Esztergom (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɛstɛrɡom]
listen (help·info), German: Gran, Slovak: Ostrihom, known
by alternative names), is a city in northern Hungary, 46 kilometres
(29 miles) northwest of the capital Budapest. It lies in
Komárom-Esztergom county, on the right bank of the river Danube,
which forms the border with
Esztergom was the capital of
Hungary from the 10th till the mid-13th
century when King Béla IV of
Hungary moved the royal seat to
Esztergom is the seat of the prímás (see Primate) of the Roman
Catholic Church in Hungary, and the former seat of the Constitutional
Court of Hungary. The city has the Keresztény Múzeum, the largest
ecclesiastical collection in Hungary. Its cathedral, Esztergom
Basilica is the largest church in Hungary.
1 Names and etymology
3.1 The castle and palace
3.5 Szent-Tamás hegy
3.6 Széchényi Square and the
3.7 Other churches
6 Notable residents
7 International relations
7.1 Twin towns — Sister cities
10 See also
13 External links
Names and etymology
The Roman town was called Solva. The medieval Latin name was
Strigonium. The first early medieval mention is "ſtrigonensis
[strigonensis] comes" (1079-1080).
The name is usually derived from Slavic.
Proto-Slavic stregti – to
watch, to guard, present participle stregom, strägom – a guard
post[a] There are several place names with the same motivation in
Slavic countries, i.e.
Dolná Strehová (Alsósztregova, on the
Strzegom (Poland), Střehom (Czech
Republic) - also the Czech historic name of
Esztergom and others.[b]
The Hungarians added a vowel in front of the initial group of
consonants, similar to the Hungarian adaption of 'Stephan' as
'Istvan'. The initial 'o' in later Slavic forms could evolve
independently from a prepositional form vъ Strägome (in Strägom)
> vo Strägome > v Osträgome like Slovak Bdokovce >
Obdokovce, Psolovce > Obsolovce. Another etymology is
Serbo-Croatian strgun - a tanner.
Further theory is based on the form Estrigun from the 12th century.
Proto-Bulgaric estrogin käpe, estrigim küpe - a leather armor
However according to Šimon Ondruš, the high number of Slavic place
in the region, the fact that it is based only on later sources and the
missing adoption of the word in the Hungarian language make this older
theory obsolete and unreliable.
Other names of the town are Croatian Ostrogon, Polish Ostrzyhom,
Serbian Ostrogon and Estergon (also Turkish), Slovak Ostrihom and
Czech Ostřihom. The German name is Gran (German:
Gran (help·info)), like the German name of river Garam.
Castle Hill panorama from Štúrovo, Slovakia
Ottoman grave stones in the castle
Esztergom in 1664
Cathedral with the Dark gate
Cathedral at night
Péter Pázmány Street
The former synagogue
Downtown as seen from the Bottyán bridge
The old seminary in
Esztergom after the renovations in 2006
Esztergom is one of the oldest towns in Hungary. Esztergom, as it
existed in the Middle Ages, now rests under today's town. The results
of the most recent archeological excavations reveal that the Várhegy
(Castle Hill) and its vicinity have been inhabited since the end of
Ice Age 20,000 years ago. The first people known by name were the
Celts from Western Europe, who settled in the region in about 350 BC.
A flourishing Celtic settlement existed on the Varhegy until the
region was conquered by Rome. Thereafter it became an important
frontier town of Pannonia, known by the name of Salvio Mansio, Salvio,
or Solva. By the seventh century the town was called Stregom and later
Gran, but soon reverted to the former, which evolved into
the thirteenth century. The German and Avar archaeological finds found
in the area reveal that these people settled there following the
period of the migrations that were caused by the fall of the Roman
At about 500 AD, Slavic peoples immigrated into the Pannonian Basin.
