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Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(4 October 1903 – 16 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. An Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
(general) in the Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS), between January 1943 and May 1945 he held the offices of Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA). He was the highest-ranking member of the SS to face trial at the first Nuremberg trials. He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and executed.

Contents

1 Biography 2 SS career 3 World War II

3.1 Altaussee
Altaussee
Treasures

4 Capture and surrender 5 Recovered evidence 6 Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials 7 Execution 8 In popular culture 9 Dates of rank 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Citations 11.2 Bibliography

12 External links

Biography[edit] Born in Ried im Innkreis, Austria, Kaltenbrunner was the son of a lawyer, and was educated at the Realgymnasium in Linz. Raised in a nationalist family, Kaltenbrunner was childhood friends with Adolf Eichmann, the infamous SS officer who played a key role in implementing the Nazis' Final Solution
Final Solution
against Europe's Jews.[1] After Gymnasium, Kaltenbrunner went on to obtain his doctorate degree in law at Graz University
Graz University
in 1926.[2] He worked at a law firm in Salzburg
Salzburg
for a year before opening his own law office in Linz.[3] He had deep scars on his face from dueling in his student days, although some sources attribute them to an automobile accident.[4] On 14 January 1934, Kaltenbrunner married Elisabeth Eder (b. 1908) who was from Linz
Linz
and a Nazi Party
Nazi Party
member. They had three children. In addition to the children from his marriage, Kaltenbrunner had twins, Ursula and Wolfgang, (b. 1945) with his long-time mistress Gisela Gräfin von Westarp (née Wolf). All the children survived the war.[5] SS career[edit] On 18 October 1930, Kaltenbrunner joined the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
as NSDAP member number 300,179.[6] In 1931, he was the Bezirksredner (district speaker) for the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Oberösterreich. He went on to join the SS on 31 August 1931, his SS number was 13,039.[2] He first became a Rechtsberater (legal consultant) for the party in 1929 and later held this same position for SS Abschnitt VIII beginning in 1932.[7] That same year, he began working at his father's law practice and by 1933 was head of the National-Socialist Lawyers' League in Linz.[7] In January 1934, Kaltenbrunner was briefly jailed at the Kaisersteinbruch detention camp with other National Socialists for conspiracy by the Engelbert Dollfuss
Engelbert Dollfuss
government. While there he led a hunger strike which forced the government to release 490 of the party members. In 1935, he was jailed again on suspicion of high treason. This charge was dropped, but he was sentenced to six months imprisonment for conspiracy and he lost his license to practice law.[8] From mid-1935 Kaltenbrunner was head of the illegal SS Abschnitt VIII in Linz
Linz
and was considered a leader of the Austrian SS. To provide Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
and Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
with new information, Kaltenbrunner repeatedly made trips to Bavaria. Hiding on a train and on a ship that traveled to Passau, he would return with money and Reich orders for Austrian comrades.[9] Kaltenbrunner was arrested again in 1937, by Austrian authorities on charges of being head of the illegal Nazi Party
Nazi Party
organisation in Oberösterreich. He was released in September.[10]

Kaltenbrunner (on the far left), Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and August Eigruber inspect Mauthausen concentration camp
Mauthausen concentration camp
in 1941, in the company of camp commander Franz Ziereis.

