The Info List - Erie

Erie /ˈɪəri/ is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States. Named for the lake and the Native American tribe that resided along its southern shore, Erie is the fourth-largest city in Pennsylvania, as well as the largest city in Northwestern Pennsylvania,[5] with a population of 101,786 at the 2010 census.[6] The estimated population in 2016 had decreased to 98,593.[4] The Erie metropolitan area, equivalent to all of Erie County, consists of 276,207 residents. The Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area has a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census. Erie is halfway between the cities of Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, and due north of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Erie's manufacturing sector remains prominent in the local economy, though health care, higher education, technology, service industries and tourism are emerging as significant economic drivers. Over four million people visit Erie during summer months for recreation at Presque Isle State Park, as well as attractions such as an indoor water park, Waldameer Park, and the casino and horse racetrack named for the state park. Erie is known as the "Flagship City" because of its status as the home port of Oliver Hazard Perry's flagship Niagara.[7] The city has also been called the "Gem City" because of the sparkling lake.[7] Erie won the All-America City Award
All-America City Award
in 1972, and in 2012 hosted the Perry 200,[8] a commemoration, celebrating 200 years of peace between England, America and Canada following the War of 1812
War of 1812
and Battle of Lake Erie.


1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics and religion 4 Economy 5 Utilities 6 Arts and culture 7 Media 8 Sports 9 Recreation 10 Government 11 Education 12 Transportation 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 References 16 Sources 17 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Erie, Pennsylvania Cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs in this area for thousands of years, taking advantage of the rich resources. The Sommerheim Park Archaeological District
Sommerheim Park Archaeological District
in Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania
west of the city, includes artifacts from the Archaic period in the Americas, as well as from the Early and Middle Woodland Period, roughly a span from 8,000 BCE to 500 CE. The historic Iroquoian-speaking Erie Nation
Erie Nation
occupied this area before being defeated by the five nations of the Iroquois
Confederacy in the 17th century during the Beaver Wars. The Iroquois
tribes had developed and five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century. The Erie area became controlled by the Seneca, "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were largely based in present-day New York. Europeans first arrived as settlers in the region when the French constructed Fort Presque Isle
Fort Presque Isle
near present-day Erie in 1753, as part of their effort to defend New France
New France
against the encroaching British colonists. The name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into Lake Erie, now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term "presque-isle" means peninsula (literally, "almost an island"). When the French abandoned the fort in 1760 during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), it was the last post they held west of Niagara. The British established a garrison at the fort at Presque Isle that same year, three years before the end of the French and Indian War.[9] Erie is in what was the disputed Erie Triangle, a tract of land comprising 202,187 acres in the northwest corner of Pennsylvania fronting Lake Erie
Lake Erie
that was claimed after the American Revolutionary War by the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Connecticut
(as part of its Western Reserve), and Massachusetts. The Iroquois
claimed ownership first so a conference was arranged for on January 9, 1789 wherein representatives from the Iroquois
signed a deed relinquishing their ownership of the land.[10] The price for it was $2,000 from Pennsylvania
and $1,200 from the federal government. The Seneca Nation separately settled land claims against Pennsylvania
in February 1791 for the sum of $800. It became apart of Pennsylvania
on March 3, 1792, after Connecticut, Massachusetts
and New York relinquished their rights to the land and sold the land to Pennsylvania
for 75 cents per acre or a total of $151,640.25 in continental certificates.[11]

The Battle of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
played a role in the history of Erie.

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania
commissioned the surveying of land near Presque Isle through an act passed on April 18, 1795. Andrew Ellicott, who completed Pierre Charles L'Enfant's survey of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and helped resolve the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, arrived to begin the survey and lay out the plan for the city in June 1795. Initial settlement of the area began that year.[11][12] Lt. Colonel Seth Reed
Seth Reed
and his family moved to the Erie area from Geneva, New York; they were Yankees from Uxbridge, Massachusetts. They became the first European-American settlers of Erie, settling at what became known as "Presque Isle". President James Madison
James Madison
began the construction of a naval fleet during the War of 1812
War of 1812
to gain control of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
from the British. Daniel Dobbins of Erie and Noah Brown of Boston
were notable shipbuilders who led construction of four schooner−rigged gunboats and two brigs. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry
Oliver Hazard Perry
arrived from Rhode Island and led the squadron to success in the historic Battle of Lake Erie.[13]