In the 9th century, the place was part of Great Moravia, afterwards of
the Principality of Nitra. In Old Slavonic language, it was called
Strěgom ("guard"), as it was strategic point of control for the
Magyars entered the
Pannonian Basin in 896 AD and conquered it
systematically, succeeding fully in 901. In 960, the ruling prince of
the Hungarians, Géza, chose
Esztergom as his residence. His son,
Vajk, who was later called Saint Stephen of Hungary, was born in his
palace built on the Roman castrum on the Várhegy (Castle Hill) around
969-975. In 973,
Esztergom served as the starting point of an
important historical event: during Easter of that year,
Géza sent a
committee to the international peace conference of Emperor Otto I
in Quedlinburg. He offered peace to the Emperor and asked for
The prince's residence stood on the northern side of the hill. The
center of the hill was occupied by a basilica dedicated to
St. Adalbert, who, according to legend, baptised
St. Stephen. The Church of St. Adalbert was the seat of the
archbishop of Esztergom, the head of the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church in
Hungary. By that time, significant numbers of craftsmen and merchants
had settled in the city.
Stephen's coronation took place in
Esztergom on either Christmas Day
1000 or January 1, 1001. From the time of his rule up to the beginning
of the 13th century, the only mint for the country operated here.
During the same period, the castle of
Esztergom ("Estergon Kalesi" in
Turkish ) was built. It served not only as the royal residence until
the Mongol siege of
Esztergom in 1241 (during the first Mongol
invasion), but also as the center of the Hungarian state, religion,
Esztergom county. The archbishop of
Esztergom was the leader of
the ten bishoprics founded by Stephen. The archbishop was often in
charge of important state functions and had the exclusive right to
The settlements of royal servants, merchants and craftsmen at the foot
of the Várhegy (Castle Hill) developed into the most significant town
during the age of the
Árpád dynasty– these being the most
important area of the economic life of the country. According to the
Frenchman Odo of Deuil, who visited the country in 1147, "the Danube
carries the economy and treasures of several countries to Esztergom".
The town council was made up of the richest citizens of the town
(residents of French, Spanish, Belgian, and Italian origin) who dealt
with commerce. The coat of arms of
Esztergom emerged from their seal
in the 13th century. This was the town where foreign monarchs could
meet Hungarian kings. For example, Emperor Conrad II met
Géza II in this town (1147). Another important meeting took
place when the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa visited
Béla III. The historians traveling with them all agree on the
richness and significance of Esztergom. Arnold of Lübeck, the
historian with Frederick Barbarossa, called
Esztergom the capital of
Hungarian people ("quae Ungarorum est metropolis").
In the beginning of the 13th century
Esztergom was the center of the
country's political and economic life. This is explained by the canon
of Nagyvárad, Rogerius of Apulia, who witnessed the first devastation
of the country during the Tatar invasion siege of
Esztergom and wrote
Carmen Miserabile ("Sad Song"): "since there was no other town
Esztergom in Hungary, the
Tatars (siege of Esztergom) were
considering crossing the
Danube to pitch a camp there", which was
exactly what happened after the
Danube froze. The capital of the
Árpád-age was destroyed in a vicious battle. Though, according to
the documents that remained intact, some of the residents (those who
escaped into the castle) survived and new residents settled in the
area and soon started rebuilding the town, it lost its leading role.
Béla IV gave the palace and castle to the archbishop, and changed his
residence to Buda.
Béla IV and his family, however, were buried in
Franciscan church in
Esztergom which had been destroyed during the
invasion and which had been rebuilt by
Béla IV in 1270.
Following these events, the castle was built and decorated by the
bishops. The center of the king's town, which was surrounded by walls,
was still under royal authority. A number of different monasteries did
return or settle in the religious center.
Meanwhile, the citizenry had been fighting to maintain and reclaim the
rights of towns against the expansion of the church within the royal
town. In the chaotic years after the fall of the House of Árpád,
Esztergom suffered another calamity: in 1304, the forces of
Wenceslaus II, the Czech king occupied and raided the castle. In
the years to come, the castle was owned by several individuals:
Róbert Károly and then
Louis the Great
Louis the Great patronized the town. In 1327
Kovácsi, the most influential suburb of the town, lying in the
southeast, was united with Esztergom. The former suburb had three
churches with mainly blacksmith, goldsmith, and coiner residents.