Acting on orders from Hermann Göring, Kaltenbrunner assisted in the Anschluss
Anschluss
with Germany in March 1938, and was thereafter awarded the role as the state secretary for public security in the Seyss-Inquart cabinet.[11] Controlled from behind the scenes by Himmler, Kaltenbrunner still led, albeit clandestinely, the Austrian SS
Austrian SS
as part of his duty to 'coordinate' and manage the Austrian population.[12] Then on 21 March 1938, he was promoted to SS-Brigadeführer.[13] He was a member of the Reichstag from 10 April 1938 until 8 May 1945.[13] Amid all this activity, he also helped establish the concentration camp at Mauthausen near Linz.[14] On 11 September 1938, Kaltenbrunner was promoted to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer, equivalent to a lieutenant general in the army while holding the position of Führer of SS-Oberabschnitt Österreich (re-designated SS-Oberabschnitt Donau in November 1938). Also in 1938, he was appointed High SS and police leader (Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer; HSSPF) for Donau, which was the primary SS command in Austria
Austria
(he held that post until 30 January 1943).[10] World War II[edit] In June 1940, Kaltenbrunner was appointed Police President of Vienna and held that additional post for a year. In July 1940, he was commissioned as a SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
in the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
Reserve.[15] Throughout the course of his many duties, Kaltenbrunner also developed an impressive intelligence network across Austria
Austria
moving south eastwards, which eventually brought him to Heinrich Himmler's attention for the assignment as chief of the RSHA
RSHA
in January 1943.[16] The RSHA
RSHA
was composed of the SiPo (Sicherheitspolizei: the combined forces of the Gestapo
Gestapo
and Kripo) along with the SD (Sicherheitsdienst: Security Service).[17] He replaced Heydrich, who was assassinated in June 1942. Kaltenbrunner held this position until the end of the war.[18] Hardly anyone knew the chain-smoking Kaltenbrunner and upon his appointment, Himmler transferred responsibility for both SS personnel and economics from the RSHA
RSHA
to the SS Main Economic and Administrative Office.[19] Nonetheless, he was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
und General der Polizei on 21 June 1943. He also replaced Heydrich as President of the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC), the organization today known as Interpol.[15] Fear of a collapsing home-front due to the Allied bombing campaigns and that another "stab-in-the-back" at home could arise as a result, caused Kaltenbrunner to immediately tighten the Nazi grip within Germany.[20] From what historian Anthony Read relates, Kaltenbrunner's appointment as RSHA
RSHA
chief came as a surprise given the other possible candidates like head of the Gestapo, Heinrich Müller, or even SD foreign intelligence chief, Walter Schellenberg.[21] Historian Richard Grunberger also added the name of Dr. Wilhelm Stuckart, the future minister of the German Interior as another potential candidate for head of the RSHA; however, he suggests that Kaltenbrunner was most likely selected since he was a comparative "newcomer" who would be more "pliable" in Himmler's hands.[22] Like many of the ideological fanatics in the regime, Kaltenbrunner was a committed anti-Semite. According to former SS-Sturmbannführer Hans Georg Mayer, Kaltenbrunner was present at a December 1940 meeting between Hitler, Goebbels, Himmler, and Heydrich, where it was decided to gas all Jews incapable of heavy physical work.[23] Under Kaltenbrunner's command, the persecution of Jews picked up pace as "the process of extermination was to be expedited and the concentration of the Jews in the Reich itself and the occupied countries were to be liquidated as soon as possible."[24] Kaltenbrunner stayed constantly informed over the status of concentration camp activities, receiving periodic reports at his office in the RSHA.[25]

Kaltenbrunner with Himmler and Ziereis at Mauthausen in April 1941

During the summer of 1943, Kaltenbrunner made his second inspection of the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp. While there, 15 prisoners were selected to demonstrate for Kaltenbrunner three methods of killing; by gunshot to the neck, hanging and gassing. After the killings were performed, Kaltenbrunner inspected the crematorium and later the quarry.[26] In October 1943, he ordered Herbert Kappler, the head of German police and security services in Rome, that the "eradication of the Jews in Italy" was of "special interest" and [for] "general security".[27] Four days later, Kappler's SS and police units began rounding up and deporting Jews by train to Auschwitz concentration camp.[27] In 1944 when Hitler was in the process of strong-arming Admiral Horthy into submitting Hungary to the Nazis during an arranged meeting in Klessheim Castle in Salzburg, Kaltenbrunner was present for the negotiations and escorted him out once they were over. Accompanying Horthy and Kaltenbrunner on the journey back to Hungary was Adolf Eichmann who brought with him a special Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
unit to begin the process of "rounding up and deporting Hungary's 750,000 Jews."[28] It was often said that even Himmler feared him, as Kaltenbrunner was an intimidating figure with his 1.94 metres (6 ft 4 in) height, facial scars and volatile temper. Kaltenbrunner was also long-time friends with Otto Skorzeny
Otto Skorzeny
and recommended him for many secret missions, allowing Skorzeny to become one of Hitler's valued agents. Kaltenbrunner was also responsible for heading Operation Long Jump, the attempt to assassinate Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt. This mission was thwarted by Soviet intelligence agent Gevork Vartanian.[29] Immediately in the wake of the 20 July Plot on Hitler's life, Kaltenbrunner was summoned from RSHA
RSHA
headquarters in Berlin to the Wolfsschanze by Himmler to begin the investigation into who was responsible for the attack.[30] Once it was revealed that a military coup against Hitler had occurred, Himmler and Kaltenbrunner had to tread carefully as the military was not under the jurisdiction of the Gestapo
Gestapo
or the SD. Since Hitler survived and the conspirators were somewhat inept, they were quickly exposed.[31] Before Kaltenbrunner had finished the summary arrests for any and all persons connected with the attempted coup, there were upwards of 5,000 executions with many more thousands sent off to concentration camps.[32] Interrogation reports were regularly sent by Kaltenbrunner to Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
(who remained constantly at Hitler's side). The police work on this case continued until the very end of the war with notorious Nazi judge Roland Friesler
Roland Friesler
presiding over the cases; many of those first military officers convicted were agonizingly killed via hanging by piano wire which was suspended from butcher's hooks.[33] As head of the RSHA, Kaltenbrunner also saw to it that many members of the conspirators' families were also murdered.[34]

Kaltenbrunner (front row, second from left) as spectator at a People's Court show trial following the failed 20 July plot.

