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Esztergom
Esztergom
(Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɛstɛrɡom]  listen (help·info), German: Gran, Slovak: Ostrihom, known by alternative names), is a city in northern Hungary, 46 kilometres (29 miles) northwest of the capital Budapest. It lies in Komárom-Esztergom
Komárom-Esztergom
county, on the right bank of the river Danube, which forms the border with Slovakia
Slovakia
there. Esztergom
Esztergom
was the capital of Hungary
Hungary
from the 10th till the mid-13th century when King Béla IV of Hungary
Hungary
moved the royal seat to Buda. Esztergom
Esztergom
is the seat of the prímás (see Primate) of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary, and the former seat of the Constitutional Court of Hungary. The city has the Keresztény Múzeum, the largest ecclesiastical collection in Hungary. Its cathedral, Esztergom Basilica
Basilica
is the largest church in Hungary.

Contents

1 Names and etymology 2 History 3 Architecture

3.1 The castle and palace 3.2 Esztergom
Esztergom
Basilica 3.3 Viziváros 3.4 Cathedral
Cathedral
Library 3.5 Szent-Tamás hegy 3.6 Széchényi Square and the Town
Town
Hall 3.7 Other churches

4 Industry 5 Climate 6 Notable residents 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

8 Demographics 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links

Names and etymology[edit] The Roman town was called Solva. The medieval Latin name was Strigonium.[1] The first early medieval mention is "ſtrigonensis [strigonensis] comes" (1079-1080).[2] The name is usually derived from Slavic. Proto-Slavic stregti – to watch, to guard, present participle stregom, strägom – a guard post[3][a] There are several place names with the same motivation in Slavic countries, i.e. Dolná Strehová
Dolná Strehová
(Alsósztregova, on the Slovak-Hungarian border), Strzegom
Strzegom
(Poland), Střehom[3] (Czech Republic) - also the Czech historic name of Esztergom
Esztergom
and others.[b] The Hungarians added a vowel in front of the initial group of consonants, similar to the Hungarian adaption of 'Stephan' as 'Istvan'. The initial 'o' in later Slavic forms could evolve independently from a prepositional form vъ Strägome (in Strägom) > vo Strägome > v Osträgome like Slovak Bdokovce > Obdokovce, Psolovce > Obsolovce.[3] Another etymology is Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
strgun - a tanner.[2] Further theory is based on the form Estrigun from the 12th century. Proto-Bulgaric estrogin käpe, estrigim küpe - a leather armor[2][3] However according to Šimon Ondruš, the high number of Slavic place in the region, the fact that it is based only on later sources and the missing adoption of the word in the Hungarian language make this older theory obsolete and unreliable.[3] Other names of the town are Croatian Ostrogon, Polish Ostrzyhom, Serbian Ostrogon and Estergon (also Turkish), Slovak Ostrihom and Czech Ostřihom. The German name is Gran (German:  Gran (help·info)), like the German name of river Garam.[4] History[edit]

Castle Hill panorama from Štúrovo, Slovakia

Ottoman grave stones in the castle

Esztergom
Esztergom
in 1664

Szentgyörgymező

The Cathedral
Cathedral
with the Dark gate

The Cathedral
Cathedral
at night

Péter Pázmány
Péter Pázmány
Street

Courthouse

The former synagogue

Franciscan
Franciscan
church

Town
Town
Hall

Downtown as seen from the Bottyán bridge

Watertown

"Old seminary"