In the 14th and 15th centuries
Esztergom saw events of great
importance and became one of the most influential acropolises of
Hungarian culture along with Buda. Their courts, which were similar to
the royal courts of
Buda and Visegrád, were visited by such kings,
scientists, and artists as Louis the Great, Sigismund of Luxembourg,
King Matthias Corvinus, Galeotto Marzio, Regiomontanus, the famous
Marcin Bylica and Georg von Peuerbach, Pier Paolo Vergerio
and Antonio Bonfini, King Matthias's historian, who, in his work
praises the constructive work of János Vitéz, King Matthias's
educator. He had a library and an observatory built next to the
cathedral. As Bonfini wrote about his masterpiece, his palace and
terraced gardens: "he had a spacious room for knights built in the
castle. In front of that, he built a wonderful loggia of red marble.
In front of the room, he built the Chapel of Sibyls, whose walls were
decorated with paintings of the sybils. On the walls of the knights'
room, not only the likeness of all the kings could be found, but also
the Scythian ancestors. He also had a double garden constructed, which
was decorated with columns and a corridor above them. Between the two
gardens, he built a round tower of red marble with several rooms and
balconies. He had Saint Adalbert's
Basilica covered with glass tiles".
King Matthias's widow, Beatrix of Aragon, lived in the castle of
Esztergom for ten years (1490–1500).
The time of the next resident, Archbishop
Tamás Bakócz (†l521)
gave the town significant monuments. In 1507 he had Italian architects
build the Bakócz chapel, which is the earliest and most significant
Renaissance building which has survived in Hungary. The altarpiece of
the chapel was carved from white marble by Andrea Ferrucci, a sculptor
Fiesole in 1519.
The Ottoman conquest of
Mohács in 1526 brought a decline to the
Esztergom as well. In the Battle of Mohács,
the archbishop of
Esztergom died. In the period between 1526 and 1543,
when two rival kings reigned in Hungary,
Esztergom was besieged six
times. At times it was the forces of Ferdinand I or John
Zápolya, at other times the Ottomans attacked. Finally, in 1530,
Ferdinand I occupied the castle. He put foreign mercenaries in the
castle, and sent the chapter and the bishopric to
Pozsony (that is why some of the treasury, the archives and the
In 1543 Sultan Suleiman I attacked the castle and took it.
Esztergom (Estergon) became the centre of an Ottoman sanjak
controlling several counties, and also a significant castle on the
northwest border of the
Ottoman Empire – the main clashing point to
prevent attacks on the mining towns of the highlands,
Vienna and Buda.
In 1594, during the unsuccessful but devastating siege by the walls of
the Víziváros, Bálint Balassa, the first Hungarian poet who gained
European significance, died in action. The most devastating siege took
place in 1595 when the castle was reclaimed by the troops of Count
Karl von Mansfeld
Karl von Mansfeld and Count Mátyás Cseszneky. The price that had to
be paid, however, was high. Most of the buildings in the castle and
the town that had been built in the
Middle Ages were destroyed during
this period, and there were only uninhabitable, smothered ruins to
welcome the liberators.
In 1605 the Ottomans regained control over the castle as well as the
whole region again, maintaining their rule until 1683. Though the
Ottomans were mainly engaged in building and fortifying the castle,
they also built significant new buildings including mosques, minarets
and baths. These structures, along with the contemporary buildings,
were destroyed in the siege of 1683 resulting in the liberation of
Esztergom - though some Turkish buildings prevailed up to the
beginning of the 18th century. The last time the Ottoman forces
Esztergom was in 1685. During the following year
liberated as well. During these battles János Bottyán, captain of
the cavalry, later the legendary figure of the
Rákóczi war of
independence disappeared. All that had been rebuilt at the end of the
century was destroyed and burnt down during Ferenc Rákóczi's long
lasting, but finally successful siege.