Historian Heinz Höhne counted Kaltenbrunner among fanatic Hitler loyalists and described him as being committed "to-the-bitter-end."[35] Field reports from the SD in October 1944 about the deteriorating morale in the military and the related court-martial cases (which for committed Nazis like Kaltenbrunner indicated a lack of National Socialist commitment), caused him to seek the involvement of the RSHA
RSHA
into military court-martial proceedings; this was rejected by Himmler who thought it "unwise" at the time to interfere in Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
affairs.[36] In December 1944, Kaltenbrunner was granted the rank of General of the Waffen-SS. Other SS General Officers were granted equivalent Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
ranks in 1944 as well, so that in the event of being captured by the Allies, they would have status as military officers instead of police officials. For those who had held police rank prior to 1944, the SS General's title could become rather lengthy. Kaltenbrunner was listed on the SS rolls in 1945 as SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
und General der Polizei und Waffen-SS. On 15 November 1944 he was awarded the Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross with Swords. In addition, he was awarded the NSDAP Golden Party Badge and the Blutorden
Blutorden
(Blood Order).[37] Using his authority as Chief of the RSHA, Kaltenbrunner issued a decree on 6 February 1945, that allowed policemen to shoot people solely at their discretion and without judicial review.[38] During mid-February 1945, as things began to quickly deteriorate for the Germans, following the Allied bombing campaigns and the Eastern approach of the Red Army, Hitler was challenged by General Heinz Guderian to begin a major counter-offensive. While Hitler felt that Himmler could capably lead this effort, Guderian disagreed and insisted that Lieutenant-General Walther Wenck
Walther Wenck
spearhead the campaign. Among those present were several at the top of the Nazi hierarchy, Kaltenbrunner included.[39] After many hours of bickering, Hitler finally consented. While the initial counter-attack was successful, the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
forces and German Twelfth Army under Wenck were sent reeling two days later on 21 February 1945 by Zhukov's Soviet Red Army forces. Despite not having personally led the attack, this failure by the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
was a major blow to Himmler's standing with Hitler and from this time forward, Kaltenbrunner enjoyed a greater degree of autonomy, reporting directly to the Führer
Führer
and even forming a close bond with Bormann.[40] On 12 March 1945, a meeting took place in the Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
between Kaltenbrunner and Carl Jacob Burckhardt, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(1945–48). By this stage the Nazis were willing to make some concessions to the wishes of the Red Cross.[41] Just over a month later, Himmler was informed that SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
had been negotiating with the Allies for the capitulation of Italy.[42] When questioned by Himmler about the matter, Wolff explained that he was operating under Hitler's orders in negotiating prisoner exchanges and was attempting to play the Allies against one another; Himmler believed him.[43] Kaltenbrunner did not and asked to speak privately with Himmler whereupon he revealed that an informant claimed Wolff also negotiated with Cardinal Schuster of Milan and was about to surrender all of Italy and with it, the German southern front to the Allies.[44] Himmler angrily repeated the allegations and Wolff, feigning offense, boldly challenged Himmler to present these statements to Hitler in his presence. Unnerved by Wolff's demands, Himmler backed down and instead sent Kaltenbrunner and Wolff to the Führerbunker. The warm reception by Hitler and Wolff's open discussion concerning the fruitful negotiations with Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
must have silenced Kaltenbrunner, as Hitler sent Wolff back to Italy to seek better terms with the Americans.[45] On 18 April 1945, Himmler named Kaltenbrunner Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of those remaining German forces in Southern Europe. Kaltenbrunner reorganized his intelligence agencies as a stay-behind underground network. He divided the subcommands between Otto Skorzeny, head of the sabotage units, and Wilhelm Waneck, who kept in contact not only with Kaltenbrunner and other centers in Germany, but also with stay-behind agents in the southern European capitals.[46] Hitler made one of his last appearances on 20 April 1945 outside the bunker, where he pinned medals on boys from the Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
for their bravery, an event which was partly captured on film.[47] Present at the ceremony were Goering, Speer, Goebbels, Himmler, Dönitz, Keitel, Kaltenbrunner and a few others. Realizing the end of the Nazi regime was near, most of them eagerly parted ways. Kaltenbrunner was among those who fled.[48] Altaussee
Altaussee
Treasures[edit] In late April 1945, Kaltenbrunner fled his Berlin headquarters and made his way to Altaussee, where he had often vacationed and had strong ties. In 2014, Ernst Kaltenbrunner's nephew, Michl Kaltenbrunner, said that the Nazis had buried a treasure in Lake Toplitz. It was also the first time any related family member of Ernst Kaltenbrunner gave information in regards to their relative and the dumping of valuables by the Nazi. Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
also allegedly acted in defiance of Hitler's orders in helping to save the artworks stored in the Altaussee
Altaussee
salt mines near Lake Toplitz
Lake Toplitz
from being destroyed. Kaltenbrunner's nephew substantiated claims made by Austrian journalist Konrad Kramar in his book Mission Michelangelo that Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
allowed Austrian miners in charge of the area to remove the explosives that were planted to blow the mines up.[49] Eigruber was determined to carry out what he had determined was Hitler's desire – to prevent the artworks from falling into the hands of "Bolsheviks and Jews" by destroying everything with explosives. Working with Dr. Emmerin Pöchmüller, the mine overseer, Kaltenbrunner countermanded the order and had the explosives removed. Thus, such world treasures as Michelangelo's Madonna of Bruges
Madonna of Bruges
stolen from the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, and Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece, stolen from Saint Bavo Cathedral
Saint Bavo Cathedral
in Ghent, as well as Vermeer's The Astronomer and The Art of Painting
The Art of Painting
were not destroyed. This claim by Kaltenbrunner's relative is not depicted in George Clooney's The Monuments Men, in which Kaltenbrunner's character does not appear.[50] Capture and surrender[edit] On 12 May 1945 Kaltenbrunner was apprehended along with his adjutant, Arthur Scheidler, and two SS guards in a remote cabin at the top of the Totes Gebirge
Totes Gebirge
mountains near Alt Aussee by a search party initiated by the 80th Infantry Division, Third U.S. Army. Information had been gained from Johann Brandauer, the assistant burgermeister of Alt Aussee that the party was hiding out with false papers in the cabin. This was supported by an eyewitness sighting by the Alt Aussee mountain ranger five days earlier. Special
Special
Agent Robert E. Matteson from the C.I.C. Detachment organized and led a patrol consisting of Brandauer, four ex- Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
soldiers, and a squad of US soldiers, to effect the arrest. The party climbed over mountainous and glacial terrain for six hours in darkness before arriving at the cabin.[51] Matteson confronted the suspects alone and unarmed.[52] After a short standoff, all four men exited the cabin and surrendered without a shot fired. Kaltenbrunner claimed to be a doctor and offering a false name. However, upon their arrival back to town his mistress, Countess Gisela von Westarp[53], chanced to spot him as he was led away, called out his name and rushed to hug him. This action resulted in his positive identification and arrest by US troops. Recovered evidence[edit] In 2001, Ernst Kaltenbrunner's personal Nazi security seal was found in an Alpine lake in Styria, Austria, 56 years after he had thrown it away in an effort to hide his identity. The seal was recovered by a Dutch citizen on vacation. The seal has the words "Chef der Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
und des SD" (Chief of the Security Police and SD) engraved on it. Experts have examined the seal and believe it was discarded in the final days of the war in May 1945. It was one of Kaltenbrunner's last acts as a free man.[54] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials[edit]