Downtown

The old seminary in Esztergom
Esztergom
after the renovations in 2006

Royal castle

Esztergom
Esztergom
is one of the oldest towns in Hungary.[5] Esztergom, as it existed in the Middle Ages, now rests under today's town. The results of the most recent archeological excavations reveal that the Várhegy (Castle Hill) and its vicinity have been inhabited since the end of the Ice Age
Ice Age
20,000 years ago. The first people known by name were the Celts
Celts
from Western Europe, who settled in the region in about 350 BC. A flourishing Celtic settlement existed on the Varhegy until the region was conquered by Rome. Thereafter it became an important frontier town of Pannonia, known by the name of Salvio Mansio, Salvio, or Solva. By the seventh century the town was called Stregom and later Gran, but soon reverted to the former, which evolved into Esztergom
Esztergom
by the thirteenth century. The German and Avar archaeological finds found in the area reveal that these people settled there following the period of the migrations that were caused by the fall of the Roman Empire. At about 500 AD, Slavic peoples immigrated into the Pannonian Basin. In the 9th century, the place was part of Great Moravia, afterwards of the Principality of Nitra. In Old Slavonic language, it was called Strěgom ("guard"), as it was strategic point of control for the Danube
Danube
valley. The Magyars
Magyars
entered the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
in 896 AD and conquered it systematically, succeeding fully in 901. In 960, the ruling prince of the Hungarians, Géza, chose Esztergom
Esztergom
as his residence. His son, Vajk, who was later called Saint Stephen of Hungary, was born in his palace built on the Roman castrum on the Várhegy (Castle Hill) around 969-975. In 973, Esztergom
Esztergom
served as the starting point of an important historical event: during Easter of that year, Géza sent a committee to the international peace conference of Emperor Otto I in Quedlinburg. He offered peace to the Emperor and asked for missionaries. The prince's residence stood on the northern side of the hill. The center of the hill was occupied by a basilica dedicated to St. Adalbert, who, according to legend, baptised St. Stephen. The Church of St. Adalbert was the seat of the archbishop of Esztergom, the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in Hungary. By that time, significant numbers of craftsmen and merchants had settled in the city. Stephen's coronation took place in Esztergom
Esztergom
on either Christmas Day 1000 or January 1, 1001. From the time of his rule up to the beginning of the 13th century, the only mint for the country operated here. During the same period, the castle of Esztergom
Esztergom
("Estergon Kalesi" in Turkish ) was built. It served not only as the royal residence until the Mongol siege of Esztergom
Esztergom
in 1241 (during the first Mongol invasion), but also as the center of the Hungarian state, religion, and Esztergom
Esztergom
county. The archbishop of Esztergom
Esztergom
was the leader of the ten bishoprics founded by Stephen. The archbishop was often in charge of important state functions and had the exclusive right to crown kings. The settlements of royal servants, merchants and craftsmen at the foot of the Várhegy (Castle Hill) developed into the most significant town during the age of the Árpád
Árpád
dynasty– these being the most important area of the economic life of the country. According to the Frenchman Odo of Deuil, who visited the country in 1147, "the Danube carries the economy and treasures of several countries to Esztergom". The town council was made up of the richest citizens of the town (residents of French, Spanish, Belgian, and Italian origin) who dealt with commerce. The coat of arms of Esztergom
Esztergom
emerged from their seal in the 13th century. This was the town where foreign monarchs could meet Hungarian kings. For example, Emperor Conrad II met Géza II in this town (1147). Another important meeting took place when the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa visited Béla III. The historians traveling with them all agree on the richness and significance of Esztergom. Arnold of Lübeck, the historian with Frederick Barbarossa, called Esztergom
Esztergom
the capital of Hungarian people
Hungarian people
("quae Ungarorum est metropolis"). In the beginning of the 13th century Esztergom
Esztergom
was the center of the country's political and economic life. This is explained by the canon of Nagyvárad, Rogerius of Apulia, who witnessed the first devastation of the country during the Tatar invasion siege of Esztergom
Esztergom
and wrote in his Carmen Miserabile ("Sad Song"): "since there was no other town like Esztergom
Esztergom
in Hungary, the Tatars
Tatars
(siege of Esztergom) were considering crossing the Danube
Danube
to pitch a camp there", which was exactly what happened after the Danube
Danube