State and 9th Streets in downtown Erie during the early 1920s

Erie was an important shipbuilding, fishing, and railroad hub during the mid-19th century. The city was the site where three sets of track gauges met. While the delays engendered cargo troubles for commerce and travel, they provided much-needed local jobs in Erie. When a national standardized gauge was proposed, those jobs, and the importance of the rail hub itself, were put in jeopardy. In an event known as the Erie Gauge War, the citizens of Erie, led by the mayor, set fire to bridges, ripped up track and rioted to try to stop the standardization.[14] On August 3, 1915, the Mill Creek (Lake Erie)
Mill Creek (Lake Erie)
flooded downtown Erie. A culvert, or a tunnel, was blocked by debris, and collapsed.[15] A four-block reservoir, caused by torrential downpours, had formed behind it. The resulting deluge destroyed 225 houses and killed 36 people.[15] After the flood, Mayor Miles Brown Kitts had the Mill Creek directed into another larger culvert, constructed under more than 2 miles of city, before emptying into Presque Isle Bay
Presque Isle Bay
on the city's lower east side. Downtown Erie continued to grow for most of the 20th century, based on its manufacturing base. It attracted numerous waves of European immigrants for industrial jobs. Erie's economy began to suffer in the latter part of the 20th century as industrial restructuring took place and jobs moved out of the area; it was considered part of the Rust Belt. The importance of American manufacturing, US steel and coal production, and commercial fishing began to gradually decline.[16] before resulting in a major population downturn in the 1970s.[16] With the advent of the automobile age after World War II
World War II
and government subsidies for highway construction, thousands of residents left Erie for suburbs such as Millcreek Township, which now has 55,000 residents.[16] This caused a decline in retail businesses, some of which followed to the suburbs. Reflecting this perceived decline, Erie is occasionally referred to by residents as "The Mistake on the Lake" or "Dreary Erie".[17] Erie won the All-America City Award
All-America City Award
in 1972, and was a finalist in 1961, 1994, 1995 and 2009.[18][19]

of downtown Erie in 1912, looking West along the 15th Street tracks. The tallest steeple to the north of the tracks is St. Peter Cathedral


Mill Creek passes through the middle of the Erie Zoo.

Erie is situated in northwestern Pennsylvania
at 42°6′52″N 80°4′34″W / 42.11444°N 80.07611°W / 42.11444; -80.07611 (42.114507, -80.076213),[20] on the southern shore of Lake Erie across from the Canadian province of Ontario. It is 100 miles (160 km) northeast of Cleveland, Ohio, 90 miles (140 km) southwest of Buffalo, New York, and 128 miles (206 km) north of Pittsburgh. Erie's bedrock is Devonian
shale and siltstone, overlain by glacial tills and stratified drift. Stream drainage in the city flows northward into Lake Erie, then through Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
into the St. Lawrence River, and out to the Atlantic Ocean. South of Erie is a drainage divide, beyond which most of the streams in western Pennsylvania
flow south into the Allegheny or Ohio rivers.[21] Lake Erie is about 571 feet above sea level, while the city of Erie is about 728 feet above sea level. According to the United States
United States
Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.3 square miles (49.9 km2), with 19.1 square miles (49.4 km2) being land and the remaining 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2), or 1.03%, being water.[6] Presque Isle State Park (known to the locals as "The Peninsula"), juts into Lake Erie
Lake Erie
just north of the city limits and has 7 miles (11 km) of public beaches, wetlands, and fishing sites.