Kaltenbrunner wheeled into court during the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials after a brain haemorrhage during interrogation.

At the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials, Kaltenbrunner was charged with conspiracy to commit crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity.[55] Due to the areas over which he exercised responsibility as a ranking SS general and as chief of the RSHA, he was acquitted of crimes against peace but held responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity.[56] During the initial stages of the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials, Kaltenbrunner was absent because of two episodes of subarachnoid hemorrhage, which required several weeks of recovery time.[57] After his health improved, the tribunal denied his request for pardon. When he was released from a military hospital he pleaded not guilty to the charges of the indictment against him. Kaltenbrunner stressed during cross-examination that all decrees and legal documents which bore his signature were "rubber-stamped" and filed by his adjutant(s). Hours were spent in "futile pursuit" to get him to admit that thousands of documents bore his signature; he remained resolute on this matter and even went on to blame Heinrich Müller for illegally affixing his signature on the numerous documents in question.[58] Several among the accused, particularly members of the military leadership, found the presence of both Julius Streicher
Julius Streicher
and Kaltenbrunner unsavory and ill-suited for their company.[59] During the trial, Kaltenbrunner argued in his defense that his position as RSHA
RSHA
chief existed only in title and was only committed to matters of espionage and intelligence. He maintained that Himmler, as his superior, was the person actually culpable for the atrocities committed during his tenure as chief of the RSHA. Kaltenbrunner also asserted that he had no knowledge of the Final Solution
Final Solution
before 1943 and went on to claim that he protested against the ill-treatment of the Jews to Himmler and Hitler.[60] Further denials from Kaltenbrunner included statements that he knew nothing of the Commissar Order
Commissar Order
and that he never visited Mauthausen concentration camp, despite witness reports from camp guards who testified otherwise.[61] Throughout the examinations on stand, Kaltenbrunner was argumentative and confused the court with his circuitous responses.[62] At one point during the trial, he went so far as to avow that he was responsible for bringing the Final Solution
Final Solution
to an end.[63]