froze. The capital of the Árpád-age was destroyed in a vicious battle. Though, according to the documents that remained intact, some of the residents (those who escaped into the castle) survived and new residents settled in the area and soon started rebuilding the town, it lost its leading role. Béla IV
Béla IV
gave the palace and castle to the archbishop, and changed his residence to Buda. Béla IV
Béla IV
and his family, however, were buried in the Franciscan
Franciscan
church in Esztergom
Esztergom
which had been destroyed during the invasion and which had been rebuilt by Béla IV
Béla IV
in 1270. Following these events, the castle was built and decorated by the bishops. The center of the king's town, which was surrounded by walls, was still under royal authority. A number of different monasteries did return or settle in the religious center. Meanwhile, the citizenry had been fighting to maintain and reclaim the rights of towns against the expansion of the church within the royal town. In the chaotic years after the fall of the House of Árpád, Esztergom
Esztergom
suffered another calamity: in 1304, the forces of Wenceslaus II, the Czech king occupied and raided the castle. In the years to come, the castle was owned by several individuals: Róbert Károly
Róbert Károly
and then Louis the Great
Louis the Great
patronized the town. In 1327 Kovácsi, the most influential suburb of the town, lying in the southeast, was united with Esztergom. The former suburb had three churches with mainly blacksmith, goldsmith, and coiner residents. In the 14th and 15th centuries Esztergom
Esztergom
saw events of great importance and became one of the most influential acropolises of Hungarian culture along with Buda. Their courts, which were similar to the royal courts of Buda
Buda
and Visegrád, were visited by such kings, scientists, and artists as Louis the Great, Sigismund of Luxembourg, King Matthias Corvinus, Galeotto Marzio, Regiomontanus, the famous astronomer Marcin Bylica and Georg von Peuerbach, Pier Paolo Vergerio and Antonio Bonfini, King Matthias's historian, who, in his work praises the constructive work of János Vitéz, King Matthias's educator. He had a library and an observatory built next to the cathedral. As Bonfini wrote about his masterpiece, his palace and terraced gardens: "he had a spacious room for knights built in the castle. In front of that, he built a wonderful loggia of red marble. In front of the room, he built the Chapel of Sibyls, whose walls were decorated with paintings of the sybils. On the walls of the knights' room, not only the likeness of all the kings could be found, but also the Scythian ancestors. He also had a double garden constructed, which was decorated with columns and a corridor above them. Between the two gardens, he built a round tower of red marble with several rooms and balconies. He had Saint Adalbert's Basilica
Basilica
covered with glass tiles". King Matthias's widow, Beatrix of Aragon, lived in the castle of Esztergom
Esztergom
for ten years (1490–1500). The time of the next resident, Archbishop Tamás Bakócz
Tamás Bakócz
(†l521) gave the town significant monuments. In 1507 he had Italian architects build the Bakócz chapel, which is the earliest and most significant Renaissance
Renaissance
building which has survived in Hungary. The altarpiece of the chapel was carved from white marble by Andrea Ferrucci, a sculptor from Fiesole
Fiesole
in 1519. The Ottoman conquest of Mohács
Mohács
in 1526 brought a decline to the previously flourishing Esztergom
Esztergom
as well. In the Battle of Mohács, the archbishop of Esztergom
Esztergom
died. In the period between 1526 and 1543, when two rival kings reigned in Hungary, Esztergom
Esztergom
was besieged six times. At times it was the forces of Ferdinand I or John Zápolya, at other times the Ottomans attacked. Finally, in 1530, Ferdinand I occupied the castle. He put foreign mercenaries in the castle, and sent the chapter and the bishopric to Nagyszombat
Nagyszombat
and Pozsony
Pozsony
(that is why some of the treasury, the archives and the library survived.) In 1543 Sultan Suleiman I attacked the castle and took it. Esztergom
Esztergom
(Estergon) became the centre of an Ottoman sanjak controlling several counties, and also a significant castle on the northwest border of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
– the main clashing point to prevent attacks on the mining towns of the highlands, Vienna
Vienna
and Buda. In 1594, during the unsuccessful but devastating siege by the walls of the Víziváros, Bálint Balassa, the first Hungarian poet who gained European significance, died in action. The most devastating siege took place in 1595 when the castle was reclaimed by the troops of Count Karl von Mansfeld
Karl von Mansfeld
and Count Mátyás Cseszneky. The price that had to be paid, however, was high. Most of the buildings in the castle and the town that had been built in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