The destroyed territory was settled by Hungarian, Slovakian and German
settlers. This was when the new national landscape developed. In the
area where there had previously been 65 Hungarian villages, only 22
were rebuilt. Though the reconstructed town received its free royal
rights, in size and significance it was only a shadow of its former
Handcrafts gained strength and in around 1730, there were 17
independent crafts operating in Esztergom. Wine-culture was also of
major significance. This was also the period when the
Baroque view of
the downtown area and the
Víziváros (Watertown) were developed. The
old town's main characteristic is the simplicity and moderateness of
Baroque architecture. The most beautiful buildings can be
found around the marketplace (Széchenyi square).
In 1761 the bishopric regained control over the castle, where they
started the preliminary processes of the reconstruction of the new
religious center: the middle of the Várhegy (Castle Hill), the
remains of Saint Stephen and Saint Adalbert churches were carried away
to provide room for the new cathedral.
Although the major construction work and the resettlement of the
bishopric (1820) played a significant role in the town's life, the
pace of Esztergom's development gradually slowed down, and work on the
Basilica came to a halt.
By the beginning of the 20th century,
Esztergom gained significance
owing to its cultural and educational institutions as well as to being
an administrative capital. The town's situation turned worse after the
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon of 1920, after which it became a border town and
lost most of its previous territory.
This was also the place where the poet
Mihály Babits spent his
summers from 1924 to his death in 1941. The poet's residence was one
of the centers of the country's literary life; he had a significant
effect on intellectual life in Esztergom.
Esztergom had one of the oldest Jewish communities in Hungary. They
had a place of worship here by 1050. King Charles I (Caroberto) gifted
a plot to the community for a cemetery in 1326.
According to the 1910 census, 5.1% of the population were Jewish,
while the 1941 census found a population of 1510 Jews. The community
maintained an elementary school until 1944. Jewish shops were ordered
to be closed on April 28, 1944, and a short-lived ghetto was set up on
May 11. The former Jewish shops were handed over to non-Jews on June
9. The inmates of the ghetto were sent to
Komárom in early June, then
Auschwitz on June 16, 1944. Two forced labor units, whose
members were mainly
Esztergom Jews, were executed en masse near
Ágfalva, on the Austrian border in January 1945.
Soviet troops captured the town on December 26, 1944, but were pushed
back by the Germans on January 6, 1945, who were finally ousted on
March 21, 1945.
The Mária Valéria bridge, connecting
Esztergom with the city of
Slovakia was rebuilt in 2001 with the support of the
European Union. Originally it was inaugurated in 1895, but the
retreating German troops destroyed it in 1944. A new thermal and
wellness spa opened in November 2005.
One of the most important events of the 1930s was the exploration and
renovation of the remains of the palace of the
Árpád period. This
Esztergom in the center of attention. Following World
Esztergom was left behind as one of the most severely
devastated towns. However, reconstruction slowly managed to erase the
traces of the war, with two of Esztergom’s most vital
characteristics gaining significance: due to its situation it was the
cultural center of the area (more than 8,000 students were educated at
its elementary, secondary schools and college ). On the other hand, as
a result of the local industrial development it has become a vital
basis for the Hungarian tool and machinery industry.
This town, with its spectacular scenery and numerous memorials, a
witness of the struggles of Hungarian history, is popular mostly with
tourists interested in the beauties of the past and art. However, the
town seems to regain its role in the country’s politics, and its
buildings and traditions revive.
The castle and palace
The winding streets of the town, with its church towers create a
historical atmosphere. Below the
Basilica (see below), at the edge of
the mountain stand the old walls, bastions and rondellas – the
remains of the castle of Esztergom. The remains of one section of the
royal palace and castle that had been built during the Ottoman rule
had been buried in the ground up until the 1930s.