Excerpt from Ernst Kaltenbrunner's closing statement at the Nuremberg Trials.

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The International Military Tribunal
International Military Tribunal
(IMT) determined that Kaltenbrunner was a functionary in matters involving the sphere of the RSHA's intelligence network, but the evidence also showed that he was an active authority and participant in many instances of war crimes and crimes against humanity. On 30 September 1946, the IMT found Kaltenbrunner not guilty of crimes against peace. However, he was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity (counts three and four). On 1 October 1946, the IMT sentenced him to death by hanging.[64] Execution[edit]

Kaltenbrunner's body after execution by hanging on 16 October 1946

Kaltenbrunner's last words were:[6]

I have loved my German people and my Fatherland with a warm heart. I have done my duty by the laws of my people and I am sorry that in this hardest of time my people were led by men who were not soldiers and that crimes were committed of which I had no knowledge. Germany, good luck.

Kaltenbrunner was executed by hanging on 16 October 1946, around 1:15 a.m., in Nuremberg. His body, as those of the other nine executed men and that of Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
(who had committed suicide the previous day), was cremated at the Eastern Cemetery in Munich
Munich
and the ashes were scattered in a tributary of the River Isar.[65][66] In popular culture[edit] Kaltenbrunner has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions, including:[67]

Edward Underdown in the 1958 British film The Two-Headed Spy. Branko Pleša
Branko Pleša
in the 1971 Yugoslavian television production Nirnberški epilog. Alain Nobis in the 1972 French television production La Tragédie de Vérone. Mikhail Zharkovsky in the 1973 Russian T.V. mini-series Semnadtsat mgnoveniy vesny (Seventeen Moments of Spring).[68] Hans Meyer in the 1978 United States
United States
T.V. miniseries Holocaust. John Moffatt in the 1981 British television series Private Schulz. Hans Meyer in the 1982 United States
United States
television production Inside the Third Reich. Christopher Heyerdahl
Christopher Heyerdahl
in the 2000 Canadian/U.S. T.V. production Nuremberg.

The character Ernie Kaltenbrunner from the 1985 zombie film The Return of the Living Dead was named after Ernst Kaltenbrunner.[69] Dates of rank[edit]

SS-Mann – 31 August 1931[6] SS- Truppführer - 1931[6] SS- Sturmhauptführer – 25 September 1932[6] SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
– 20 April 1936[6] SS- Oberführer
Oberführer
– 20 April 1937[6] SS- Brigadeführer
Brigadeführer
– 21 March 1938[6] SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
– 11 September 1938[6] SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
d.R. der Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
– 1 July 1940[6] Generalleutnant der Polizei – 1 April 1941[6] SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
und General der Polizei – 21 June 1943[6] General der Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
und Polizei – 1 December 1944[6]

Awards and decorations

Honour Chevron for the Old Guard
Honour Chevron for the Old Guard
(1934)[70] SS Honour Ring
SS Honour Ring
(1938)[70] Sword of honour of the Reichsführer-SS
Sword of honour of the Reichsführer-SS
(1938)[70] Anschluss
Anschluss
Medal (1938)[70] Sudetenland Medal
Sudetenland Medal
(1938) with Prague Castle Bar (1939)[70] Golden Party Badge
Golden Party Badge
(1939)[70] SS Long Service Award
SS Long Service Award
For 4, 8, and 12 Years Service[70] Nazi Party Long Service Award
Nazi Party Long Service Award
in Bronze and Silver[70] Blood Order
Blood Order
(31 May 1942)[70] German Cross
German Cross
in Silver (1943)[70] Knights Cross of the War Merit Cross
War Merit Cross
with Swords (1944)[70]

See also[edit]

