Escobaria vivipara
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''Escobaria vivipara'' is a species of
cactus A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light en ...

cactus
known by several common names, including spinystar, viviparous foxtail cactus, pincushion cactus and ball cactus. It is native to North America, where certain varieties can be found from Mexico to Canada. Most of these varieties are limited to the
Mojave Mojave or Mohave most often refers to: *Mojave Desert *Mojave River *Mohave people Mojave or Mohave may also refer to: Places * Fort Mojave Indian Reservation * Mohave County, Arizona * Mohave Valley, a valley in Arizona * Mohave Valley, Arizona, ...

Mojave
and
Sonoran Desert The Sonoran Desert ( es, Desierto de Sonora) is a North American desert and ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an and geographically defined area that is smaller than a , which in turn is smaller than ...

Sonoran Desert
s.


Description

This is a small round cactus growing to a maximum height of about , often remaining smaller and oblong or spherical. It is densely covered in a mat of star-shaped arrays of straight white spines long. It flowers in yellow, pink, red, or purple blooms across.


Varieties

Varieties include: *''E. v.'' var. ''arizonica'' (Arizona spinystar) – native to the desert southwest of the United States *''E. v.'' var. ''bisbeeana'' (Bisbee spinystar) – native to
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
and
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
*''E. v.'' var. ''deserti'' (Desert spinystar) – found in the desert southwest *''E. v.'' var. ''kaibabensis'' (Kaibab spinystar) – mostly limited to Arizona *''E. v.'' var. ''neomexicana'' (New Mexico spinystar) – native to New Mexico and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
*''E. v.'' var. ''vivipara'' – known as far north as
Manitoba Manitoba ( ) is a Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada at the Centre of Canada, longitudinal centre of the country. It is Canada's Population of Canada by province and territory, fifth-most populous province, with a population o ...

Manitoba


Distribution

While the species presently has a broad range across the western part of North America, its distribution in the early
Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene E ...
era is known to have been a different one. From
pollen core A pollen core is a core sample . A pied butcherbird The pied butcherbird (''Cracticus nigrogularis'') is a songbird native to Australia. Described by John Gould in 1837, it is a black and white bird long with a long hooked bill. Its head and ...
data, a portion of the
prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, ...

prehistoric
distribution of this species has been mapped; for example in the
Late Wisconsin Late may refer to: * LATE, an acronym which could stand for: ** Limbic-predominant age-related TDP-43 encephalopathy, a proposed form of dementia ** Local-authority trading enterprise, a New Zealand business law ** Local average treatment effect, ...
period, ''Escobaria vivipara'' occurred in the
Waterman Mountains The Waterman Mountains are a low mountainous landform in Pima County, Arizona, Pima County, United States. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree (''Bursera microphylla'') which species exhibits a contorted multi-furcate architecture; m ...
( Coconino County) of northern
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
, (the
Waterman Mountains The Waterman Mountains are a low mountainous landform in Pima County, Arizona, Pima County, United States. Notable among the tree species is the elephant tree (''Bursera microphylla'') which species exhibits a contorted multi-furcate architecture; m ...
are in SE
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
), although the species does not occur in this location in the present time.C. Michael Hogan. 2009 In the US state of
Minnesota Minnesota () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Minnesota
, it is listed as a threatened species and is at the most easterly extent of its natural range; it is rare in the state and found in a narrow section of the western part of the state, where it is found growing in crevices and outcroppings of granite. It consists of one population that in the past was recorded by Lycurgus Moyer, who found it in 1898, as "quite abundant", but because of habitat loss due to farming, its numbers have declined. The remaining plants are also threatened by illegal harvesting by cactus fanciers, who plant it in
rock garden A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a garden design, small field or plot of ground designed to feature and emphasize a variety of Rock (geology), rocks, stones, and boulders. The standard layout for a rock garden c ...

rock garden
s and windowsills. File: Escobaria vivipara (7462396824).jpg, Flowering specimen near Phillips, Montana, USA File:Escobaria vivipara (4008222754).jpg, Characteristic reddish spines


Notes


References

* C. Michael Hogan. 2009
''Elephant Tree: Bursera microphylla'', GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
* ''Jepson Manual''. 1993
''Escobaria vivipara''. University of California, Berkeley
* U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2009
USDA: ''Escobaria vivipara''


External links


Jepson Manual Treatment of ''Escobaria vivipara''USDA Plants Profile for ''Escobaria vivipara'' (spinystar)''Escobaria vivipara'' — U.C. Photo gallery
vivipara Cacti of Canada Cacti of Mexico Cacti of the United States Flora of the Western United States
Flora of Northwestern Mexico This category includes the native flora of Northwestern Mexico, in North America. Taxa of the lowest rank are always included. Higher taxa are included only if endemic. For the purposes of this category, "Northwestern Mexico" is defined in accordan ...
Flora of Northeastern Mexico Flora of Western Canada Flora of the Great Plains (North America) North American desert flora Flora of the California desert regions Flora of the Sonoran Deserts
Flora of the Chihuahuan Desert*Flora of the Chihuahuan Desert — located in Northeastern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. See also

*:Flora of New Mexico, Flora of New Mexico *:Flora of Northeastern Mexico, Flora of Northeastern Mexico *:Flora of Texas, Flora of Te ...
Flora of the Great Basin Natural history of the Lower Colorado River Valley Natural history of the Mojave Desert {{cactus-stub