were destroyed during this period, and there were only uninhabitable, smothered ruins to welcome the liberators. In 1605 the Ottomans regained control over the castle as well as the whole region again, maintaining their rule until 1683. Though the Ottomans were mainly engaged in building and fortifying the castle, they also built significant new buildings including mosques, minarets and baths. These structures, along with the contemporary buildings, were destroyed in the siege of 1683 resulting in the liberation of Esztergom
Esztergom
- though some Turkish buildings prevailed up to the beginning of the 18th century. The last time the Ottoman forces attacked Esztergom
Esztergom
was in 1685. During the following year Buda
Buda
was liberated as well. During these battles János Bottyán, captain of the cavalry, later the legendary figure of the Rákóczi
Rákóczi
war of independence disappeared. All that had been rebuilt at the end of the century was destroyed and burnt down during Ferenc Rákóczi's long lasting, but finally successful siege. The destroyed territory was settled by Hungarian, Slovakian and German settlers. This was when the new national landscape developed. In the area where there had previously been 65 Hungarian villages, only 22 were rebuilt. Though the reconstructed town received its free royal rights, in size and significance it was only a shadow of its former self. Handcrafts gained strength and in around 1730, there were 17 independent crafts operating in Esztergom. Wine-culture was also of major significance. This was also the period when the Baroque
Baroque
view of the downtown area and the Víziváros
Víziváros
(Watertown) were developed. The old town's main characteristic is the simplicity and moderateness of its citizen Baroque
Baroque
architecture. The most beautiful buildings can be found around the marketplace (Széchenyi square). In 1761 the bishopric regained control over the castle, where they started the preliminary processes of the reconstruction of the new religious center: the middle of the Várhegy (Castle Hill), the remains of Saint Stephen and Saint Adalbert churches were carried away to provide room for the new cathedral. Although the major construction work and the resettlement of the bishopric (1820) played a significant role in the town's life, the pace of Esztergom's development gradually slowed down, and work on the new Basilica
Basilica
came to a halt. By the beginning of the 20th century, Esztergom
Esztergom
gained significance owing to its cultural and educational institutions as well as to being an administrative capital. The town's situation turned worse after the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
of 1920, after which it became a border town and lost most of its previous territory. This was also the place where the poet Mihály Babits
Mihály Babits
spent his summers from 1924 to his death in 1941. The poet's residence was one of the centers of the country's literary life; he had a significant effect on intellectual life in Esztergom. Esztergom
Esztergom
had one of the oldest Jewish communities in Hungary. They had a place of worship here by 1050. King Charles I (Caroberto) gifted a plot to the community for a cemetery in 1326. According to the 1910 census, 5.1% of the population were Jewish, while the 1941 census found a population of 1510 Jews. The community maintained an elementary school until 1944. Jewish shops were ordered to be closed on April 28, 1944, and a short-lived ghetto was set up on May 11. The former Jewish shops were handed over to non-Jews on June 9. The inmates of the ghetto were sent to Komárom
Komárom
in early June, then deported to Auschwitz
Auschwitz
on June 16, 1944. Two forced labor units, whose members were mainly Esztergom
Esztergom
Jews, were executed en masse near Ágfalva, on the Austrian border in January 1945. Soviet troops captured the town on December 26, 1944, but were pushed back by the Germans on January 6, 1945, who were finally ousted on March 21, 1945. The Mária Valéria bridge, connecting Esztergom
Esztergom
with the city of Štúrovo
Štúrovo
in Slovakia
Slovakia
was rebuilt in 2001 with the support of the European Union. Originally it was inaugurated in 1895, but the retreating German troops destroyed it in 1944. A new thermal and wellness spa opened in November 2005. Architecture[edit] One of the most important events of the 1930s was the exploration and renovation of the remains of the palace of the Árpád
Árpád
period. This again put Esztergom
Esztergom
in the center of attention. Following World War II, Esztergom
Esztergom