Allgemeine SS Glossary of Nazi Germany List SS-Obergruppenführer

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Gerwarth 2012, p. 100. ^ a b Miller 2015, pp. 393, 394. ^ Snyder 1976, p. 189. ^ The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials ^ Miller 2015, pp. 408, 409. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Miller 2015, p. 393. ^ a b Miller 2015, p. 394. ^ Miller 2015, pp. 394, 395. ^ Rosmus 2015, p. 52. ^ a b Miller 2015, p. 395. ^ Zentner & Bedürftig 1991, p. 487. ^ Read 2005, pp. 461. ^ a b Miller 2015, pp. 393, 395. ^ Stackelberg 2007, p. 215. ^ a b Miller 2015, pp. 393, 396. ^ Wistrich 1995, p. 135. ^ Longerich 2012, pp. 470, 661. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 661. ^ Höhne 2001, p. 553. ^ Gerwarth 2012, p. 289. ^ Read 2005, p. 798. ^ Grunberger 1993, p. 98. ^ Breitman 1994, pp. 81–82. ^ Yahil 1990, p. 406. ^ Kahn 1978, p. 270. ^ Miller 2015, pp. 396–398. ^ a b Miller 2015, p. 398. ^ Read 2005, p. 825. ^ "Armenian intelligence agent, hero of the Soviet Union Gevorg Vardanian passed away".  ^ Read 2005, p. 833. ^ Read 2005, pp. 833–837. ^ Graber 1978, p. 180. ^ Graber 1978, pp. 180–181. ^ Hildebrand 1984, p. 88. ^ Höhne 2001, p. 511. ^ Höhne 2001, pp. 542–543. ^ Miller 2015, pp. 393, 406, 407. ^ Overy 2010, p. 388. ^ Read 2005, pp. 870–872. ^ Read 2005, pp. 875–876. ^ Moorehead 1999, pp. 458–460. ^ Höhne 2001, p. 572. ^ Höhne 2001, p. 573. ^ Höhne 2001, pp. 573–574. ^ Höhne 2001, p. 574. ^ "The Last Days of Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ "Hitler - Last Known Film Footage". AwesomeStories.com.  ^ Read 2005, pp. 891–892. ^ Bennett, Owen (28 March 2014). "Has secret Nazi treasure been hidden in this beautiful lake for 70 years?".  ^ "Hollywood rewrites WW2 AGAIN".  ^ "The Last Days of Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
— Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ Janes, Terry D. "The Nazi Redoubt-Patton's Troubleshooters By Terry D. Janes". www.thetroubleshooters.com.  ^ ": Gräfin Gisela von Westarp". 1 March 1947 – via Spiegel Online.  ^ Leidig, Michael (16 November 2001). "Nazi chief's seal found in Alpine lake" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ Snyder 1976, p. 190. ^ Marrus 1997, pp. 64–70. ^ Conot 2000, pp. 95–96. ^ Conot 2000, pp. 367–368. ^ Marrus 1997, p. 117. ^ Marrus 1997, p. 214. ^ Conot 2000, pp. 364–365. ^ Conot 2000, p. 365. ^ Conot 2000, p. 370. ^ Marrus 1997, p. 237. ^ Thomas Darnstädt (2005), "Ein Glücksfall der Geschichte", Der Spiegel, 13 September (14), p. 128  ^ Manvell & Fraenkel 2011, p. 393. ^ " Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(Character)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.  ^ ""Semnadtsat mgnoveniy vesny" (1973)". IMDb.com. Retrieved May 8, 2008.  ^ Philputt, Bill (director) (October 2011). More Brains! A Return to the Living Dead (motion picture).  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Miller 2015, pp. 406, 407.

Bibliography[edit]

