, the largest number of seats held
by any third party in Parliament.
Main article: Elections to the European Parliament
The composition of the
European Parliament with regard to percental
share of deputies for each political group, 1979 to 2014. Left to
Greens and regionalists
CDI or TGI
Elections have taken place, directly in every member-state, every five
years since 1979. As of 2014[update] there have been eight elections.
When a nation joins mid-term, a by-election will be held to elect
their representatives. This has happened six times, most recently when
Croatia joined in 2013. Elections take place across four days
according to local custom and, apart from having to be proportional,
the electoral system is chosen by the member-state. This includes
allocation of sub-national constituencies; while most members have a
national list, some, like the UK and France, divide their allocation
between regions. Seats are allocated to member-states according to
their population, since 2014 with no state having more than 96, but no
fewer than 6, to maintain proportionality.
The most recent Union-wide elections to the
European Parliament were
the European elections of 2014, held from 22 to 25 May 2014. They were
the largest simultaneous transnational elections ever held anywhere in
the world. The eighth term of Parliament started on 1 July 2014.
The proportion of MEPs elected in 2009 who were female was 35%; in
1979 it was just 16.5%.
There have been a number of proposals designed to attract greater
public attention to the elections. One such innovation in the 2014
elections was that the pan-European political parties fielded
"candidates" for president of the Commission, the so-called
Spitzenkandidaten (German, "leading candidates" or "top candidates").
European Union governance is based on a mixture of
intergovernmental and supranational features: the President of the
European Commission is nominated by the European Council, representing
the governments of the member states, and there is no obligation for
them to nominate the successful "candidate". The
Lisbon Treaty merely
states that they should take account of the results of the elections
when choosing whom to nominate. The so-called Spitzenkandidaten were
Jean-Claude Juncker for the European People's Party,
Martin Schulz for
the Party of European Socialists,
Guy Verhofstadt for the Alliance of
Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party,
Ska Keller and José Bové
jointly for the
European Green Party
European Green Party and
Alexis Tsipras for the Party
of the European Left.
Turnout has dropped consistently every year since the first election,
and from 1999 it has been below 50%. In 2007 both
Bulgaria and Romania
elected their MEPs in by-elections, having joined at the beginning of
2007. The Bulgarian and Romanian elections saw two of the lowest
turnouts for European elections, just 28.6% and 28.3%
In England, Scotland and Wales, EP elections were originally held for
a constituency MEP on a first-past-the-post basis. In 1999 the system
was changed to a form of PR where a large group of candidates would
stand for a post within a very large regional constituency. One
could vote for a party, but not a candidate (unless that party had a
The hemicycle in Brussels.
Each year the activities of the Parliament cycle between committee
weeks where reports are discussed in committees and interparliamentary
delegations meet, political group weeks for members to discuss work
within their political groups and session weeks where members spend
3½ days in
Strasbourg for part-sessions. In addition six 2-day
part-sessions are organised in
Brussels throughout the year. Four
weeks are allocated as constituency week to allow members to do
exclusively constituency work. Finally there are no meetings planned
during the summer weeks. The Parliament has the power to meet
without being convened by another authority. Its meetings are partly
controlled by the treaties but are otherwise up to Parliament
according to its own "Rules of Procedure" (the regulations governing
During sessions, members may speak after being called on by the
President. Members of the Council or Commission may also attend and
speak in debates. Partly due to the need for translation, and
the politics of consensus in the chamber, debates tend to be calmer
and more polite than, say, the Westminster system.
conducted primarily by a show of hands, that may be checked on request
by electronic voting. Votes of MEPs are not recorded in either
case, however; that only occurs when there is a roll-call ballot. This
is required for the final votes on legislation and also whenever a
political group or 30 MEPs request it. The number of roll-call votes
has increased with time. Votes can also be a completely secret ballot
(for example, when the president is elected). All recorded
votes, along with minutes and legislation, are recorded in the
Official Journal of the
European Union and can be accessed online.
Votes usually do not follow a debate, but rather they are grouped with
other due votes on specific occasions, usually at noon on Tuesdays,
Wednesdays or Thursdays. This is because the length of the vote is
unpredictable and if it continues for longer than allocated it can
disrupt other debates and meetings later in the day.
Members are arranged in a hemicycle according to their political
groups (in the Common Assembly, prior to 1958, members sat
alphabetically) who are ordered mainly by left to right, but some
smaller groups are placed towards the outer ring of the Parliament.
All desks are equipped with microphones, headphones for translation
and electronic voting equipment. The leaders of the groups sit on the
front benches at the centre, and in the very centre is a podium for
guest speakers. The remaining half of the circular chamber is
primarily composed of the raised area where the President and staff
sit. Further benches are provided between the sides of this area and
the MEPs, these are taken up by the Council on the far left and the
Commission on the far right. Both the
Brussels and Strasbourg
hemicycle roughly follow this layout with only minor differences.
The hemicycle design is a compromise between the different
Parliamentary systems. The British-based system has the different
groups directly facing each other while the French-based system is a
semicircle (and the traditional German system had all members in rows
facing a rostrum for speeches). Although the design is mainly based on
a semicircle, the opposite ends of the spectrum do still face each
other. With access to the chamber limited, entrance is controlled
by ushers who aid MEPs in the chamber (for example in delivering
documents). The ushers can also occasionally act as a form of police
in enforcing the President, for example in ejecting an MEP who is
disrupting the session (although this is rare). The first head of
protocol in the Parliament was French, so many of the duties in the
Parliament are based on the French model first developed following the
French Revolution. The 180 ushers are highly visible in the
Parliament, dressed in black tails and wearing a silver chain, and are
recruited in the same manner as the European civil service. The
President is allocated a personal usher.