Most parts of the palace were explored and restored in the period
between 1934 and 1938, but even today there are archeological
excavations in progress. Passing through the narrow stairs, alleys,
under arches and gates built in Romanesque style, a part of the past
seems to come to life. This part of the palace was built in the time
of King Béla III. With his wife - the daughter of Louis VII - French
architects arrived and constructed the late-Roman and early-Gothic
building at the end of the 12th century.
The frescoes of the palace chapel date from the 12th-14th centuries,
while on the walls of the mottes, some of the most beautiful paintings
of the early Hungarian
Renaissance can be admired (15th century). From
the terrace of the palace one can admire the landscape of Esztergom.
Under the terrace are the houses and churches of the Bishop-town
section, or '‘Víziváros'’ (Watertown) and the Primate's Palace.
Opposite the palace is the Saint Thomas hill, and surrounded by the
mountains and the Danube. The walls of the castle still stand on the
northern part of the Basilica. From the northern rondella one can
admire the view of Párkány on the other side of the
Danube as well
as the Szentgyörgymező, the
Danube valley, and the So-called
‘Víziváros’ (Watertown) districts.
Those traveling to
Esztergom today can admire the most monumental
construction of Hungarian Classicism, the Basilica, which silently
rules the landscape above the winding Danube, surrounded by mountains.
The building that might be considered the symbol of the town is the
largest church in
Hungary and was built according to the plans of Pál
Kühnel, János Páckh and
József Hild from 1822 to 1869. Ferenc
Liszt wrote the Mass of
Esztergom for this occasion. The classicist
church is enormous: the height of the dome is 71.5 metres (235 feet);
it has giant arches and an enormous altar-piece by Michelangelo
Grigoletti. On one side, in the Saint Stephen chapel, the glittering
relics of Hungarian and other nations’ saints and valuable jewellery
can be seen. On the south side, the Bakócz Chapel, the only one that
survived the Middle Ages, can be seen. The builders of the Basilica
had disassembled this structure into 1600 pieces, and incorporated it
into the new church in its original form.
The treasury houses many masterpieces of medieval goldsmith's works.
The western European masters’ hands are praised by such items as the
crown silver cross that has been used since the 13th century, the
ornate chalices, Francesco Francia’s processional cross, the upper
part of the well-known ‘Matthias-Calvary’ which is decorated in
the rare ronde-bosse enamel technique. The Treasury also has a vast
collection of traditional Hungarian and European textiles, including
chasubles, liturgical vestments and robes.
The sound of the enormous bell hung in the southern tower can be heard
from kilometers away. From the top of the large dome, visitors can see
a breath-taking view: to the north, east and south the ranges of the
Pilis and Gerecse mountains rule the landscape,
while to the west, in the valley of the
Danube one can see as far as
the Small Plains.
Víziváros (Watertown) section was named after being built on the
banks of the Kis- and Nagy Duna (Small and Great Danube). Its
fortresses, walls, bastions and Turkish rondellas can still be seen by
the walk on the banks of the Danube. By the northern end of the wall,
on the bank of the Nagy-Duna, an interesting memorial is put, a stone
table with Ottoman Turkish writings commemorates Sultan Suleiman the
Magnificent’s victorious siege of 1543. The narrow, winding streets
within the walls hide the remains of Turkish mosques and baths.
Along the delightful streets of the
Classicist buildings stands the Primate's
Palace, designed by József Lippert (1880–82). The Keresztény
Múzeum (Christian museum), founded by Archbishop János Simor, is
located in this building. It houses a rich collection of Hungarian
panel pictures and sculpture of the
Middle Ages as well as Italian and
western-European paintings and handicrafts (13th-18th centuries). This
is where one can admire the chapel-like structure of the late Gothic
‘Úrkoporsó’ (Lord's coffin) from
Garamszentbenedek that is
decorated by painted wooden sculptures (c. 1480), the winged
altar-piece by Thomas of Coloswar (1427), paintings by Master M.S.