Breitman, Richard (1994). "Himmler, the Architect of Genocide". In David Cesarani, ed. The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41515-232-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Conot, Robert E. (2000). Justice at Nuremberg. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-88184-032-2.  Gerwarth, Robert (2012). Hitler's Hangman: The Life of Heydrich. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-30018-772-4.  Graber, G. S. (1978). The History of the SS. New York: D. McKay. ISBN 0-679-50754-X.  Grunberger, Richard (1993). Hitler’s SS. New York: Dorset Press. ISBN 978-1-56619-152-4.  Hildebrand, Klaus (1984). The Third Reich. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-0494-3033-5.  Höhne, Heinz (2001). The Order of the Death’s Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-14139-012-3.  Kahn, David (1978). Hitler’s Spies: German Intelligence in World War II. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-560610-7.  Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.  Manvell, Roger; Fraenkel, Heinrich (2011). Goering: The Rise and Fall of the Notorious Nazi Leader. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61608-109-6.  Marrus, Michael R. (1997). The Nuremberg
Nuremberg
War Crimes Trial, 1945–46: A Documentary History. Boston: Bedford Books. ISBN 978-0-31213-691-8.  Miller, Michael (2015). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 2. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender. ISBN 978-19-329-7025-8.  Moorehead, Caroline (1999) [1998]. Dunant's Dream: War, Switzerland and the History of the Red Cross. Carroll & Graf Publishing. ISBN 978-0786706099.  Overy, Richard (2010). The Third Reich: A Chronicle. New York: Quercus Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-62365-456-6.  Read, Anthony (2005). The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-039332-697-0.  Rosmus, Anna (2015). Hitlers Nibelungen: Niederbayern im Aufbruch zu Krieg und Untergang (in German). Grafenau: Samples Verlag. ISBN 978-3-93840-132-3.  Snyder, Louis L (1976). Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-1-56924-917-8.  Stackelberg, Roderick (2007). The Routledge Companion to Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41530-861-8.  Wistrich, Robert (1995). Who's Who In Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41511-888-0.  Yahil, Leni (1990). The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504522-X.  Zentner, Christian; Bedürftig, Friedemann (1991). The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. (2 vols.) New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-897500-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ernst Kaltenbrunner.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Kaltenbrunner defense broadcast during Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trial, reported by Matthew Halton
Matthew Halton
and broadcast on April 12, 1946; via the archives of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; 2m:36s Testimony of Rudolf Hoess in the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trial Nuremberg
Nuremberg
film at IMDB Seventeen Moments of Spring
Seventeen Moments of Spring
film at IMDB Holocaust miniseries at IMDB

Government offices

Preceded by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
(acting) Director of the Reich Main Security Office 30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945 Succeeded by None

Preceded by Arthur Nebe President of Interpol 30 January 1943 – 12 May 1945 Succeeded by Florent Louwage

Military offices

Preceded by None Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of Southern Germany 18 April 1945 – 2 May 1945 Succeeded by Albert Kesselring

v t e

Major defendants at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Sentenced to death

Martin Bormann1 Hans Frank Wilhelm Frick Hermann Göring2 Alfred Jodl Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wilhelm Keitel Joachim von Ribbentrop Alfred Rosenberg Fritz Sauckel Arthur Seyss-Inquart Julius Streicher

Imprisoned (terms)

Karl Dönitz (10 years) Walther Funk
Walther Funk
(life) Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
(life) Konstantin von Neurath
Konstantin von Neurath
(15 years) Erich Raeder
Erich Raeder
(life) Baldur von Schirach
Baldur von Schirach
(20 years) Albert Speer
Albert Speer
(20 years)

Acquitted

Hans Fritzsche Franz von Papen Hjalmar Schacht

No decision

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach3 Robert Ley4

1 In absentia. Remains discovered in Berlin in 1972 and conclusively identified in 1998; confirmed to have committed suicide on 2 May 1945 2 Committed suicide on 15 October 1946 before sentence could be carried out 3 Found unfit to stand trial 4 Committed suicide on 25 October 1945

v t e

National Socialist German Workers' Party

Leader

Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
(1919–1921) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1921–1945) Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
(1945)

Related articles

Germany and World War I Stab-in-the-back myth Weimar Republic Treaty of Versailles Occupation of the Ruhr Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel German Workers' Party Thule Society National Socialist Program Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Rally Ranks and insignia Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) Beer Hall Putsch Brown House, Munich Horst-Wessel-Lied Party songs Adolf Hitler's rise to power Night of the Long Knives Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Enabling Act of 1933 NSDAP/AO Greater German Reich Hitler Youth World War II Operation Werwolf Denazification Article 21 Paragraph 2 (de facto prohibition) National Socialism German Question Jewish Question Anti-Semitism in Germany

Party offices

NSDAP Office of Racial Policy NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy NSDAP Office of Military Policy Hitler's Chancellery Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Chancellery Amt Rosenberg

Publications

Völkischer Beobachter Das Schwarze Korps Das Reich Innviertler Heimatblatt Arbeitertum Der Angriff

Members

Gottfried Feder Dietrich Eckart Alfred Rosenberg Joseph Goebbels Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Hermann Göring Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Ernst Kaltenbrunner Adolf Eichmann Joachim von Ribbentrop Houston Stewart Chamberlain Hans Frank Rudolf Höss Richard Walther Darré Baldur von Schirach Artur Axmann Ernst Röhm Wilhelm Frick Josef Mengele Ernst Hanfstaengl Julius Streicher Hermann Esser

