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v t e

The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council
President of the European Council
and the President of the European Commission. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy also takes part in its meetings.[1] Established as an informal summit in 1975, the European Council was formalised as an institution in 2009 upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. Its current President is Donald Tusk.

Contents

1 Scope 2 History 3 Powers and functions 4 Composition

4.1 Eurozone
Eurozone
summits 4.2 President 4.3 Members 4.4 Political parties

5 Seat and meetings 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Scope[edit] While the European Council
European Council
has no formal legislative power, it is a strategic (and crisis-solving) body that provides the union with general political directions and priorities, and acts as a collective presidency. The European Commission
European Commission
remains the sole initiator of legislation, but the European Council
European Council
is able to provide an impetus to guide legislative policy.[2][3] The meetings of the European Council, still commonly referred to as EU summits, are chaired by its president and take place at least twice every six months;[1] usually in the Europa building
Europa building
in Brussels.[4][5] Decisions of the European Council
European Council
are taken by consensus, except where the Treaties provide otherwise.[6] History[edit] Further information: List of European Council
European Council
meetings

A traditional group photo, here taken at the royal palace in Brussels during Belgium's 1987 Presidency

The European Council
European Council
officially gained the status of an EU institution after the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
in 2007, distinct from the Council of the European Union
European Union
(Council of Ministers). Before that, the first summits of EU heads of state or government were held in February and July 1961 (in Paris
Paris
and Bonn
Bonn
respectively). They were informal summits of the leaders of the European Community, and were started due to then-French President Charles de Gaulle's resentment at the domination of supranational institutions (e.g. the European Commission) over the integration process, but petered out. The first influential summit held, after the departure of de Gaulle, was the Hague summit of 1969, which reached an agreement on the admittance of the United Kingdom into the Community and initiated foreign policy cooperation (the European Political Cooperation) taking integration beyond economics.[1][7] The summits were only formalised in the period between 1974 and 1988. At the December summit in Paris
Paris
in 1974, following a proposal from then-French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, it was agreed that more high level, political input was needed following the "empty chair crisis" and economic problems.[8] The inaugural European Council, as it became known, was held in Dublin
Dublin
on 10 and 11 March 1975 during Ireland's first Presidency of the Council of Ministers. In 1987, it was included in the treaties for the first time (the Single European Act) and had a defined role for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty. At first only a minimum of two meetings per year were required, which resulted in an average of three meetings per year being held for the 1975-1995 period. Since 1996, the number of meetings were required to be minimum four per year. For the latest 2008-2014 period, this minimum was well exceeded, by an average of seven meetings being held per year. The seat of the Council was formalised in 2002, basing it in Brussels. Three types of European Councils exist: Informal, Scheduled and Extraordinary. While the informal meetings are also scheduled 1½ years in advance, they differ from the scheduled ordinary meetings by not ending with official Council conclusions, as they instead end by more broad political Statements on some cherry picked policy matters. The extraordinary meetings always end with official Council conclusions - but differs from the scheduled meetings by not being scheduled more than a year in advance, as for example in 2001 when the European Council
European Council
gathered to lead the European Union's response to the 11 September attacks.[1][7]

The European Council
European Council
at the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
in 2007

Some meetings of the European Council—and, before the Council was formalised, meetings of the heads of government—are seen by some as turning points in the history of the European Union. For example:[1]

1969, The Hague: Foreign policy and enlargement. 1974, Paris: Creation of the Council. 1985, Milan: Initiate IGC leading to the Single European Act. 1991, Maastricht: Agreement on the Maastricht
Maastricht
Treaty. 1992, Edinburgh: Agreement (by treaty provision) to retain at Strasbourg
Strasbourg
the plenary seat of the European Parliament. 1993, Copenhagen: Leading to the definition of the Copenhagen Criteria. 1997, Amsterdam: Agreement on the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Treaty. 1998, Brussels: Selected member states to adopt the euro. 1999; Cologne: Declaration on military forces.[9] 1999, Tampere: Institutional reform 2000, Lisbon: Lisbon
Lisbon
Strategy 2002, Copenhagen: Agreement for May 2004 enlargement. 2007, Lisbon: Agreement on the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty. 2009, Brussels: Appointment of first president and merged High Representative. 2010, European Financial Stability Facility