A road map of Erie showing the major routes that travel through it

Erie is laid out in a grid surrounding Perry Square
Perry Square
in the downtown area.[22] The downtown buildings are separated from the waterfront by the Bayfront Parkway.[22] The tallest structure in Erie is St. Peter Cathedral at 265 feet (81 m), and the tallest building is Renaissance Centre at 198 feet (60 m). Erie has generally small ethnic neighborhoods including a Little Italy. South of 38th Street, the grid gives way to curvilinear roads of post-1970 suburban development. Millcreek Township and upper Peach Street
Peach Street
in Summit Township include the Erie metropolitan area's newer developments. Most of the cityscape includes renovated and refurbished factory buildings, mid−rise housing, single family homes, and office buildings. Erie's waterfront includes the Burger King Amphitheater and surrounding parkland, which hosts numerous festivals. The Bayfront Convention Center is on Sassafras Pier next to Dobbins Landing. The Bicentennial Tower
Bicentennial Tower
is centrally located in the skyline when viewed from Presque Isle State Park, with the high-rise and mid-rise buildings flanking the higher ground behind and to the east and west sides. On the east end of the waterfront, the Erie Maritime Museum
Erie Maritime Museum
and the city's main library, and third largest in Pennsylvania, host the USS Niagara. Docks and marinas fill the freshwater shoreline in between. Climate[edit] The climate of Erie is typical of the Great Lakes. Erie is located in the snow belt that stretches from Cleveland
to Syracuse and Watertown; accordingly, its winters are typically cold, with heavy lake effect snow, but also with occasional stretches of mild weather that cause accumulated snow to melt. Erie lies on the typical humid continental zone (Köppen Dfa).[23] The city experiences a full range of weather events, including snow, ice, rain, thunderstorms and fog. The city's lakeside location helps to temper summer heat, with an average of only 3.8 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually, and the highest temperature ever recorded was 100 °F (38 °C) on June 25, 1988. There is an average of 2.5 days with lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or colder annually, and the lowest temperature ever recorded was −18 °F (−28 °C) on January 19, 1994 and February 16, 2015.[24] Erie is 6th on The Daily Beast's list of snowiest places in the United States, averaging 78.7 inches (200 cm);[25] however, the 1981–2010 normal seasonal snowfall is 100.8 inches (256 cm). The adverse winter conditions caused USAir Flight 499 to overrun the runway at Erie International Airport
Erie International Airport
in 1986, and caused whiteouts that were responsible for a 50-car pile-up on Interstate 90.[26][27] On December 24 and December 25, 2017, Erie received 53 inches (135 cm) of snowfall, breaking a record for the largest two-day snowfall anywhere in the state of Pennsylvania.[28][29] During the 2013–2014 snow season, Erie was the city that received the most snow of any city in the United States; Erie received 138.4 inches (352 cm) of snow that season. According to the National Weather service, Erie was ahead of Syracuse, New York, by 6 inches (15 cm) of snow.[30]

Climate data for Erie, Pennsylvania
(Erie International Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1873–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °F (°C) 73 (23) 77 (25) 82 (28) 89 (32) 91 (33) 100 (38) 99 (37) 96 (36) 99 (37) 89 (32) 82 (28) 75 (24) 100 (38)

Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.5 (13.6) 57.8 (14.3) 71.1 (21.7) 79.6 (26.4) 83.5 (28.6) 89.7 (32.1) 90.5 (32.5) 89.4 (31.9) 85.7 (29.8) 78.1 (25.6) 69.2 (20.7) 58.4 (14.7) 92.3 (33.5)

Average high °F (°C) 33.7 (0.9) 35.5 (1.9) 43.8 (6.6) 56.1 (13.4) 66.6 (19.2) 75.7 (24.3) 79.8 (26.6) 78.6 (25.9) 71.9 (22.2) 60.8 (16) 49.9 (9.9) 38.1 (3.4) 57.5 (14.2)

Average low °F (°C) 20.8 (−6.2) 21.1 (−6.1) 27.5 (−2.5) 38.1 (3.4) 48.2 (9) 58.4 (14.7) 63.5 (17.5) 62.5 (16.9) 55.8 (13.2) 45.3 (7.4) 36.6 (2.6) 26.6 (−3) 42.0 (5.6)