President and organisation
Main article: President of the European Parliament
President Antonio Tajani.
The President is essentially the speaker of the Parliament and
presides over the plenary when it is in session. The President's
signature is required for all acts adopted by co-decision, including
the EU budget. The President is also responsible for representing the
Parliament externally, including in legal matters, and for the
application of the rules of procedure. He or she is elected for
two-and-a-half-year terms, meaning two elections per parliamentary
term. The President is currently
Antonio Tajani MEP of the
In most countries, the protocol of the head of state comes before all
others; however, in the EU the Parliament is listed as the first
institution, and hence the protocol of its president comes before any
other European, or national, protocol. The gifts given to numerous
visiting dignitaries depend upon the President. President Josep
Borrell MEP of
Spain gave his counterparts a crystal cup created by an
artist from Barcelona who had engraved upon it parts of the Charter of
Fundamental Rights among other things.
A number of notable figures have been President of the Parliament and
its predecessors. The first President was
Paul-Henri Spaak MEP,
one of the founding fathers of the Union. Other founding fathers
Alcide de Gasperi
Alcide de Gasperi MEP and
Robert Schuman MEP. The two female
Simone Veil MEP in 1979 (first President of the
elected Parliament) and
Nicole Fontaine MEP in 1999, both
Frenchwomen. The previous president,
Jerzy Buzek was the first
East-Central European to lead an EU institution, a former Prime
Poland who rose out of the Solidarity movement in Poland
that helped overthrow communism in the Eastern Bloc.
During the election of a President, the previous President (or, if
unable to, one of the previous Vice-Presidents) presides over the
chamber. Prior to 2009, the oldest member fulfilled this
role but the rule was changed to prevent far-right French MEP
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen taking the chair.
Below the President, there are 14 Vice-Presidents who chair debates
when the President is not in the chamber. There are a number of other
bodies and posts responsible for the running of parliament besides
these speakers. The two main bodies are the Bureau, which is
responsible for budgetary and administration issues, and the
Conference of Presidents
Conference of Presidents which is a governing body composed of the
presidents of each of the parliament's political groups. Looking after
the financial and administrative interests of members are five
Quaestors. In August 2002, Nichole Robichaux [née Braucksieker]
became the first American citizen to intern for a member of the
European Parliament—Monica Frassoni [Green Party].
As of 2014[update], the
European Parliament budget was EUR 1.756
billion. A 2008 report on the Parliament's finances highlighted
certain overspending and miss-payments. Despite some MEPs calling for
the report to be published, Parliamentary authorities had refused
until an MEP broke confidentiality and leaked it.
Committees and delegations
Main article: Committees of the European Parliament
These "relocation boxes" of the European Parliament, called
"cantines", are ready to be transported from
Brussels to Strasbourg
where a plenary session will take place. Each month, the EP moves back
and forth to meet the EU obligation to hold meetings also in France.
The Parliament has 20 Standing Committees consisting of 25 to 71 MEPs
each (reflecting the political make-up of the whole Parliament)
including a chair, a bureau and secretariat. They meet twice a month
in public to draw up, amend to adopt legislative proposals and reports
to be presented to the plenary. The rapporteurs for a committee
are supposed to present the view of the committee, although notably
this has not always been the case. In the events leading to the
resignation of the Santer Commission, the rapporteur went against the
Budgetary Control Committee's narrow vote to discharge the budget, and
urged the Parliament to reject it.
Committees can also set up sub-committees (e.g. the Subcommittee on
Human Rights) and temporary committees to deal with a specific topic
(e.g. on extraordinary rendition). The chairs of the Committees
co-ordinate their work through the "Conference of Committee
Chairmen". When co-decision was introduced it increased the
Parliament's powers in a number of areas, but most notably those
covered by the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food
Safety. Previously this committee was considered by MEPs as a
Cinderella committee"; however, as it gained a new importance, it
became more professional and rigorous, attracting increasing attention
to its work.
A Committee room in the Parliament
The nature of the committees differ from their national counterparts
as, although smaller in comparison to those of the United States
Congress, the European Parliament's committees are unusually large by
European standards with between eight and twelve dedicated members of
staff and three to four support staff. Considerable administration,
archives and research resources are also at the disposal of the whole
Parliament when needed.
Delegations of the Parliament are formed in a similar manner and are
responsible for relations with Parliaments outside the EU. There are
34 delegations made up of around 15 MEPs, chairpersons of the
delegations also cooperate in a conference like the committee chairs
do. They include "Interparliamentary delegations" (maintain relations
with Parliament outside the EU), "joint parliamentary committees"
(maintaining relations with parliaments of states which are candidates
or associates of the EU), the delegation to the ACP EU Joint
Parliamentary Assembly and the delegation to the Euro-Mediterranean
Parliamentary Assembly. MEPs also participate in other
international activities such as the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary
Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue
Transatlantic Legislators' Dialogue and through election
observation in third countries.
Interpreting booths in the hemicycle simultaneously interpret debates
between 24 languages
Intergroups in the European Parliament are informal fora which
gather MEPs from various political groups around any topic. They do
not express the view of the European Parliament. They serve a double
purpose: to address a topic which is transversal to several committees
and in a less formal manner. Their daily secretariat can be run either
through the office of MEPs or through interest groups, be them
corporate lobbies or NGOs. The favored access to MEPs which the
organization running the secretariat enjoys can be one explanation to
the multiplication of Intergroups in the 1990s. They are now
strictly regulated and financial support, direct or otherwise (via
Secretariat staff, for example) must be officially specified in a
declaration of financial interests. Also Intergroups are
established or renewed at the beginning of each legislature through a
specific process. Indeed, the proposal for the constitution or renewal
of an Intergroup must be supported by at least 3 political groups
whose support is limited to a specific number of proposals in
proportion to their size (for example, for the legislature 2014-2019,
the EPP or S&D political groups could support 22 proposals whereas
the Greens/EFA or the EFDD political groups only 7).
