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''Erwinia'' is a genus of Enterobacterales bacteria containing mostly plant pathogenic species which was named for the famous plant pathologist, Erwin Frink Smith. It contains Gram-negative bacteria related to ''Escherichia coli'', ''Shigella'', ''Salmonella'', and ''Yersinia''. They are primarily rod-shaped bacteria. Many infect woody plants. A well-known member of this genus is the species ''Erwinia amylovora, E. amylovora'', which causes fire blight on apples, pears, and other Rosaceae crops; ''E. tracheiphila'', though, causes bacterial wilt of cucurbits. Other familiar species, such as ''Pectobacterium carotovorum, E. carotovora'' (another major cause of plant diseases), are more distantly related to the fire blight bacterium, and have been moved to genera ''Brenneria'', ''Dickeya'', and ''Pectobacterium''. ''Erwinia aphidocola'' and ''E. persicina'' species were both observed to be present within the floral nectar microbial community of seven different orchid (''Epipactis'') flower species. ''E. aphidicola'' appears to display characteristics of a pathogen as it had decimated fifty percent of a bean crop in Spain in late 2003. ''Erwinia rhapontici'' has been identified as a plant pathogen that produces a distinct diffusible pink pigment on sucrose-peptone agar and creates pink seeds in the hosts. It is also found to be a wound pathogen. Wound pathogens are replicating microorganisms in a wound that can cause the host injury. It is possible that the bacterium can penetrate though young pea pods through wounds or injuries and infect seeds produced in the pod, causing deformed leaves.


Species

Species remaining in ''Erwinia'' are: * ''Erwinia amylovora'' (Fire blight) * ''Erwinia aphidicola'' * ''Erwinia billingiae'' * ''Erwinia endophytica'' * ''Erwinia gerundensis'' * ''Erwinia iniecta'' * ''Erwinia mallotivora'' * ''Erwinia oleae'' * ''Erwinia papayae'' * ''Erwinia persicina'' * ''Erwinia piriflorinigrans'' * ''Erwinia psidii'' * ''Erwinia pyrifoliae'' * ''Erwinia rhapontici'' * ''Erwinia tasmaniensis'' * ''Erwinia teleogrylli'' * ''Erwinia toletana'' * ''Erwinia tracheiphila'' * ''Erwinia typographi'' * ''Erwinia uzenensis'' ''Dickeya dadantii'' was formerly classified as ''Erwinia chrysanthemi''.


References

{{Taxonbar, from=Q134827 Bacterial plant pathogens and diseases Bacteria genera Enterobacterales