Mean minimum °F (°C) 2.6 (−16.3) 3.2 (−16) 10.4 (−12) 25.1 (−3.8) 34.8 (1.6) 44.9 (7.2) 52.5 (11.4) 51.3 (10.7) 43.4 (6.3) 32.5 (0.3) 24.3 (−4.3) 10.6 (−11.9) −1.3 (−18.5)

Record low °F (°C) −18 (−28) −18 (−28) −9 (−23) 7 (−14) 26 (−3) 32 (0) 44 (7) 37 (3) 33 (1) 23 (−5) 6 (−14) −11 (−24) −18 (−28)

Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.95 (74.9) 2.39 (60.7) 2.95 (74.9) 3.33 (84.6) 3.44 (87.4) 3.76 (95.5) 3.54 (89.9) 3.47 (88.1) 4.61 (117.1) 4.05 (102.9) 3.93 (99.8) 3.74 (95) 42.16 (1,070.9)

Average snowfall inches (cm) 29.6 (75.2) 18.2 (46.2) 13.7 (34.8) 3.2 (8.1) Trace 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.2 (0.5) 8.5 (21.6) 27.5 (69.9) 100.9 (256.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 19.6 15.0 14.3 13.9 12.8 11.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 13.4 15.5 19.2 166.4

Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 16.5 11.7 8.0 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 4.4 13.6 57.1

Average relative humidity (%) 74.5 75.4 71.9 67.9 68.9 71.3 71.7 74.0 74.5 71.1 72.3 75.0 72.4

Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990)[24][31][32]

Demographics and religion[edit] Main article: Demographics of Erie, Pennsylvania

Demographics of Erie compared on the state and national levels, as of 2010[update] Census

Erie Pennsylvania United States

Total population 101,786 12,702,379 308,745,538

Population %±, 2000−2010 −1.9% +3.4% +9.7%

Population density 4,631.7/sq mi (1,788.3/km2) 283.4/sq mi (109.4/km2) 87.3/sq mi (33.7/km2)

Median household income (1999) $28,387 $34,619 $41,994

Bachelor's degree or higher 17.4% 22.4% 24.4%

Foreign born 5.8% 5.0% 11.0%

White (non-Hispanic) 75.0% 81.9% 72.4%

Black 19.7% 10.8% 12.6%

Hispanic (any race) 6.9% 5.7% 16.3%

Asian 1.5% 2.7% 4.8%

As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census, there were 101,786 people,[1] 40,913 households, and 22,915 families residing in the city.[33] There were 44,790 housing units at an average vacancy rate of 8 percent. Erie has long been declining in population due to the departure of factories and dependent businesses.[34] The city has lost approximately 40,000 people since the early 1960s, allowing Allentown to claim the position as Pennsylvania's third-largest city behind Philadelphia
and Pittsburgh.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 81

1810 394


1820 635


1830 1,465


1840 3,412


1850 5,858


1860 9,419


1870 19,646


1880 27,737


1890 40,634


1900 52,733


1910 66,525


1920 93,372


1930 115,967


1940 116,955


1950 130,803


1960 138,440


1970 129,231


1980 119,123


1990 108,718


2000 103,717


2010 101,786


Est. 2016 98,593 [4] −3.1%

U.S. Decennial Census[35] 2013 Estimate[36]

Erie's population was spread evenly among all age groups, with the median being 34. About 13% of families and 19% of the population were below the poverty line. Most of the people who reside in Erie are of European descent.[37] Since the mid-1990s, the International Institute of Erie (IIE), founded in 1919, has helped with the resettlement of refugees from Bosnia, Eritrea, Ghana, Iraq, Kosovo, Liberia, Nepal, Somalia, Sudan, the former Soviet Union, Syria, and Vietnam. The inclusion of refugees in Erie's community augments religious diversity and prompts community events such as cultural festivals.[38] It is estimated that 20% of the city's population has refugee background, as of 2018. In the early 20th century, Erie had a significant Russian immigrant community, many members of which worked in the shipbuilding plants along the bayfront. Unusual for a Great Lakes
Great Lakes
city, a substantial number of these Russian immigrants were priestless (Bespopovtsy) Old Believers. In 1983, most of this community united with the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
Outside Russia and became an Old Ritualist priest within the canonical Orthodox Church.[39] Even today, the gold-domed Church of the Nativity,[40] on the bayfront near the former heart of the Russian community, is an Old Ritualist church and home parish to the famed iconographer Fr. Theodore Jurewicz.[41]

Catholic influence is felt beyond the parish in Erie; here, at entrance to Mercyhurst University.