(1506), the gothic altars from Upper Historical
handicrafts of Italian, German and Flemish artists from the
13th–17th centuries, tapestries and ceramics.
The building of the Balassa Bálint Museum that was built in Baroque
style on medieval bases and is located in
served as the first town hall of
Esztergom county after the Turks had
been driven out of the region.
The parish-church in the centre of the
Víziváros (Watertown), which
was built by the Jesuits between 1728 and 1738, and the single-towered
Franciscan churches are also masterpieces of
Cathedral Library standing in the southern part of the town, which
was built in 1853 according to plans by
József Hild is one of the
richest religious libraries of Hungary, accommodating approximately
250,000 books, among which several codices and incunabula can be
found, such as the Latin explanation of the ‘Song of Songs’ from
the 12th century, the ‘Lövöföldi Corvina’ originating from
donations of King Matthias, or the Jordánszky-codex, which includes
the Hungarian translation of the Bible from 1516-1519. Along with
Bakócz and Ulászló graduals, they conserve also the Balassa Bible,
in which Balassa’s uncle, Balassa András wrote down the
circumstances of his birth and death.
The main sight of the nearby ‘Szent-Tamás hegy’ (Saint Thomas
Hill - Szenttamás) is the
Baroque Calvary, with the
on the top of the hill, which was built to commemorate the heroes who
died for Esztergom. The hill was named after a church built by Bishop
Lukács Bánffy in memoriam the martyr Saint Thomas Becket, who had
been his fellow student at the University of Paris. The church and the
small castle which the Turks built there were destroyed a long time
ago. On its original spot, the top of the hill, the narrow winding
streets and small houses that were built by the masters who were
working on the construction of the
Basilica at the beginning of the
previous century, have an atmosphere that is similar to that of Tabán
in Buda. At the foot of the hill are the swimming pool and the
Classicist building of the Fürdő Szálló (Bath Hotel). This is
Lajos Kossuth stayed in 1848 on one of his recruiting tours.
On the southern slopes of the hill there is a Mediterranean, winding
path with stairs that lead to the
Baroque Saint Stephen chapel.
Széchényi Square and the
The main square of the town is the Széchényi square. Of the several
buildings of Baroque,
Classicist style, there is one that
catches everyone’s eyes: the
Town Hall. Originally, it used to be
the single-floor curia of Vak Bottyán (János Bottyán, Bottyán the
Kuruc general (1689). The first floor was constructed on
its top in 1729. The house burnt down in the 1750s. It was rebuilt in
accordance with the plans of a local architect, Antal Hartmann. Upon
its façade there is a red marble carving which presents the coat of
Esztergom (a palace within the castle walls, protected by
towers, with the Árpáds’ shields below.) On the corner of the
building the equestrian statue of Vak Bottyán (created by István
Martsa) commemorates the original owner of the house.
The Trinity-statue in the middle of the square was created by György
Kiss in 1900. In Bottyán János Street, near the
Town Hall, there are
Baroque houses. This is where the
Franciscan church is
located (built between 1700–1755). Opposite this building there is a
Baroque palace which used to belong to the Sándor Earl family.
In the direction of the Kis Duna, the downtown parish-church, built by
the architect Ignác Oratsek can be admired. A bit farther is the
Classicist Church of Saint Anne. The orthodox church at 60 Kossuth
Lajos street was built around 1770 by Serbian settlers in Esztergom.
Magyar Suzuki Corporation plant opened in 1992, as the European
base of the Japanese automotive manufacturer Suzuki. It has a
production capacity of 300,000 vehicles per year and it is the biggest
employing company in the city, with 3,100 employees.