Translation and interpretation
Speakers in the
European Parliament are entitled to speak in any of
the 24 official languages of the European Union, ranging from French
and German to Maltese and Irish. Simultaneous interpreting is offered
in all plenary sessions, and all final texts of legislation are
translated. With twenty-four languages, the
European Parliament is the
most multilingual parliament in the world and the biggest
employer of interpreters in the world (employing 350 full-time and 400
free-lancers when there is higher demand). Citizens may also
address the Parliament in Basque, Catalan,
Usually a language is translated from a foreign tongue into a
translator's native tongue. Due to the large number of languages, some
being minor ones, since 1995 interpreting is sometimes done the
opposite way, out of an interpreter's native tongue (the "retour"
system). In addition, a speech in a minor language may be interpreted
through a third language for lack of interpreters ("relay"
interpreting) —for example, when interpreting out of Estonian
into Maltese. Due to the complexity of the issues, interpretation
is not word for word. Instead, interpreters have to convey the
political meaning of a speech, regardless of their own views. This
requires detailed understanding of the politics and terms of the
Parliament, involving a great deal of preparation beforehand (e.g.
reading the documents in question). Difficulty can often arise when
MEPs use profanities, jokes and word play or speak too fast.
While some see speaking their native language as an important part of
their identity, and can speak more fluently in debates, interpretation
and its cost has been criticised by some. A 2006 report by Alexander
Stubb MEP highlighted that by only using English, French and German
costs could be reduced from €118,000 per day (for 21 languages
then—Romanian, Bulgarian and Croatian having not yet been included)
to €8,900 per day. Some see the ideal single language as being
English due to its widespread usage, although there has been a
small-scale campaign to make French the reference language for all
legal texts, due to the fact that it is more clear and precise for
Because the proceedings are translated into all of the official EU
languages, they have been used to make a multilingual corpus known as
Europarl. It is widely used to train statistical machine translation
Further information: Location of
European Union institutions, Espace
Léopold, and Seat of the
European Parliament in Strasbourg
The Parliament is based in three different cities with numerous
buildings. A protocol attached to the
Treaty of Amsterdam
Treaty of Amsterdam requires
that 12 plenary sessions be held in
Strasbourg (none in August but two
in September), which is the Parliament's official seat, while extra
part sessions as well as committee meetings are held in Brussels.
Luxembourg hosts the Secretariat of the European Parliament. The
European Parliament is the only assembly in the world with more than
one meeting place and one of the few that does not have the power to
decide its own location.
Strasbourg seat is seen as a symbol of reconciliation between
France and Germany, the
Strasbourg region having been fought over by
the two countries in the past. However, the cost and inconvenience of
having two seats is questioned. While
Strasbourg is the official seat,
and sits alongside the Council of Europe,
Brussels is home to
nearly all other major EU institutions, with the majority of
Parliament's work being carried out there. Critics have described the
two-seat arrangement as a "travelling circus", and there is a
strong movement to establish
Brussels as the sole seat. This is
because the other political institutions (the Commission, Council and
European Council) are located there, and hence
Brussels is treated as
the 'capital' of the EU. This movement has received strong backing
through numerous figures, including the Commission First-Vice
President who stated that "something that was once a very positive
symbol of the EU reuniting
Germany has now become a
negative symbol—of wasting money, bureaucracy and the insanity of
Brussels institutions". The Green Party has also noted the
environmental cost in a study led by
Jean Lambert MEP and Caroline
Lucas MEP; in addition to the extra 200 million euro spent on the
extra seat, there are over 20,268 tonnes of additional carbon
dioxide, undermining any environmental stance of the institution and
the Union. The campaign is further backed by a million-strong
online petition started by
Cecilia Malmström MEP. In August
2014, an assessment by the
European Court of Auditors
European Court of Auditors calculated that
Strasbourg seat of the
European Parliament to Brussels
would save €113.8 million per year. In 2006, there were
allegations of irregularity in the charges made by the city of
Strasbourg on buildings the Parliament rented, thus further harming
the case for the
Most MEPs prefer
Brussels as a single base. A poll of MEPs found
89% of the respondents wanting a single seat, and 81% preferring
Brussels. Another, more academic, survey found 68% support.
In July 2011, an absolute majority of MEPs voted in favour of a single
seat. In early 2011, the Parliament voted to scrap one of the
Strasbourg sessions by holding two within a single week. The
Strasbourg officially reacted by stating "we will
counter-attack by upturning the adversary's strength to our own
profit, as a judoka would do." However, as Parliament's seat is
now fixed by the treaties, it can only be changed by the Council
acting unanimously, meaning that
France could veto any move. The
Nicolas Sarkozy has stated that the Strasbourg
seat is "non-negotiable", and that
France has no intention of
surrendering the only EU Institution on French soil. Given
France's declared intention to veto any relocation to Brussels, some
MEPs have advocated civil disobedience by refusing to take part in the
monthly exodus to Strasbourg.