Erie has a Jewish
community that is over 150 years old. Temple Anshe Hesed, a member of the Union for Reform Judaism, is served by its spiritual leader, Rabbi John L. Bush.[42] Congregation Brith Sholom (The Jewish
Center) is affiliated with the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, and Rabbi Leonard Lifshen has been its spiritual leader since 1989. Erie is home to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Erie, covering 13 counties—at 9,936 square miles (25,734 km2), it is the largest in the state in area. Its diocesan seat is Saint Peter Cathedral in Erie, which has a 265-foot (81 m) central tower flanked by two 150-foot (46 m) towers. Since October 1, 2012, Lawrence Thomas Persico
Lawrence Thomas Persico
has been the Bishop of Erie; Donald Trautman is the Bishop Emeritus
Bishop Emeritus
of the diocese.[43] According to the Association of Religion Date Archives,[44] Erie County had a total population of 280,843 people in 2000, of which 103,333 claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church, 40,301 with mainline Protestant houses of worship, and 12,980 with evangelical Protestant churches. Based on findings from the 2016 U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, the CDC’s mortality rate data, incarceration rates, etc.,[45] the City of Erie was determined to be the worst city to live for black Americans.[46] Angela McNair (a representative of the Erie City School District
Erie City School District
school board[47]) disagrees with 24/7 Wall St., the Delaware-based financial news and opinion company that ranked Erie as the worst city for black Americans. Erie-Times News reviewed the data that 24/7 WALL ST used and found that their calculations differed.[48] Erie has been criticized for neglecting the poorer sections of the city, where mostly blacks, Latinos, and refugees are located, with the condemned McBride Viaduct bridge linking the two poorest sections. Only 8 of the 173 police officers are minorities.[49] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Erie, Pennsylvania

Erie Forge & Steel factory in Erie at 16th and Greengarden Streets.

Erie is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's primary access point to Lake Erie, the Great Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The city emerged as a maritime center after the American Revolution, then as a railroad hub during the great American westward expansion. Erie became an important city for iron and steel manufacturing during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and thrived well into the 20th century with firms like Griswold Manufacturing, once the leader in cast iron cookware. While only GE Transportation
GE Transportation
diesel-electric locomotive building remains [clarification needed] (will be relocated to Fort Worth, Texas in 2018) from the ranks of the large manufacturers in the early 21st century, a more diverse mix of mid-sized industries has emerged. This broader economic base includes not only smaller and more agile steel and plastic plants, but also a vigorous service sector: health, insurance and tourism. Erie is the corporate headquarters of the Erie Insurance Group, and Marquette Savings Bank. Lord Corporation was founded and has major operations in Erie.[50] Along with GE and Erie Insurance, major employers in the county include the county, state and federal governments, as well as the Erie City School District.[51]