Climate data for Esztergom
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: CLIMATE DATA
Eusebius of Esztergom
Eusebius of Esztergom (1200 - 1270), Hungarian canon, hermit,
founder of the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit
Osvát Laskai (1450 – 1511), Hungarian
Franciscan monk, preacher,
teacher of theology, head of the friaries of
Esztergom and Pest
Jozef Murgaš (1864 – 1929), Slovak inventor, architect, botanist,
painter, and Roman Catholic priest, contributor to the wireless
telegraphy and the development of mobile communications and wireless
transmission of information and human voice.
László Ernő Pintér (1942 - 2002), Hungarian
Vladislaus II (1456 – 1516), King of Bohemia (1471 - 1516), King of
Hungary and Croatia (1490 - 1516)
Blessed Yolanda of
Poland (1235 – 1298) Hungarian nun of the order
of Poor Clares
Alojzije Mišić (1859 – 1942), Croatian Bishop of Mostar-Duvno and
Apostolic Administrator of Trebinje-Mrkan (1912 - 1942)
Imre Csáky (1672 – 1732), Hungarian Roman Catholic cardinal
Ludwig Lichtscheing (? - 1886), Hungarian rabbi
Hungary (ca. 969 - ca. 988), Hungarian princess, member of
the House of Árpád
Andrew II (c. 1177 – 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, King
Hungary and Croatia (1205 - 1235), Prince of Halych (1188 -
1189/1190, 1208/1209 - 1210)
Zlaudus (? - c. 1262), bishop of Veszprém in the Kingdom of Hungary
(1245 - 1262), Chancellor of
Hungary in 1226
Anett György (1996 -), Hungarian racing driver
Arcadius Avellanus (1851 – 1935), Hungarian-American scholar of
Latin, proponent of Living Latin
Ugrin Csák, archbishop of Kalocsa,
Hungary (1219 - 1241)
László Horváth (1962 -), Hungarian politician
Blessed Sebestyén (? - 1007), Hungarian Benedictine missionary,
prelate and politician, Archbishop of
Esztergom (1002 - 1007)
Sándor Urbanik (1964 -), Hungarian race walker
Saint Irene of
Hungary (1088 – 1134), Hungarian-born Byzantine
Attila Menyhárd Ph.D., Hungarian lawyer, professor of civil law, head
of the Civil Law Department on the Faculty of Law at the University of
Farkas Bethlen (1957 -), Hungarian politician
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Hungary
Twin towns — Sister cities
Esztergom is twinned with:
Espoo, Finland, since 1974
Štúrovo, Slovakia, since 1991
Bamberg, Germany, since 1992
Cambrai, France, since 1992
Ehingen, Germany, since 1992
Maintal, Germany, since 1993
Gniezno, Poland, since 1994
Mariazell, Austria, since 2002
Canterbury, United Kingdom, since 2004
Szekszárd, Hungary, since 2007
Significant minority groups
Cathedral at night
The White Tower of Castle
HNM Castle Museum
Saint Anne Church or Round Church
Siemens Desiro in Esztergom
Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest
^ Rel. Slovak striehnuť - to watch, to guard, Czech střeh – a
^ The initial form is recorded e.g. in the Chronicle of Dalimil.
^ "Maître Roger : Carmen miserabile". Site de Philippe Remacle.
Retrieved 21 January 2011.
^ a b c Kiss, Lajos (1980). Földrajzi nevek etimológiai szótára
(in Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 209.
^ a b c d e Ondruš, Ondruš (2002). Odtajnené trezory slov II.
Martin: Matica slovenská. p. 222. ISBN 80-7090-659-6.
^ "Revised Atlas of World History". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 6
^ "The history of our town". Esztergom.hu Portal. 21 December 2006.
Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
^ "Rising speed – Audi in
Esztergom to produce
new models as from this summer".
Budapest Telegraph. 15 February
^ "CLIMATE: ESZTERGOM". CLIMATE DATA.
^ "Sister Towns". Esztergom. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014.
Retrieved 3 May 2014.
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Towns and villages of
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Historical capitals of Hungary
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Coordinates: 47°47′8″N 18°44′25″E / 47.78556°N