As such, the European Council
European Council
had already existed before it gained the status as an institution of the European Union
European Union
with the entering into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, but even after it had been mentioned in the treaties (since the Single European Act) it could only take political decisions, not formal legal acts. However, when necessary, the Heads of State or Government could also meet as the Council of Ministers and take formal decisions in that role. Sometimes, this was even compulsory, e.g. Article 214(2) of the Treaty establishing the European Community
European Community
provided (before it was amended by the Treaty of Lisbon) that ‘the Council, meeting in the composition of Heads of State or Government and acting by a qualified majority, shall nominate the person it intends to appoint as President of the Commission’ (emphasis added); the same rule applied in some monetary policy provisions introduced by the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
(e.g. Article 109j TEC). In that case, what was politically part of a European Council meeting was legally a meeting of the Council of Ministers. When the European Council, already introduced into the treaties by the Single European Act, became an institution by virtue of the Treaty of Lisbon, this was no longer necessary, and the "Council [of the European Union] meeting in the composition of the Heads of State or Government", was replaced in these instances by the European Council
European Council
now taking formal legally binding decisions in these cases (Article 15 of the Treaty on European Union).[10] The Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
made the European Council
European Council
a formal institution distinct from the (ordinary) Council of the EU, and created the present longer term and full-time presidency. As an outgrowth of the Council of the EU, the European Council
European Council
had previously followed the same Presidency, rotating between each member state. While the Council of the EU retains that system, the European Council
European Council
established, with no change in powers, a system of appointing an individual (without them being a national leader) for a two-and-a-half-year term - which can be renewed for the same person only once.[11] Following the ratification of the treaty in December 2009, the European Council elected the then- Prime Minister of Belgium Herman Van Rompuy
Herman Van Rompuy
as its first permanent president (resigning from Belgian Prime Minister).[12] Powers and functions[edit] The European Council
European Council
is an official institution of the EU, mentioned by the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty as a body which "shall provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development". Essentially it defines the EU's policy agenda and has thus been considered to be the motor of European integration.[1] Beyond the need to provide "impetus", the Council has developed further roles: to "settle issues outstanding from discussions at a lower level", to lead in foreign policy — acting externally as a "collective Head of State", "formal ratification of important documents" and "involvement in the negotiation of the treaty changes".[4][7] Since the institution is composed of national leaders, it gathers the executive power of the member states and has thus a great influence in high-profile policy areas as for example foreign policy. It also exercises powers of appointment, such as appointment of its own President, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the President of the European Central Bank. It proposes, to the European Parliament, a candidate for President of the European Commission. Moreover, the European Council
European Council
influences police and justice planning, the composition of the Commission, matters relating to the organisation of the rotating Council presidency, the suspension of membership rights, and changing the voting systems through the Passerelle Clause. Although the European Council has no direct legislative power, under the "emergency brake" procedure, a state outvoted in the Council of Ministers may refer contentious legislation to the European Council. However, the state may still be outvoted in the European Council.[11][13][14] Hence with powers over the supranational executive of the EU, in addition to its other powers, the European Council
European Council
has been described by some as the Union's "supreme political authority".[4][7][11][15] Composition[edit] The European Council
European Council
consists of the heads of state or government of the member states, alongside its own President and the Commission President (both non-voting). The meetings used to be regularly attended by the national foreign minister as well, and the Commission President likewise accompanied by another member of the Commission. However, since the Treaty of Lisbon, this has been discontinued, as the size of the body had become somewhat large following successive accessions of new Member States to the Union.[1][4] Meetings can also include other invitees, such as the President of the European Central Bank, as required. The Secretary-General of the Council attends, and is responsible for organisational matters, including minutes. The President of the European Parliament
President of the European Parliament
also attends to give an opening speech outlining the European Parliament's position before talks begin.[1][4] Additionally, the negotiations involve a large number of other people working behind the scenes. Most of those people, however, are not allowed to the conference room, except for two delegates per state to relay messages. At the push of a button members can also call for advice from a Permanent Representative via the "Antici Group" in an adjacent room. The group is composed of diplomats and assistants who convey information and requests. Interpreters are also required for meetings as members are permitted to speak in their own languages.[1]