was left behind as one of the most severely devastated towns. However, reconstruction slowly managed to erase the traces of the war, with two of Esztergom’s most vital characteristics gaining significance: due to its situation it was the cultural center of the area (more than 8,000 students were educated at its elementary, secondary schools and college ). On the other hand, as a result of the local industrial development it has become a vital basis for the Hungarian tool and machinery industry. This town, with its spectacular scenery and numerous memorials, a witness of the struggles of Hungarian history, is popular mostly with tourists interested in the beauties of the past and art. However, the town seems to regain its role in the country’s politics, and its buildings and traditions revive. The castle and palace[edit] The winding streets of the town, with its church towers create a historical atmosphere. Below the Basilica
Basilica
(see below), at the edge of the mountain stand the old walls, bastions and rondellas – the remains of the castle of Esztergom. The remains of one section of the royal palace and castle that had been built during the Ottoman rule had been buried in the ground up until the 1930s. Most parts of the palace were explored and restored in the period between 1934 and 1938, but even today there are archeological excavations in progress. Passing through the narrow stairs, alleys, under arches and gates built in Romanesque style, a part of the past seems to come to life. This part of the palace was built in the time of King Béla III. With his wife - the daughter of Louis VII - French architects arrived and constructed the late-Roman and early-Gothic building at the end of the 12th century. The frescoes of the palace chapel date from the 12th-14th centuries, while on the walls of the mottes, some of the most beautiful paintings of the early Hungarian Renaissance
Renaissance
can be admired (15th century). From the terrace of the palace one can admire the landscape of Esztergom. Under the terrace are the houses and churches of the Bishop-town section, or '‘Víziváros'’ (Watertown) and the Primate's Palace. Opposite the palace is the Saint Thomas hill, and surrounded by the mountains and the Danube. The walls of the castle still stand on the northern part of the Basilica. From the northern rondella one can admire the view of Párkány on the other side of the Danube
Danube
as well as the Szentgyörgymező, the Danube
Danube
valley, and the So-called ‘Víziváros’ (Watertown) districts. Esztergom
Esztergom
Basilica[edit] Main article: Esztergom
Esztergom
Basilica Those traveling to Esztergom
Esztergom
today can admire the most monumental construction of Hungarian Classicism, the Basilica, which silently rules the landscape above the winding Danube, surrounded by mountains. The building that might be considered the symbol of the town is the largest church in Hungary
Hungary
and was built according to the plans of Pál Kühnel, János Páckh and József Hild
József Hild
from 1822 to 1869. Ferenc Liszt wrote the Mass of Esztergom
Esztergom
for this occasion. The classicist church is enormous: the height of the dome is 71.5 metres (235 feet); it has giant arches and an enormous altar-piece by Michelangelo Grigoletti. On one side, in the Saint Stephen chapel, the glittering relics of Hungarian and other nations’ saints and valuable jewellery can be seen. On the south side, the Bakócz Chapel, the only one that survived the Middle Ages, can be seen. The builders of the Basilica had disassembled this structure into 1600 pieces, and incorporated it into the new church in its original form. The treasury houses many masterpieces of medieval goldsmith's works. The western European masters’ hands are praised by such items as the crown silver cross that has been used since the 13th century, the ornate chalices, Francesco Francia’s processional cross, the upper part of the well-known ‘Matthias-Calvary’ which is decorated in the rare ronde-bosse enamel technique. The Treasury also has a vast collection of traditional Hungarian and European textiles, including chasubles, liturgical vestments and robes. The sound of the enormous bell hung in the southern tower can be heard from kilometers away. From the top of the large dome, visitors can see a breath-taking view: to the north, east and south the ranges of the Börzsöny, Visegrád, Pilis
Pilis
and Gerecse mountains rule the landscape, while to the west, in the valley of the Danube
Danube
one can see as far as the Small Plains. Viziváros[edit] The Víziváros
Víziváros
(Watertown) section was named after being built on the banks of the Kis- and Nagy Duna (Small and Great Danube). Its fortresses, walls, bastions and Turkish rondellas can still be seen by the walk on the banks of the Danube. By the northern end of the wall, on the bank of the Nagy-Duna, an interesting memorial is put, a stone table with Ottoman Turkish writings commemorates Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent’s victorious siege of 1543. The narrow, winding streets within the walls hide the remains of Turkish mosques and baths. Along the delightful streets of the Víziváros
Víziváros
(Watertown), surrounded by Baroque
Baroque
and Classicist
Classicist