Channels of dialogue, information, and communication with European
Over the last few years, European institutions have committed to
promoting transparency, openness, and the availability of information
about their work. In particular, transparency is regarded as
pivotal to the action of European institutions and a general principle
of EU law, to be applied to the activities of EU institutions in order
to strengthen the Union's democratic foundation. The general
principles of openness and transparency are reaffirmed in the articles
8 A, point 3 and 10.3 of the
Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon and the Maastricht
Treaty respectively, stating that "every citizen shall have the right
to participate in the democratic life of the Union. Decisions shall be
taken as openly and as closely as possible to the citizen".
Furthermore, both treaties acknowledge the value of dialogue between
citizens, representative associations, civil society, and European
Dialogue with religious and non-confessional organisations
Article 17 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
(TFEU) lays the juridical foundation for an open, transparent dialogue
between European institutions and churches, religious associations,
and non-confessional and philosophical organisations. In July
2014, in the beginning of the 8th term, then President of the European
Martin Schulz tasked Antonio Tajani, then Vice-president,
with implementing the dialogue with the religious and confessional
organisations included in article 17. In this framework, the
European Parliament hosts high-level conferences on inter-religious
dialogue, also with focus on current issues and in relation with
European Parliament Mediator for International Parental Child
The chair of
European Parliament Mediator for International Parental
Child Abduction was established in 1987 by initiative of British
politician and MEP Charles Henry Plumb, with the goal of helping minor
children of international couples victim of parental abduction. The
Mediator finds negotiated solutions in the higher interest of the
minor when said minor is abducted by a parent following separation of
the couple, regardless whether married or unmarried. Since
its institution, the chair has been held by
Mairead McGuinness (since
2014), Roberta Angelilli (2009-2014),
Evelyne Gebhardt (2004-2009),
Mary Banotti (1995-2004), and Marie-Claude Vayssade (1987-1994).
The Mediator's main task is to assist parents in finding a solution in
the minor's best interest through mediation, i.e. a form of
controversy resolution alternative to lawsuit. The Mediator is
activated by request of a citizen and, after evaluating the request,
starts a mediation process aimed at reaching an agreement. Once
subscribed by both parties and the Mediator, the agreement is
official. The nature of the agreement is that of a private contract
between parties. In defining the agreement, the European
Parliament offers the parties the juridical support necessary to reach
a sound, lawful agreement based on legality and equity. The agreement
can be ratified by the competent national courts and can also lay the
foundation for consensual separation or divorce.
European Parliamentary Research Service
European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) is the European
Parliament's in-house research department and think tank. It provides
Members of the
European Parliament - and where appropriate,
parliamentary committees - with independent, objective and
authoritative analysis of, and research on, policy issues relating to
the European Union, in order to assist them in their parliamentary
work. It is also designed to increase Members' and EP committees'
capacity to scrutinise and oversee the
European Commission and other
EU executive bodies.
EPRS aims to provide a comprehensive range of products and services,
backed by specialist internal expertise and knowledge sources in all
policy fields, so empowering Members and committees through knowledge
and contributing to the Parliament’s effectiveness and influence as
an institution. In undertaking this work, the EPRS supports and
promotes parliamentary outreach to the wider public, including
dialogue with relevant stakeholders in the EU’s system of
multi-level governance. All publications by EPRS are publicly
available on the EP Think Tank platform.
Eurobarometer of the European Parliament
European Parliament periodically commissions opinion polls and
studies on public opinion trends in Member States to survey
perceptions and expectations of citizens about its work and the
overall activities of the European Union. Topics include citizens'
perception of the European Parliament's role, their knowledge of the
institution, their sense of belonging in the European Union, opinions
on European elections and European integration, identity, citizenship,
political values, but also on current issues such as climate change,
current economy and politics, etc..
Eurobarometer analyses seek to
provide an overall picture of national situations, regional
specificities, socio-demographic cleavages, and historical
European Parliament awards four prizes to individuals
and organisations that distinguished themselves in the areas of human
rights, film, youth projects, and European participation and
Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought
The ceremony of the
Sakharov Prize awarded to
Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi by
Martin Schulz, in 2013
Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, created in 1998, the
European Parliament supports human rights by awarding individuals that
contribute to promoting human rights worldwide, thus raising awareness
on human rights violations. Priorities include: protection of human
rights and fundamental liberties, with particular focus on freedom of
expression; protection of minority rights; compliance with
international law; and development of democracy and authentic rule of
European Charlemagne Youth Prize
European Charlemagne Youth Prize
European Charlemagne Youth Prize seeks to encourage youth
participation in the
European integration process. It is awarded by
European Parliament and the Foundation of the International
Charlemagne Prize of Aachen to youth projects aimed at nurturing
common European identity and European citizenship.
European Citizens' Prize
European Citizens' Prize
European Citizens' Prize is awarded by the
European Parliament to
activities and actions carried out by citizens and associations to
promote integration between the citizens of EU member states and
transnational cooperation projects in the EU.
Since 2007, the
LUX Prize is awarded by the
European Parliament to
films dealing with current topics of public European interest that
encourage reflection on Europe and its future. Over time, the Lux
Prize has become a prestigious cinema award which supports European
film and production also outside the EU.
Book: European Union
State of the Union address (European Union)
^ A single constituency, the
German-speaking electoral college
German-speaking electoral college in
Belgium, also uses First-past-the-post to elect its single MEP
^ Brand, Constant; Wielaard, Robert (8 June 2009). "Conservatives Post
Gains In European Elections". The Washington Post. Associated Press.
Retrieved 17 August 2010.
^ Ian Traynor (7 June 2009). "Misery for social democrats as voters
take a turn to the right". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 August
^ "18 new MEPs take their seats". European Parliament. 10 January
2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
^ "Results of the 2014 European elections". European Parliament.
^ a b c d "Parliament's powers and procedures". European Parliament.
Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ a b Williams, Matt (24 June 2008). "Pöttering defends parliament's
role at EU summits". The Parliament Magazine. Archived from the
original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
^ a b "Parliament's Protocol Service". European Parliament. 28 July
2006. Retrieved 28 October 2007.
^ "European Parliament". Europa. 19 April 2010. Retrieved
^ a b "Consolidated versions of the treaty on
European Union and of
the treaty establishing the European Community" (PDF). Eur-lex.
Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ a b c d e f g "European Parliament". European NAvigator. Retrieved
19 April 2013.
^ "EPP-ED Chronology—1951–1960". European People's Party.
Retrieved 5 July 2007.
^ a b c "Professor Farrell: "The EP is now one of the most powerful
legislatures in the world"". European Parliament. 18 June 2007.
Retrieved 5 July 2007.
^ Reid, Tom (2004). The United States of Europe. London: Penguin
Books. p. 272. ISBN 0-14-102317-1.
European Council - Consilium" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 12 September 2014.
^ "Ad Hoc Assembly, Information and Official Documents of the
Constitutional Committee, October 1952 to April 1953" (PDF).
Archive of European Integration. 1953. Retrieved 29 October
^ a b "Composition of the European Parliament". CVCE. Retrieved 19
^ "1945–1959 The beginnings of cooperation: 1958". European
Parliament. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved
20 September 2012.
^ "50th anniversary of the
European Parliament celebrated in
Strasbourg". European Parliament. 12 March 2008. Retrieved 6 April
^ "Power of the purse of the European Parliament". European NAvigator.
Retrieved 19 April 2013.
^ a b c Hoskyns, Catherine; Michael Newman (2000). Democratizing the
European Union: Issues for the twenty-first Century (Perspectives on
Democratization). Manchester University Press.
^ "Framework". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 9 June
2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
^ "Overview of the Pan-African Parliament". Pan-African Parliament.
Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 5 July
^ "The European Parliament's proposals". CVCE. Retrieved 19 April
^ a b
European Parliament Website. "Oversight over the Commission and
Council". Retrieved 1 July 2007.
^ "The seats of the institutions of the European Union". CVCE.
Retrieved 19 April 2013.
^ "Power to legislate of the European Parliament". CVCE. Retrieved 19
^ Topan, Angelina (30 September 2002). "The resignation of the
Santer-Commission: the impact of 'trust' and 'reputation'" (PDF).
European Integration Online Papers. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
^ a b c d e Ringer, Nils F. (February 2003). "The Santer Commission
Resignation Crisis" (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 7
^ a b Bowley, Graham (18 October 2004). "Buttiglione affair highlights
evolving role of Parliament : Questions arise on democracy at the
EU". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
^ Tobais, Troll (2 November 2004). "We have to democratise
procedures". Café Babel. Archived from the original on 29 November
2005. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ a b "How the European parliament got serious". Financial Times. 23
February 2006. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ Beunderman, Mark (9 November 2007). "Frattini seeks to apply new EU
treaty rules before 2009". EU Observer. Retrieved 9 November
^ "Parliamentary reform put into practice". European Parliament. 17
January 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
^ "Parliamentary reform: third package adopted". European Parliament.
20 March 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
^ a b "The Union's institutions: The European Parliament". European
Parliament. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved
28 June 2007.
^ Hughes, Kirsty. "Nearing Compromise as Convention goes into Final
Week?" (PDF). EPIN. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February
2008. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
^ "MEPs elect Barroso to a second term as Commission President".
European Parliament. 16 September 2009. Archived from the original on
23 September 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
^ Taylor, Simon (17 September 2009). "A second term – but at
what price?". European Voice. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
^ Taylor, Simon (21 January 2010). "How Jeleva was forced out".
European Voice. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
^ Taylor, Simon (28 January 2010). "MEPs agree working relations with
Barroso". European Voice. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
^ a b Mahoney, Honor (23 April 2010). "Member states to signal broad
backing for diplomatic service blueprint". EU Observer. Retrieved 2
^ Vogel, Toby (21 October 2010). "Backing of MEPs paves way for launch
of diplomatic corps". EurActiv. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
Bicameral Traits At EU Level". European Parliamentary Research
Service. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2016. A bicameral
structure for the
European Union has been proposed on numerous
occasions. A frequent suggestion, and one designed to address the
EU’s alleged democratic deficit, is for a second chamber composed of
national parliamentarians alongside the European Parliament. However,
it is also argued that the EU already has a second chamber, the
Council of the EU – representing Europe’s nations, with the first
chamber, the EP, representing its citizens. In regard to this latter
view there are differing opinions.
^ "Fact Sheets 1.3.8 The Commission". European Parliament. Retrieved
14 June 2007.
^ a b c d Kreppel, Amie (2006). "Understanding the European Parliament
from a Federalist Perspective: The Legislatures of the USA and EU
Compared" (PDF). Center for European Studies, University of Florida.
Retrieved 26 September 2008.
^ Schnabel, Rockwell; Francis Rocca (2005). The Next Superpower?: the
Rise of Europe and its Challenge to the United States. Oxford: Rowman
& Littlefield Publishers. p. 111.
^ Kirk, Lizabeth (11 January 2001). "No guarantee EP will back Treaty
of Nice". EU Observer. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
^ "Decision-making in the European Union". European Parliament.
Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 18 September
^ a b "Explaining the Treaty of Lisbon". Europa website. Retrieved 4
^ "Community legal instruments". European Parliament. Archived from
the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
^ "Written declarations". European Parliament. Retrieved 1 November
^ "Budgetary control: 1996 discharge raises issue of confidence in the
Commission". European Parliament. 1999. Retrieved 15 October
^ "Background Information: Election of the European Commission".