The European Council
European Council
meeting in Brussels
Brussels
in March 2011

As the composition is not precisely defined, some states which have a considerable division of executive power can find it difficult to decide who should attend the meetings. While an MEP, Alexander Stubb argued that there was no need for the President of Finland
President of Finland
to attend Council meetings with or instead of the Prime Minister of Finland
Prime Minister of Finland
(who was head of European foreign policy).[16] In 2008, having become Finnish Foreign Minister, Stubb was forced out of the Finnish delegation to the emergency council meeting on the Georgian crisis because the President wanted to attend the high-profile summit as well as the Prime Minister (only two people from each country could attend the meetings). This was despite Stubb being head of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe at the time which was heavily involved in the crisis. Problems also occurred in Poland
Poland
where the President of Poland
President of Poland
and the Prime Minister of Poland
Prime Minister of Poland
were of different parties and had a different foreign policy response to the crisis.[17] A similar situation arose in Romania
Romania
between President Traian Băsescu and Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
in 2007–2008 and again in 2012 with Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who both opposed the president. Eurozone
Eurozone
summits[edit] Main article: Euro
Euro
summit A number of ad hoc meetings of Heads of State or Government of the Euro
Euro
area countries were held in 2010 and 2011 to discuss the Sovereign Debt crisis. It was agreed in October 2011 that they should meet regularly twice a year (with extra meetings if needed). This will normally be at the end of a European Council
European Council
meeting and according to the same format (chaired by the President of the European Council
President of the European Council
and including the President of the Commission), but usually restricted to the (currently 19) Heads of State or Government of countries whose currency is the euro. President[edit] Main article: President of the European Council The President of the European Council
President of the European Council
is elected by the European Council by a qualified majority for a once-renewable term of two and a half years.[18] The President must report to the European Parliament after each European Council
European Council
meeting.[4][15] The post was created by the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
and was subject to a debate over its exact role. Prior to Lisbon, the Presidency rotated in accordance with the Presidency of the Council of the European Union.[4][15] The role of that President-in-Office was in no sense (other than protocol) equivalent to an office of a head of state, merely a primus inter pares (first among equals) role among other European heads of government. The President-in-Office was primarily responsible for preparing and chairing the Council meetings, and had no executive powers other than the task of representing the Union externally. Now the leader of the Council Presidency country can still act as president when the permanent president is absent. Members[edit]    European People's Party
European People's Party
(9 + 2 non-voting from the EU institutions)   Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (8)    Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists
(5)   Independent (3)   Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe (2)    Party of the European Left
Party of the European Left
(1)

Representative Picture Member State Title Political party Member since Elections % population[a 1]

Tusk, DonaldDonald Tusk

President Non-voting 0 !President European People's Party National: Civic Platform
Civic Platform
(PO) 000000002014-12-01-00001 December 2014 Prime Minister of Poland: 2007–2014 2014 2017 Next in 2019 n/a

Juncker, Jean-ClaudeJean-Claude Juncker

Commission Non-voting 0 !President European People's Party National: Christian Social People's Party
Christian Social People's Party
(CSV) 000000002014-11-01-00001 November 2014 Prime Minister of Luxembourg: 1995–2013 2014 Next in 2019 n/a

Kurz, SebastianSebastian Kurz

 Austria 1 !Chancellor European People's Party National: Austrian People's Party
Austrian People's Party
(ÖVP) 000000002017-12-18-000018 December 2017 2017 Next by 2022 7000171000000000000♠1.71%

Michel, CharlesCharles Michel

 Belgium 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Reformist Movement (MR) 000000002014-10-11-000011 October 2014 2014 Next by 2019 7000221000000000000♠2.21%

Borisov, BoykoBoyko Borisov

 Bulgaria 1 !Prime Minister European People's Party National: GERB 000000002017-05-04-00004 May 2017 Prior term: 2009–2013, 2014–2017 2009 2014 2017 Next by 2021 7000138990000099999♠1.39%

Plenković, AndrejAndrej Plenković

 Croatia 1 !Prime Minister European People's Party National: Croatian Democratic Union
Croatian Democratic Union
(HDZ) 000000002016-10-19-000019 October 2016 2016 Next by 2020 6999810000000000000♠0.81%

Anastasiades, NicosNicos Anastasiades

 Cyprus 0 !President European People's Party National: Democratic Rally
Democratic Rally
(DISY) 000000002013-02-28-000028 February 2013 2013 2018 Next by 2023 6999170000000000000♠0.17%