Derivatives

Black Front (Strasserism) / German Social Union Deutsche Rechtspartei (through entryism) / Deutsche Reichspartei / National Democratic Party of Germany Socialist Reich Party

v t e

Nazism

Organizations

National Socialist German Workers' Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party
(NSDAP) Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth
(HJ) National Socialist Flyers Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps
(NSFK) National Socialist Motor Corps
National Socialist Motor Corps
(NSKK) League of German Girls
League of German Girls
(BDM) National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise
(NSRL) National Socialist Women's League
National Socialist Women's League
(NSF) Reich Labour Service
Reich Labour Service
(RAD) Werwolf

History

Early timeline Adolf Hitler's rise to power Machtergreifung Re-armament Nazi Germany Night of the Long Knives Nuremberg
Nuremberg
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Nuremberg
trials Denazification Consequences

Ideology

Architecture Gleichschaltung Anti-democratic thought Strasserism Hitler's political views Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
(Hitler) Der Mythus des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts (Rosenberg) National Socialist Program New Order Preussentum und Sozialismus Propaganda Religious aspects Women in Nazi Germany

Race

Blood and Soil Eugenics Greater Germanic Reich Heim ins Reich Lebensborn Master race Racial policy Religion

Atrocities

Action T4 Final Solution Human experimentation Porajmos

Outside Germany

United States

American Nazi Party German American Bund National Socialist Movement

Arrow Cross Party
Arrow Cross Party
(Hungary) Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party German National Movement in Liechtenstein Greek National Socialist Party South African Gentile National Socialist Movement Hungarian National Socialist Party Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
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National Socialist League
(UK) National Socialist Movement of Chile National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark National Unity Party (Canada) Nationalist Liberation Alliance
Nationalist Liberation Alliance
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in Brazil Ossewabrandwag
Ossewabrandwag
(South Africa) World Union of National Socialists

Lists

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members Speeches given by Hitler SS personnel

People

Adolf Hitler Joseph Goebbels Heinrich Himmler Hermann Göring Martin Bormann Reinhard Heydrich Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Ernst Kaltenbrunner Adolf Eichmann Joachim von Ribbentrop Houston Stewart Chamberlain Alfred Rosenberg Wilhelm Frick Hans Frank Rudolf Höss Josef Mengele Richard Walther Darré Baldur von Schirach Artur Axmann Ernst Röhm Dietrich Eckart Gottfried Feder Ernst Hanfstaengl Julius Streicher Hermann Esser George Lincoln Rockwell

Related topics

Esoteric Nazism Far-right politics German resistance Glossary of Nazi Germany Nazi salute Neo-Nazism Social Darwinism Stormfront Swastika Völkisch movement Zweites Buch

Category

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people (gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Academia

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

v t e

Heinrich Himmler

Reichsführer-SS Chief of German Police Minister of the Interior

Reichsführer-SS

Himmler's service record Ideology of the SS Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS Freundeskreis Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
("Circle of Friends of the Reichsführer-SS") Adolf Hitler Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
(Chief of the RSHA) Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(successor as Chief of the RSHA) Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
(Chief of Personal Staff) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(secretary) Rudolf Brandt
Rudolf Brandt
(Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS) Hermann Gauch
Hermann Gauch
(adjutant) Werner Grothmann
Werner Grothmann
(aide-de-camp) Heinz Macher (second personal assistant) Walter Schellenberg
Walter Schellenberg
(personal aide) Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist)

Organizations

Schutzstaffel Gestapo Ahnenerbe Lebensborn Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion

Responsibility for the Holocaust

The Holocaust Porajmos Crimes against Poles Crimes against Soviet POWs Persecution of Slavs in Eastern Europe Persecution of homosexuals Action T4 Persecution of Serbs Suppression of Freemasonry Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses Persecution of black people Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS Volksliste Operation Reinhard Hegewald Posen speeches Himmler-Kersten Agreement

Family

Margarete Himmler
Margarete Himmler
(wife) Gudrun Burwitz
Gudrun Burwitz
(daughter) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(mistress) Gebhard Ludwig (older brother) Ernst (younger brother) Katrin Himmler (great-niece) Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law) Richard Wendler
Richard Wendler
(brother-in-law)

Military

Operation Himmler Army Group Oberrhein Army Group Vistula Operation Nordwind

Failed assassins

Václav Morávek Claus von Stauffenberg Henning von Tresckow

People

Erhard Heiden
Erhard Heiden
(predecessor as Reichsführer-SS) Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
(successor as Reichsführer-SS) Falk Zipperer (closest friend) Karl Gebhardt
Karl Gebhardt
(personal physician) Felix Kersten (personal masseur) Hugo Blaschke (dentist) Sidney Excell
Sidney Excell
(man who arrested Himmler)

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67266632 LCCN: n83124394 ISNI: 0000 0000 5188 2737 GND: 119017202 SELIBR: 277453 SUDOC: 050622277 BNF: cb12653720s (da

.