European Parliament. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
^ a b "Oversight over the Commission and Council". European
Parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ Murray, Alasdair (2004). "Three cheers for EU democracy". Open
Europe. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 7 July
^ Mahony, Honor (9 July 2008). "New rules to make it harder for MEPs
to form political groups". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 10
Maastricht Treaty 15 years on: birth of the "European Union"".
European Parliament. 7 February 2007. Archived from the original on 9
February 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
^ a b c "Supervisory power". European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 101:
Appointment of the Members of the Court of Auditors". European
Parliament. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
^ Rickards, Mark (3 November 2007). "MEPs get taste of people power".
BBC News. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
^ "Members". European Parliament. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
^ Goldirova, Renata (19 October 2007). "EU agrees new 'Treaty of
Lisbon'". EU Observer. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
^ "Distribution of EP seats: Constitutional Affairs Committee
approvals proposal". European Parliament. 2 October 2007. Retrieved 7
^ "Ratification of Parliament's 18 additional MEPs completed".
European Parliament. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 14 February
^ "Agreement details: Protocol amending the Protocol on Transitional
Provisions annexed to the Treaty on European Union, to the Treaty on
the Functioning of the
European Union and to the Treaty establishing
European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community (Deposited with the Government of
the Italian Republic)". Council of the European Union. Retrieved 4
^ Willis, Andrew (8 April 2010). "MEPs seek change to
Lisbon Treaty to
accommodate new colleagues". EU Observer. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
^ "About MEPs". European Parliament. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
^ "7. Protocol on the privileges and immunities of the European Union"
(PDF). Eur-Lex. 16 December 2004. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
^ Kreppel, Amie (2002). "The
European Parliament and Supranational
Party System" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 June
2007. [permanent dead link]
^ ""What to expect in the 2009–14 European Parliament": Analysis
from a leading EU expert".
European Parliament website. 2009. Archived
from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 17 February
^ "Cohesion rates". Vote Watch. 2010. Retrieved 17 February
^ "Party Politics in the EU" (PDF). civitas.org.uk. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
European Parliament increases threshold to form a political group".
European Parliament. 9 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2
August 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
^ Brunwasser, Matthew (14 January 2007). "
far right profile in EU Parliament". International Herald Tribune.
^ "Far-Right Wing Group Sidelined in European Parliament". Deutsche
Welle. 2 February 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
^ Mahony, Honor (14 November 2007). "MEPs welcome fall of far-right
group". EU Observer. Retrieved 14 November 2007.
^ Settembri, Pierpaolo (2 February 2007). "Is the European Parliament
competitive or consensual ... "and why bother"?" (PDF). Federal
Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2007. Retrieved
7 October 2007.
^ "Interview: Graham Watson, leader of group of Liberal Democrat
MEPs". Euractiv. 15 June 2004. Archived from the original on 14 August
2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
European Parliament elects new president". BBC News. 20 July 1999.
Retrieved 1 November 2007.
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is born". Graham
Watson MEP website. 14 July 2004. Archived from the original on 5
December 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
^ The motto "Unity in diversity" could not be better confirmed in the
European election law: Buonomo, Giampiero (2003). "Le incompatibilità
(per ora rinviate per motivi di salute) che bloccano l'ingresso al
Parlamento europeo". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online.
Questia (subscription required)
^ "The European Parliament: electoral procedures". European
Parliament. Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 12
^ "At the end of EP seventh legislature: presidential debate, election
night, constitution of groups, constitution of the new Parliament"
(Press release). European Parliament. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 4 June
2014. The new, eighth, Parliament will be constituted on 1 July . .
^ "New GERB party narrowly wins Bulgaria's first European Parliament
election". Southeast European Times. 21 May 2007. Retrieved 8 July
Romania chooses its 35 MEPS". European Parliament. 26 November
2007. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 24
^ "Ways of voting - GOV.UK".
European Parliament 2007 calendar of activities" (PDF). European
Parliament. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
^ "EUR-Lex - o10000 - EN - EUR-Lex".
^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 141: Calling
speakers and content of speeches". European Parliament. Retrieved 12
^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 142: Allocation
of speaking time". European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ Yeomans, Chris (2 November 2004). "Democracy 1, Autocracy 0?". Café
Babel. Archived from the original on 8 June 2005. Retrieved 9 July
^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 164: Disputes
on voting". European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ "How do MEPs vote?". European Parliament. 28 June 2006. Retrieved 6
^ Hix &al (see further reading below), §1.4 ("The dataset:
roll-call votes in the European Parliament"), p.29–30.
^ "The different types of document available on Europarl". European
Parliament. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 7
^ Corbett, Richard; Francis Jacobs; Michael Shackleton (2007). The
European Parliament (7 ed.). London: John Harper. p. 174.
^ a b Corbett, Richard; Francis Jacobs; Michael Shackleton (2007). The
European Parliament (7 ed.). London: John Harper. p. 167.
Brussels seating plan" (PDF). European Parliament. Archived from
the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
European Parliament Ushers". European Parliament. Retrieved 21
^ "Duties of the President". European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Functions". European Parliament. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
^ , though the history of Parliament sometimes excludes the early
Common Assembly, in which interpretation the first President would be
Robert Schuman (another founding father) in those circumstances.
^ "Former E.P. Presidents". European Parliament. Retrieved 20
Jerzy Buzek elected new President of the European Parliament".