Babiš, AndrejAndrej Babiš

 Czech Republic 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: ANO 2011 000000002017-12-13-000013 December 2017 2017 Next by 2021 7000204000000000000♠2.04%

Rasmussen, Lars LøkkeLars Løkke Rasmussen

 Denmark 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Venstre (V) 000000002015-06-28-000028 June 2015 Prior term: 2009–2011 2015 Next by 2019 7000112000000000000♠1.12%

Ratas, JüriJüri Ratas

 Estonia 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Estonian Centre Party
Estonian Centre Party
(EK) 000000002016-11-23-000023 November 2016 Next by 2019 6999260000000000000♠0.26%

Sipilä, JuhaJuha Sipilä

 Finland 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Centre Party (C) 000000002015-05-29-000029 May 2015 2015 Next by 2019 7000107000000000000♠1.07%

Macron, EmmanuelEmmanuel Macron

 France 1 !President None National: La République En Marche!
La République En Marche!
(REM) 000000002017-05-14-000014 May 2017 2017 Next by 2022 7001130900000000000♠13.09%

Merkel, AngelaAngela Merkel

 Germany 1 !Chancellor European People's Party National: Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 000000002005-11-22-000022 November 2005 2005 2009 2013 2017 Next by 2021 7001161000000000000♠16.10%

Tsipras, AlexisAlexis Tsipras

 Greece 1 !Prime Minister Party of the European Left National: Coalition of the Radical Left (Syriza) 000000002015-09-21-000021 September 2015 Prior term: 2015 Jan. 2015 Sep. 2015 Next by 2019 7000210000000000000♠2.10%

Orbán, ViktorViktor Orbán

 Hungary 1 !Prime Minister European People's Party National: Civic Alliance (Fidesz) 000000002010-05-29-000029 May 2010 Prior term: 1998–2002 Member state since 2004 1998 2010 2014 Next in 2018 7000191000000000000♠1.91%

Varadkar, LeoLeo Varadkar

 Ireland 1 !Taoiseach[a 2] European People's Party National: Fine Gael
Fine Gael
(FG) 000000002017-06-14-000014 June 2017 Next by 2021 6999930000000000000♠0.93%

Gentiloni, PaoloPaolo Gentiloni

 Italy 1 !Prime Minister Party of European Socialists National: Democratic Party (PD) 000000002016-12-12-000012 December 2016 2018 Next by 2022 7001119500000000000♠11.95%

Kučinskis, MārisMāris Kučinskis

 Latvia 1 !Prime Minister None National: Liepāja Party (LP) 000000002016-02-11-000011 February 2016 Next in 2018 6999380000000000000♠0.38%

Grybauskaitė, DaliaDalia Grybauskaitė

 Lithuania 1 !President Independent 000000002009-07-12-000012 July 2009 2009 2014 Next in 2019 6999560000000000000♠0.56%

Bettel, XavierXavier Bettel

 Luxembourg 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Democratic Party (DP) 000000002013-12-04-00004 December 2013 2013 Next in 2018 6999120000000000000♠0.12%

Muscat, JosephJoseph Muscat

 Malta 1 !Prime Minister Party of European Socialists National: Labour Party (PL) 000000002013-03-11-000011 March 2013 2013 2017 Next in 2022 6998900000000000000♠0.09%

Rutte, MarkMark Rutte

 Netherlands 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
(VVD) 000000002010-10-14-000014 October 2010 2010 2012 2017 Next by 2021 7000336000000000000♠3.36%

Morawiecki, MateuszMateusz Morawiecki

 Poland 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe National: Law and Justice
Law and Justice
(PiS) 000000002017-12-11-000011 December 2017 Next by 2019 7000741000000000000♠7.41%

Costa, AntónioAntónio Costa

 Portugal 1 !Prime Minister Party of European Socialists National: Socialist Party (PS) 000000002015-11-26-000026 November 2015 Next by 2019 7000200999999999999♠2.01%

Iohannis, KlausKlaus Iohannis

 Romania 1 !President European People's Party[a 3] National: Independent[a 4] 000000002014-12-21-000021 December 2014 2014 Next in 2019 7000383000000000000♠3.83%

