Etruria (/ɪˈtrʊəriə/; usually referred to in Greek and Latin
source texts as Tyrrhenia Greek: Τυρρηνία) was a region of
Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now
Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.
1 Etruscan Etruria
2 Roman Etruria
Etruria in later times
5 See also
8 External links
The ancient people of
Etruria are labeled Etruscans, and their complex
culture was centered on numerous city-states that rose during the
Villanovan period in the ninth century BCE and were very powerful
Orientalizing Archaic periods. The Etruscans were a
dominant culture in Italy by 650 BCE, surpassing other ancient
Italic peoples such as the Ligures, and their influence may be seen
beyond Etruria's confines in the
Po River Valley and Latium, as well
Campania and through their contact with the Greek colonies in
Southern Italy (including Sicily). Indeed, at some Etruscan tombs,
such as those of the
Tumulus di Montefortini at Comeana (see
Carmignano) in Tuscany, physical evidence of trade has been found in
the form of grave goods—fine faience ware cups are particularly
notable examples. Such trade occurred either directly with
through intermediaries such as Greek or Phoenician sailors.
Rome, buffered from
Etruria by the Silva Ciminia, the Ciminian Forest,
was influenced strongly by the Etruscans, with a series of Etruscan
kings ruling at
Rome until 509 BCE when the last Etruscan king Lucius
Tarquinius Superbus was removed from power and the
Roman Republic was
established. The Etruscans are credited with influencing Rome's
architecture and ritual practice; it was under the Etruscan kings that
important structures such as the Capitolium, Cloaca Maxima, and Via
Sacra were realized.
Etruscan civilization was responsible for much of the Greek
culture imported into early Republican Rome, including the twelve
Olympian gods, the growing of olives and grapes, the
(adapted from the Greek alphabet), and architecture like the arch,
sewerage and drainage systems.
In the augustean organization of Italy,
Etruria was the name of a
region (Regio VII), whose borders were the Tiber, the Tyrrhenian Sea,
Apuan Alps and the Apennines, roughly coincident with those of
Etruria in later times
The Grand Duchy of
Tuscany (which existed 1569–1801 and 1814–1859)
styled itself in
Latin as Magnus Ducatus Etruriae (Grand Duchy of
Etruria). The name
Etruria was also applied to the Kingdom of Etruria,
an ephemeral client state of
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon I of France which replaced the
Grand Duchy between 1801 and 1807.
A particularly noteworthy work dealing with Etruscan locations is D.
H. Lawrence's Sketches of Etruscan Places and other Italian essays.
Main article: Etruscan cities
Latin and Italian names are given between parentheses:
Arritim (Arretium, Arezzo)
Caisra (Caere, Cerveteri)
Clevsin (Clusium, Chiusi)
Curtun (Cortonium, Cortona)
Felathri (Volaterrae, Volterra)
Fufluna (Populonium, Populonia)
Parusia (Perusia, Perugia)
Tarchna (Volscian Anxur) (Tarracina, Terracina)
Tarchnal (Tarquinii, Tarquinia)
Veii (Veii, Veio)
Vetluna (Vetulonium, Vetulonia)
Vipsul (Faesulae, Fiesole)
Velch (Vulci, Volci)
Velzna (Volsiniia, Volsinii)
There was a period between 600 BCE and 500 BCE, in which 12 Etruscan
city-states formed a loose confederation known as the Etruscan League.
Etruscan was the official language for meetings. When
conquered by the Roman Republic,
Latin became the official language.
Kingdom of Etruria
^ Rix, Helmut. "Etruscan." In The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed.
Roger D. Woodard. Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 141–164.
^ Cary, M.; Scullard, H. H., A History of Rome. Page 28. 3rd Ed. 1979.
^ Baracca, M. (1970). Atlante Storico (in Latin). Novara: De Agostini.
p. 15. access-date= requires url= (help)
Hall, John F. (1996). Etruscan Italy: Etruscan Influences on the
Civilizations of Italy from Antiquity to the Modern Era. Indiana
University Press. p. 411. ISBN 9780842523349.
Chronology of Etruscan Italy, .
Giuliano Bonfante; Larissa Bonfante (2003). The Etruscan Language: An
Introduction. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719055407.
Look up etruria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, by George Dennis, an overview of
Founding of Rome
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus
Aruns (son of Tarquinius Superbus)
Titus Vestricius Spurinna
Culture and society
Apollo of Veii
Chimera of Arezzo
Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum
Etruscan names for Greek heroes
Liver of Piacenza
Sarcophagus of the Spouses
Tomb of the Roaring Lions
Battle of Alalia
Battle of Alalia (540 BC–535 BC)
Rome (509 BC)
Rome (508 BC)
Battle of the Cremera (477 BC)
Battle of Cumae
Battle of Cumae (474 BC)
Fidenae (435 BC)
Veii (c. 396 BC)
Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC)
Populonia (282 BC)
Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum
English words of Etruscan origin
Spanish words of Etruscan origin
National Etruscan Museum
Tomb of Orcus
Tumulus of Montefortini
Civita di Bagnoregio