European Parliament. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 23
July 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
^ a b Traynor, Ian (26 March 2009). "MEPs move to deny extremist
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen platform". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 April
^ "Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament. Rule 11: Oldest
member". European Parliament. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ "The budget of the European Parliament". European Union. Retrieved
22 April 2011. The 2014 EP budget amounts to € 1,756 billion of
which 35% is for staff expenses, mainly salaries for the 6000
officials working in the General Secretariat and in the Political
^ "MEP makes fraud report public". BBC News. UK. 5 March 2008.
Retrieved 28 October 2011.
^ a b c "Organisation". European Parliament. Retrieved 3 May 2016. In
order to do the preparatory work for Parliament's plenary sittings,
the Members are divided up among a number of specialised standing
committees. There are 20 parliamentary committees. A committee
consists of between 25 and 71 MEPs, and has a chair, a bureau and a
secretariat. The political make-up of the committees reflects that of
the plenary assembly.
^ "European Parliament: In Detail". European Parliament. Retrieved 9
^ Dutoit Laurent, « L'influence au sein du Parlement
européen : les intergroupes », Politique européenne
1/2003 (n° 9), p. 123-142.
^ Article 6, Rules governing the establishment of intergroups,
decision of the Conference of Presidents, 16 december 1999 (last
updated 11 September 2014)
^ Annex 1, Rules governing the establishment of intergroups, decision
of the Conference of Presidents, 16 december 1999 (last updated 11
^ "Press Release: Irish language arrives in European Parliament".
European Parliament Irish Office. 11 January 2007. Archived from the
original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ a b c "The European Parliament's Interpreters". European Parliament.
12 April 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
European Parliament allows the written communication of
citizens in Basques in Basque, Catalan and Galician". Ciemen. 2006.
Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 21 June
^ "In European Parliament, debate—in 21 languages—can be pricey".
Christian Science Monitor. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Campaign to make French sole legal language in EU". International
Herald Tribune. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ Philipp Koehn (2005) Europarl: A Parallel Corpus for Statistical
Machine Translation, in MT Summit 2005
^ a b Alvaro, Alexander (6 July 2006). "Europe's strangest migrants".
Café Babel. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the
European Union sign an agreement to
foster mutual cooperation". Council of Europe. 23 May 2007. Retrieved
12 June 2007.
^ a b "Greens condemn EU parliament's 'traveling circus'". 4ecotips.
26 April 2007. Archived from the original on 19 May 2007. Retrieved 5
^ "Wallstrom: "
Strasbourg has become a negative symbol"". EurActiv. 5
September 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
^ Malmström, Cecilia. "OneSeat.eu". Archived from the original on 9
June 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
^ "Auditors put price tag on EU Parliament 'travelling circus'".
^ Kroeger, Alix (27 April 2006). "EU and
Strasbourg in rent row". BBC
News. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
^ Wheatly, Paul (2 October 2006). "The two-seat parliament farce must
end". Café Babel. Archived from the original on 10 June 2007.
Retrieved 12 June 2007.
Euro MPs want to scrap
Strasbourg base: poll". EU Business. 13 June
2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 22
^ Majority of MEPs now favour single seat Archived 16 July 2011 at the
Wayback Machine. theparliament.com
^ "MEPs vote to reduce
Strasbourg calendar". EurActiv. 10 March 2011.
Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March
^ "Le conseil municipal adopte à l'unanimité une motion confortant
et élargissant le siège du Parlement européen à Strasbourg".
EurActiv. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
^ Banks, Martin (24 May 2007). "Sarkozy slated over
EU Politix: The Parliament. Archived from the original on 27 September
2007. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
^ Giving up the
Strasbourg junket Mark Mardell, BBC News. 4 December
^ "MEPs demand single seat in
France refuses to give up
Strasbourg - Policy Review". Archived from the original on 18
^ "MEPs vote to end monthly travel to Strasbourg".
^ Juan Mayoral (February 2011). "Democratic improvements in the
European Union under the
Lisbon Treaty Institutional changes regarding
democratic government in the EU" (PDF).
European Union Democracy
Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies,
European University Institute. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
^ Giordano Locchi (8 February 2017). "Il principio di trasparenza in
Europa nei suoi risvolti in termini di Governance amministrativa e di
comunicazione istituzionale dell'Unione" (PDF). Amministrazione in
cammino (in Italian). Retrieved 22 May 2017.
^ a b "Trattato di Lisbona che modifica il Trattato sull'Unione
europea e il Trattato che istituisce la Comunità europea (2007/C
306/01)". eur-lex.europa.eu. EUR-lex.
^ a b "Trattato sull'Unione europea (Versione consolidata)".
eur-lex.europa.eu (in Italian). Retrieved 23 May 2017.
^ a b "Dialogo con le organizzazioni religiose e non confessionali
Articolo 17 TFUE". europarl.europa.eu (in Italian). Parlamento
europeo. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
^ "L'Ue a Bruxelles: il dialogo interreligioso come strategia contro
l'estremismo" (in Italian). La Stampa. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 22 May
^ "Sottrazione internazionale di minore: ammessa la mediazione
familiare" (in Italian). Altalex. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 22 May
^ a b c d "Mediatore del Parlamento europeo per i casi di sottrazione
internazionale di minori". europarl.europa.eu. Parlamento europeo.
Retrieved 22 May 2017.
^ "European Parliamentary Research Service". Europarl.europa.eu.
^ "The work of EPRS – The first three years: 2014 to 2016" (PDF).
European Parliamentary Research Service. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
^ "Parlemeter 2016". europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
^ "Eurobarometro: i sondaggi d'opinione del PE". europarl.it (in
Italian). Retrieved 23 May 2017.