Pellegrini, PeterPeter Pellegrini

 Slovakia 1 !Prime Minister Party of European Socialists National: Direction – Social Democracy
Direction – Social Democracy
(SMER-SD) 000000002018-03-22-000022 March 2018 Next by 2020 7000106000000000000♠1.06%

Cerar, MiroMiro Cerar

 Slovenia 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party National: Modern Centre Party
Modern Centre Party
(SMC) 000000002014-09-18-000018 September 2014 2014 Next in 2018 6999400000000000000♠0.40%

Rajoy, MarianoMariano Rajoy

 Spain 1 !Prime Minister European People's Party National: People's Party (PP) 000000002011-12-21-000021 December 2011 2011 2015 2016 Next by 2020 7000908000000000000♠9.08%

Löfven, StefanStefan Löfven

 Sweden 1 !Prime Minister Party of European Socialists National: Social Democratic Party (SAP) 000000002014-10-03-00003 October 2014 2014 Next in 2018 7000197000000000000♠1.97%

May, TheresaTheresa May

 United Kingdom 1 !Prime Minister Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe National: Conservative Party (C) 000000002016-07-13-000013 July 2016 2017[a 5] 7001128500000000000♠12.85%

Notes

^ Used in the calculation of the qualified majority voting. The share of the total population is based on the decision of the Council of the European Union
European Union
on Member States populations for 2018 ^ The Irish Prime Minister is commonly referred to as the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in both Irish and English. See: Article 28.5.1° of the Constitution of Ireland. ^ Considered an EPP member according to its official webpage. ^ Previously leader of the National Liberal Party (PNL) and supported by them during his election campaign, Iohannis is officially unaffiliated during his presidency according to the Constitution. ^ Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011, the next general election is scheduled for 2022. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is expected to have left the European Union
European Union
prior to this date, unless an early election is called or the negotiation period is extended.

Political parties[edit]

The states of the European Union
European Union
by the European party affiliations of their leaders, as of 6 April 2018 Does not account for coalitions. Key to colours is as follows;   European People's Party    Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party   Party of European Socialists   Independent   Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe   Party of the European Left

Almost all members of the European Council
European Council
are members of a political party at national level, and most of these are members of a European-level political party. These frequently hold pre-meetings of their European Council
European Council
members, prior to its meetings. However, the European Council
European Council
is composed to represent the EU's states rather than political parties and decisions are generally made on these lines, though ideological alignment can colour their political agreements and their choice of appointments (such as their president). The table below outlines the number of leaders affiliated to each party and their total voting weight. The map to the right indicates the alignment of each individual country.

Party Number of seats Share of population

European People's Party 9 35.93%

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Party 8 10.60%

Party of European Socialists 5 17.08%

Independent 3 14.02%

Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe 2 20.26%

Party of the European Left 1 2.10%

Total 28 100%

Seat and meetings[edit] Further information: List of European Councils, Location of European Union institutions, and Europa building The European Council
European Council
is required by Article 15.3 TEU to meet at least twice every six months, but convenes more frequently in practice.[19][20] Despite efforts to contain business, meetings typically last for at least two days, and run long into the night.[20] Until 2002, the venue for European Council
European Council
summits was the member state that held the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union. However, European leaders agreed during ratification of the Nice Treaty
Nice Treaty
to forego this arrangement at such a time as the total membership of the European Union
European Union
surpassed 18 member states.[21] An advanced implementation of this agreement occurred in 2002, with certain states agreeing to waive their right to host meetings, favouring Brussels
Brussels
as the location.[22] Following the growth of the EU to 25 member states, with the 2004 enlargement, all subsequent official summits of the European Council
European Council
have been in Brussels, with the exception of punctuated ad hoc meetings, such as the 2017 informal European Council
European Council
in Malta.[23] The logistical, environmental, financial and security arrangements of hosting large summits are usually cited as the primary factors in the decision by EU leaders to move towards a permanent seat for the European Council.[7] Additionally, some scholars argue that the move, when coupled with the formalisation of the European Council
European Council
in the Lisbon
Lisbon
Treaty, represents an institutionalisation of an ad hoc EU organ that had its origins in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
compromise, with national leaders reasserting their dominance as the EU's "supreme political authority".[7] Originally, both the European Council
European Council
and the Council of the European Union utilised the Justus Lipsius building
Justus Lipsius building
as their Brussels
Brussels
venue. In order to make room for additional meeting space a number of renovations were made, including the conversion of an underground carpark into additional press briefing rooms.[24] However, in 2004 leaders decided the logistical problems created by the outdated facilities warranted the construction of a new purpose built seat able to cope with the nearly 6,000 meetings, working groups, and summits per year.[5] This resulted in the Europa building, which opened its doors in 2017. The focal point of the new building, the distinctive multi-storey "lantern-shaped" structure in which the main meeting room is located, is utilised in both the European Council's and Council of the European Union's official logos.[25] See also[edit]