buildings stands the Primate's Palace, designed by József Lippert (1880–82). The Keresztény Múzeum (Christian museum), founded by Archbishop János Simor, is located in this building. It houses a rich collection of Hungarian panel pictures and sculpture of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as well as Italian and western-European paintings and handicrafts (13th-18th centuries). This is where one can admire the chapel-like structure of the late Gothic ‘Úrkoporsó’ (Lord's coffin) from Garamszentbenedek
Garamszentbenedek
that is decorated by painted wooden sculptures (c. 1480), the winged altar-piece by Thomas of Coloswar (1427), paintings by Master M.S. (1506), the gothic altars from Upper Historical Hungary
Hungary
(Felvidék), handicrafts of Italian, German and Flemish artists from the 13th–17th centuries, tapestries and ceramics. The building of the Balassa Bálint Museum that was built in Baroque style on medieval bases and is located in Víziváros
Víziváros
(Watertown), served as the first town hall of Esztergom county
Esztergom county
after the Turks had been driven out of the region. The parish-church in the centre of the Víziváros
Víziváros
(Watertown), which was built by the Jesuits between 1728 and 1738, and the single-towered Franciscan
Franciscan
churches are also masterpieces of Baroque
Baroque
architecture. Cathedral
Cathedral
Library[edit] The Cathedral
Cathedral
Library standing in the southern part of the town, which was built in 1853 according to plans by József Hild
József Hild
is one of the richest religious libraries of Hungary, accommodating approximately 250,000 books, among which several codices and incunabula can be found, such as the Latin explanation of the ‘Song of Songs’ from the 12th century, the ‘Lövöföldi Corvina’ originating from donations of King Matthias, or the Jordánszky-codex, which includes the Hungarian translation of the Bible from 1516-1519. Along with Bakócz and Ulászló graduals, they conserve also the Balassa Bible, in which Balassa’s uncle, Balassa András wrote down the circumstances of his birth and death. Szent-Tamás hegy[edit] The main sight of the nearby ‘Szent-Tamás hegy’ (Saint Thomas Hill - Szenttamás) is the Baroque
Baroque
Calvary, with the Classicist
Classicist
chapel on the top of the hill, which was built to commemorate the heroes who died for Esztergom. The hill was named after a church built by Bishop Lukács Bánffy in memoriam the martyr Saint Thomas Becket, who had been his fellow student at the University of Paris. The church and the small castle which the Turks built there were destroyed a long time ago. On its original spot, the top of the hill, the narrow winding streets and small houses that were built by the masters who were working on the construction of the Basilica
Basilica
at the beginning of the previous century, have an atmosphere that is similar to that of Tabán in Buda. At the foot of the hill are the swimming pool and the Classicist
Classicist
building of the Fürdő Szálló (Bath Hotel). This is where Lajos Kossuth
Lajos Kossuth
stayed in 1848 on one of his recruiting tours. On the southern slopes of the hill there is a Mediterranean, winding path with stairs that lead to the Baroque
Baroque
Saint Stephen chapel. Széchényi Square and the Town
Town
Hall[edit] The main square of the town is the Széchényi square. Of the several buildings of Baroque, Rococo
Rococo
and Classicist
Classicist
style, there is one that catches everyone’s eyes: the Town
Town
Hall. Originally, it used to be the single-floor curia of Vak Bottyán (János Bottyán, Bottyán the Blind), the Kuruc
Kuruc
general (1689). The first floor was constructed on its top in 1729. The house burnt down in the 1750s. It was rebuilt in accordance with the plans of a local architect, Antal Hartmann. Upon its façade there is a red marble carving which presents the coat of arms of Esztergom
Esztergom
(a palace within the castle walls, protected by towers, with the Árpáds’ shields below.) On the corner of the building the equestrian statue of Vak Bottyán (created by István Martsa) commemorates the original owner of the house. The Trinity-statue in the middle of the square was created by György Kiss in 1900. In Bottyán János Street, near the Town
Town
Hall, there are well decorated Baroque
Baroque
houses. This is where the Franciscan
Franciscan
church is located (built between 1700–1755). Opposite this building there is a Baroque
Baroque
palace which used to belong to the Sándor Earl family. Other churches[edit] In the direction of the Kis Duna, the downtown parish-church, built by the architect Ignác Oratsek can be admired. A bit farther is the Classicist
Classicist
Church of Saint Anne. The orthodox church at 60 Kossuth Lajos street was built around 1770 by Serbian settlers in Esztergom. Industry[edit] The Magyar Suzuki
Magyar Suzuki
Corporation plant opened in 1992, as the European base of the Japanese automotive manufacturer Suzuki. It has a production capacity of 300,000 vehicles per year and it is the biggest employing company in the city, with 3,100 employees.[6] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Esztergom