^ a b c "Premi". europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
^ "Il Parlamento europeo sostiene i diritti umani". europarl.europa.eu
(in Italian). Retrieved 23 May 2017.
^ "Lux Prize. About". luxprize.eu. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
Attwool, Elspeth (2000). To the Power of Ten: UK Liberal Democrats in
European Parliament (Centre for Reform Papers). Open Europe.
Butler, David; Martin Westlake (2005). British Politics and European
Election. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Roger Scully (2007). Representing Europe's Citizens?:
Electoral Institutions and the Failure of Parliamentary
Representation. Oxford University Press.
Gazzola, Michele (2006). "Managing Multilingualism in the European
Union: Language Policy Evaluation for the European Parliament".
Language Policy. Netherlands: Springer. 5 (4): 393–417.
Corbett, Richard; Jacobs, Francis; Shackleton, Michael (2016). The
European Parliament (9th ed.). London: John Harper Publishing.
ISBN 978-0-9564508-5-2. The same three co-authors have
written every edition since the first in 1990.
Corbett, Richard (June 1998). The European Parliament's Role in Closer
EU Integration. LBasingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hix, Simon; Noury, Abdul; Roland, Gérard (2007). "Democratic Politics
European Parliament (Themes in European Governance)".
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-69460-5. (draft version on-line)
Hix, Simon; Noury, Abdul; Roland, Gérard (April 2006). "Dimensions of
politics in the European Parliament". American Journal of Political
Science. Wiley. 50 (2): 494–520.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2006.00198.x. JSTOR 3694286. Pdf.
Hoskyns, Catherine; Michael Newman (2000). Democratizing the European
Union: Issues for the twenty-first Century (Perspectives on
Democratization. Manchester University Press.
Kreppel, Amie (2001). The
European Parliament and Supranational Party
System: A Study in Institutional Development (Cambridge Studies in
Comparative Politics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van der Laan, Lousewies (2003). The Case For a Stronger European
Parliament. London: Centre for European Reform.
Lodge, Juliet (23 June 2005). The 2004 Elections to the European
Parliament. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lodge, Juliet, ed. The 2009 Elections to the European Parliament
(Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 327 pages
Maier, Michaela; Tenscher, Jens (2006). Campaigning in Europe,
Campaigning for Europe: Political Parties, Campaigns, Mass Media and
European Parliament Elections 2004 (Medien). Lit Verlag.
Rittberger, Berthold (2007). Building Europe's Parliament: Democratic
Representation Beyond the Nation State. Oxford University Press.
Sabbati, Giulio (2015). European Parliament: Facts and Figures'.
European Parliament – European Parliamentary Research Service
Schmitter, Philippe (2000). How to Democratize the EU ... and Why
Bother? (Governance in Europe). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Scully, Roger (2005). Becoming European?: Attitudes, Behaviour, and
Socialization in the European Parliament. Oxford University Press.
Serodes, Fabrice; Heinz, Michel (2013). Le Parlement européen.
Foreword by Martin Schulz. Paris: Nane Editions.
Smith, Julie (1999). Europe's Elected Parliament (Contemporary
European Studies). London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Jacques Thomassen (2002). The European Parliament
on the Move: Toward Parliamentary Democracy in Europe (Governance in
Europe). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Dick Toornstra; Christian Meseth (2012). Inside the European
Parliament: A guide to its parliamentary and administrative
European Parliament – Office for Promotion of
Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD).
Watson, Graham (2004). EU've Got Mail!: Liberal Letters from the
European Parliament. Bagehot Publishing.
Wood, David M.; Birol A. Yesilada (2007). The Emerging European Union
(4th Ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 0-321-43941-4.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: European Parliament
Wikisource has several original texts related to: European Parliament
Wikimedia Commons has media related to European Parliament.
European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS)
European Parliament’s Think Tank
Historical Archives of the European Parliament
Historical Archives of the European Union
European Parliament guide
360° tour of
European Parliament Brussels
Committees and Delegations
President (Antonio Tajani)
COSAC (National parliaments)
Reform working group
1979 (session / members)
1984 (session / members)
1989 (session / members)
1994 (session / members)
1999 (session / members)
2004 (session / members)
2009 (session / members)
2014 (session / members)
2019 (session / members)
Paneuropean Working Group
Intergroup on long term investment and reindustrialisation
Joint parliamentary meeting
Charlemagne Youth Prize
European Citizens' Prize
European Communities Project
Model European Parliament
State of the Union
European Union Portal
Parliament of Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
States with limited
Isle of Man
European Union articles
European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community (1951–2002)
European Economic Community
European Economic Community (1958–1993/2009)
European Communities (1967–1993/2009)
Justice and Home Affairs (1993–2009)
Larger urban zones
Regions (first-level NUTS)
Council of the European Union
Court of Justice of the European Union
European Central Bank
European Court of Auditors
Border and coast security (Frontex)
Disease prevention and control
Foreign affairs (External Action Service)
Judicial cooperation (Eurojust)
Law enforcement cooperation (Europol)
Charter of Fundamental Rights
Citizens’ Rights Directive
Mechanism for Cooperation and Verification
Rural Development Policy
Political parties (National parties by affiliation)
2012 Nobel Peace Prize
Free trade agreements
Galileo navigation system
health expense per person
Health Insurance Card
European Common Aviation Area
House of European History
Institute of Innovation and Technology
Concepts, acronyms, & jargon
Cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Largest cities by population within city limits
Vehicle registration plates
Optimum currency area
European Union portal
Coordinates: 48°35′51″N 7°46′09″E / 48.597512°N
7.769092°E / 48.597512; 7.769092
ISNI: 0000 0001 2329 8899
BNF: cb11865299k (d