Laeken indicators Euro
Euro
summit Presidency of the Council of the European Union

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i "Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union" (PDF).  ^ Art. 13 et seq of the Treaty on European Union ^ Gilbert, Mark (2003). Surpassing Realism – The Politics of European Integration since 1945 (page 219: Making Sense of Maastricht). Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved 23 August 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g "EUROPA – The European Council: Presidency Conclusions". European Commission. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ a b "EUROPA : Home of the European Council
European Council
and the Council of the EU - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ Art. 15(4) of the Treaty on European Union ^ a b c d e f Stark, Christine. "Evolution of the European Council: The implications of a permanent seat" (PDF). Dragoman.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 12 July 2007.  ^ On the economic problems, see Imbrogno, Anthony (2016). "The Founding of the European Council: economic reform and the mechanism of continuous negotiation". Journal of European Integration 38 no.6, pp.719-736. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07036337.2016.1188925 ^ "EU Security Policy & the role of the European Commission". European Commission. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007.  ^ Wikisource: Article 2(3)(e), Treaty of Lisbon ^ a b c "The Union's institutions: The European Council". Europa (web portal). 21 February 2001. Retrieved 12 July 2007.  ^ "BBC News — Belgian PM Van Rompuy is named as new EU president". 20 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.  ^ Peers, Steve (2 August 2007). "EU Reform Treaty Analysis no. 2.2: Foreign policy provisions of the revised text of the Treaty on the European Union
European Union
(TEU)" (PDF). Statewatch. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ Peers, Steve (2 August 2007). "EU Reform Treaty analysis 1: JHA provisions" (PDF). Statewatch. Retrieved 26 September 2007.  ^ a b c "How does the EU work". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 12 July 2007.  ^ "Finnish Conservatives name Stubb foreign minister". new Room Finland. 1 April 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2008.  ^ Phillips, Leigh (29 August 2008). "Spats over who gets to go to EU summit break out in Poland, Finland". EU Observer. Retrieved 1 September 2008.  ^ "European Council: The President's role". Retrieved 21 March 2015. The President the European Council
European Council
is elected by the European Council by a qualified majority. He is elected for a 2.5 year term, which is renewable once.  ^ Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union.  ^ a b "The European Council
European Council
– the who, what, where, how and why – UK in a changing Europe". ukandeu.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ Treaty of Nice.  ^ "Permanent seat for the European Council
European Council
could change the EU's nature". EURACTIV.com. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ "Informal meeting of EU heads of state or government, Malta, 03/02/2017 - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ "Why PMs won't miss going to EU Council summits". Sky News. Retrieved 2017-05-07.  ^ "New HQ, new logo". POLITICO. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2017-05-07. 

Further reading[edit]

Wessels, Wolfgang (2016). The European Council. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333587461. 

External links[edit]

Official website Archive of European Integration – Summit Guide European Council
European Council
Collection of documents - CVCE Reflection Group established by the European Council

v t e

European Council

List of meetings

'98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 (Jan–Apr) '04 (May–Dec) '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 (Jan–Jun) '13 (Jul–Dec) '14 '15

Tusk (President of the European Council) Juncker (President of the European Commission)

Kurz Michel Borisov Plenković Anastasiades Babiš Løkke Rasmussen Ratas Sipilä Macron Merkel Tsipras Orbán Varadkar Gentiloni Kučinskis Grybauskaitė Bettel Muscat Rutte Morawiecki Costa Iohannis Pellegrini Cerar Rajoy Löfven May

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Defunct

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129714697 LCCN: n87111891 ISNI: 0000 0001 2259 4047 GND: 5263681-1 SELIBR: 114561 SUDOC: 033474230 BNF:

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