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 2.2 (36) 8.2 (46.8) 15.2 (59.4) 22.5 (72.5) 28.0 (82.4) 30.8 (87.4) 33.0 (91.4) 32.8 (91) 28.3 (82.9) 21.5 (70.7) 11.6 (52.9) 6.0 (42.8) 20.0 (68)

Average high °C (°F) 1.7 (35.1) 4.9 (40.8) 10.6 (51.1) 16.4 (61.5) 22.1 (71.8) 25.0 (77) 27.0 (80.6) 26.7 (80.1) 22.5 (72.5) 16.4 (61.5) 8.4 (47.1) 3.4 (38.1) 15.5 (59.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2 (29.8) 1.6 (34.9) 6.0 (42.8) 11.3 (52.3) 16.2 (61.2) 19.2 (66.6) 21.0 (69.8) 20.6 (69.1) 16.7 (62.1) 11.3 (52.3) 5.2 (41.4) 0.8 (33.4) 10.7 (51.3)

Average low °C (°F) −4.0 (24.8) −1.7 (28.9) 1.5 (34.7) 0.8 (33.4) 10.3 (50.5) 13.5 (56.3) 14.9 (58.8) 14.5 (58.1) 11.0 (51.8) 6.3 (43.3) 2.1 (35.8) −1.8 (28.8) 6.0 (42.8)

Record low °C (°F) −6.8 (19.8) −5.0 (23) −3.0 (26.6) 0.8 (33.4) 3.2 (37.8) 7.8 (46) 8.8 (47.8) 8.4 (47.1) 5.3 (41.5) 1.3 (34.3) −1.0 (30.2) −4.4 (24.1) 2.2 (36)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36 (1.42) 35 (1.38) 31 (1.22) 40 (1.57) 59 (2.32) 67 (2.64) 51 (2.01) 56 (2.2) 42 (1.65) 39 (1.54) 56 (2.2) 45 (1.77) 557 (21.93)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 64 98 132 172 230 227 249 239 173 139 72 53 1,848

Source: CLIMATE DATA[7]

Notable residents[edit]

Blessed Eusebius of Esztergom
Eusebius of Esztergom
(1200 - 1270), Hungarian canon, hermit, founder of the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit Osvát Laskai (1450 – 1511), Hungarian Franciscan
Franciscan
monk, preacher, teacher of theology, head of the friaries of Esztergom
Esztergom
and Pest Jozef Murgaš
Jozef Murgaš
(1864 – 1929), Slovak inventor, architect, botanist, painter, and Roman Catholic priest, contributor to the wireless telegraphy and the development of mobile communications and wireless transmission of information and human voice. László Ernő Pintér (1942 - 2002), Hungarian Franciscan
Franciscan
priest, malacologist Vladislaus II (1456 – 1516), King of Bohemia (1471 - 1516), King of Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia (1490 - 1516) Blessed Yolanda of Poland
Poland
(1235 – 1298) Hungarian nun of the order of Poor Clares Alojzije Mišić (1859 – 1942), Croatian Bishop of Mostar-Duvno and Apostolic Administrator of Trebinje-Mrkan (1912 - 1942) Imre Csáky (1672 – 1732), Hungarian Roman Catholic cardinal Ludwig Lichtscheing (? - 1886), Hungarian rabbi Judith of Hungary
Hungary
(ca. 969 - ca. 988), Hungarian princess, member of the House of Árpád Andrew II (c. 1177 – 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, King of Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia (1205 - 1235), Prince of Halych (1188 - 1189/1190, 1208/1209 - 1210) Zlaudus (? - c. 1262), bishop of Veszprém in the Kingdom of Hungary (1245 - 1262), Chancellor of Hungary
Hungary
in 1226 Anett György (1996 -), Hungarian racing driver Arcadius Avellanus (1851 – 1935), Hungarian-American scholar of Latin, proponent of Living Latin Ugrin Csák, archbishop of Kalocsa, Hungary
Hungary
(1219 - 1241) László Horváth (1962 -), Hungarian politician Blessed Sebestyén (? - 1007), Hungarian Benedictine missionary, prelate and politician, Archbishop of Esztergom
Esztergom
(1002 - 1007) Sándor Urbanik (1964 -), Hungarian race walker Saint Irene of Hungary
Hungary
(1088 – 1134), Hungarian-born Byzantine empress Attila Menyhárd Ph.D., Hungarian lawyer, professor of civil law, head of the Civil Law Department on the Faculty of Law at the University of Budapest Farkas Bethlen (1957 -), Hungarian politician

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Hungary Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Esztergom
Esztergom
is twinned with:[8]

Espoo, Finland, since 1974 Štúrovo, Slovakia, since 1991 Bamberg, Germany, since 1992 Cambrai, France, since 1992 Ehingen, Germany, since 1992 Maintal, Germany, since 1993 Gniezno, Poland, since 1994 Mariazell, Austria, since 2002 Canterbury, United Kingdom, since 2004

Partner city:

Szekszárd, Hungary, since 2007

Demographics[edit]

Year Population

1000 10,000

1242 12,000

1701 2,000

1756 4,342

1820 10,169

1824 11,157

1850 11,661

1867 11,215

1869 14,512

Year Population

1880 14,944

1890 16,749

1893¹ 15,749

1900 16,948

1910 17,881

1920 16,040

1930 17,354

1943 22,170

1949 20,040

Year Population

1957 34,000

1967 26,000

1980 30,870

1990 28,730

2001 29,041

2006 30,122

2011 28,269

Significant minority groups

Nationality Population (2011)

 Germany 527

 Slovakia 242

 Romania 93

 Poland 36

 Russia 36

Gallery[edit]

Castle Hill

Esztergom
Esztergom
Cathedral
Cathedral
at night

The White Tower of Castle

HNM Castle Museum

Downtown Church

Watertown Church

Saint Anne Church or Round Church

Dark Gate

Ister-Fountain

See also[edit]

Siemens Desiro in Esztergom

Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest

Notes[edit]

^ Rel. Slovak striehnuť - to watch, to guard, Czech střeh – a watching position. ^ The initial form is recorded e.g. in the Chronicle of Dalimil.

References[edit]

^ "Maître Roger : Carmen miserabile". Site de Philippe Remacle. Retrieved 21 January 2011.  ^ a b c Kiss, Lajos (1980). Földrajzi nevek etimológiai szótára (in Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 209. ISBN 963-05-2277-2.  ^ a b c d e Ondruš, Ondruš (2002). Odtajnené trezory slov II. Martin: Matica slovenská. p. 222. ISBN 80-7090-659-6.  ^ "Revised Atlas of World History". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ "The history of our town". Esztergom.hu Portal. 21 December 2006. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.  ^ "Rising speed – Audi in Győr
Győr
and Suzuki
Suzuki
in Esztergom
Esztergom
to produce new models as from this summer". Budapest
Budapest
Telegraph. 15 February 2013.  ^ "CLIMATE: ESZTERGOM". CLIMATE DATA.  ^ "Sister Towns". Esztergom. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Esztergom.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Esztergom.

Official website in Hungarian, English, German and Slovak Aerial photography: Esztergom
Esztergom
(Part 1) (Part 2) Basilica
Basilica
of Esztergom The Organ of The Esztergom
Esztergom
Cathedral Keresztény Múzeum
Keresztény Múzeum
(Christian Museum) Szeretgom.hu - Online community portal, news, politics and cultural events in Esztergom
Esztergom
(in Hungarian)

v t e

Towns and villages of Esztergom
Esztergom
District

Towns (5)

Dorog Esztergom
Esztergom
(district seat) Lábatlan Nyergesújfalu Tát

Large village (1)

Tokod

Villages (18)

Annavölgy Bajna Bajót Csolnok Dág Dömös Epöl Kesztölc Leányvár Máriahalom Mogyorósbánya Nagysáp Piliscsév Pilismarót Sárisáp Süttő Tokodaltáró Úny

v t e

Komárom-Esztergom
Komárom-Esztergom
County

City
City
with county rights

Tatabánya
Tatabánya
(county seat)

Towns

Ács Bábolna Dorog Esztergom Kisbér Komárom Lábatlan Nyergesújfalu Oroszlány Tát Tata

Large villages

Nagyigmánd Tokod

Villages

Aka Almásfüzitő Annavölgy Ácsteszér Ászár Baj Bajna Bajót Bakonybánk Bakonysárkány Bakonyszombathely Bana Bársonyos Bokod Csatka Császár Csém Csép Csolnok Dad Dág Dömös Dunaalmás Dunaszentmiklós Epöl Ete Gyermely Héreg Kecskéd Kerékteleki Kesztölc Kisigmánd Kocs Kömlőd Környe Leányvár Máriahalom Mocsa Mogyorósbánya Nagysáp Naszály Neszmély Piliscsév Pilismarót Réde Sárisáp Súr Süttő Szákszend Szárliget Szomód Szomor Tardos Tarján Tárkány Tokodaltáró Úny Várgesztes Vérteskethely Vértessomló Vértesszőlős Vértestolna

Other topics

History Geography Government Economy Culture Tourism

v t e

Historical capitals of Hungary

Capitals of the Kingdom of Hungary

Esztergom Székesfehérvár Buda Temesvár Visegrád Buda Bécs Buda Pozsony Buda Debrecen Buda Budapest

Capitals of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom

Buda Lippa Gyulafehérvár

Capitals of the Principality of Transylvania

Gyulafehérvár Nagyszeben Kolozsvár

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Coordinates: 47°47′8″N 18°44′25″E / 47.78556°N 18.74028°E /

.