Sunset at Presque Isle State Park; the peninsula is a major tourist attraction

Over 10 percent of the USA's plastics are manufactured or finished in Erie-based plastics plants.[7] Erie is an emerging center for biofuels and environmental research, producing over 45 million U.S. gallons of biofuel a year.[52] Tourism plays an increasingly important role in the local economy with over 4 million people visiting Presque Isle State Park
Presque Isle State Park
and other attractions. Shoppers from Ohio, New York, and the Canadian province of Ontario frequent the Millcreek Mall
Millcreek Mall
and Peach Street
Peach Street
stores and attractions as a result of Pennsylvania's tax exemption on clothing. Both UPMC Hamot
UPMC Hamot
and Saint Vincent Health System
Saint Vincent Health System
are also major employers in Erie.[51] Although both of these hospitals had been stand-alone Erie entities, Hamot merged with the University of Pittsburgh
Medical Center in 2011[53] and Saint Vincent, which affiliated with the Cleveland
Clinic in 2012,[54] merged with Highmark's Allegheny Health Network in 2013.[55] The United States Department of Veterans Affairs operates the Erie Veterans Affairs Medical Center on East 38th Street. The Shriners International
Shriners International
has operated Shriners Hospital for Children
Shriners Hospital for Children
in Erie since 1927.[56] Utilities[edit] The Erie Water Works, which was incorporated in 1865 as the Erie Water and Gas Company, includes a reservoir, two water treatment plants, and an elaborate water works and pipe network that provides water for most of the city and suburbs. Penelec, a subsidiary of FirstEnergy, supplies electricity to the region, as well as the Northwestern Pennsylvania
Rural Electric Cooperative. Time Warner Cable
Time Warner Cable
became the region's cable television provider, after taking over Adelphia, and also provides digital phone and high-speed internet to the region. Local telephone and high speed internet service is also provided by Verizon. Sewage service in Erie is provided by the Erie Sewer Authority, and many outlying townships have partnerships with the Sewer Authority for service. The Authority cleans about 30−40 million US gallons (150,000 m3) of wastewater every day.[57] The time and temperature number in Erie is 452-6311 and was originally discontinued by Verizon
in October 2008 before being restarted by a private individual two years later.[58] The city of Erie and northwest Pennsylvania
is located in area code 814. On December 16, 2010, the Pennsylvania
Public Utility Commission (PUC) voted to split the area code, which was to take effect February 1, 2012.[59] The North American Numbering Plan
North American Numbering Plan
decided that northwest Pennsylvania would receive the new code of 582. A local grassroots coalition began organizing an opposition to the plan, and generated numerous petitions for reconsideration. The PUC immediately voted to review their decision and ordered additional public input hearings and technical conferences as a response to the strong public outcry.[60] In January 2011, the PUC announced that it was placing the entire area code split plan on hold as NEUSTAR pushed the projected exhaustion date back two years to 2015.[61] Arts and culture[edit]

The iconic Boston
Store in downtown Erie

Erie is home to several professional and amateur performing-arts groups. The most significant is the Erie Philharmonic, in continuous existence since 1913 (with the exception of an interregnum during World War II). This group of professional musicians also has a full chorus and a Junior Philharmonic division that tours the area. The Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Ballet is a professional company that performs well-known programs throughout the year.[62] The Erie Civic Music Association attracts, sponsors, and books performances by professional musicians, singers, entertainers, and ensembles from around the world.[63] The Erie Art Museum
Erie Art Museum
is the city's main art gallery, located in the Old Customshouse on State Street. Its collection has an emphasis on folk art and modern art and it hosts a popular blues and jazz concert series. The Erie Art Museum
Erie Art Museum
also works on public art projects in an effort to revitalize and improve the city. In 2000, the Erie Art Museum created a project entitled GoFish, similar to CowParade. 95 fiberglass fish were decorated by Erie artists and placed throughout the city. Patrons paid $3,000 for a fish and the proceeds went to Gannon University's Scholarship Fund and the Erie Public Art Endowment Fund.[64] The Erie Art Museum
Erie Art Museum
created a similar public art project in 2004 that involved frogs rather than fish.[65] In 2012, the Erie Art Museum began a project to create forty artistic and functional bike racks, designed and created by local artists.[66] The museum's intentions are to add color and interest to downtown Erie and to promote bicycling, encouraging healthy lifestyles and environmental awareness.[67] Downtown Erie's historic and ornate Warner Theatre hosts a range of performances. Renovated in the 1980s and again in 2007,[68] the Warner is the hub of Erie's Civic Center. The downtown area is the home of the Erie Playhouse, one of the leading community theaters in the country, and the third oldest community theater in the U.S. .[69] Since 2007, the annual Roar on the Shore
Roar on the Shore
motorcycle rally has taken place in Erie.

The Bicentennial Tower
Bicentennial Tower
and the Niagara.

Along West 6th Street is Millionaires Row, a collection of 19th century Victorian mansions. The John Hill House
John Hill House
is one of the notable residences. The Erie Land Light
Erie Land Light
stands at the foot of Lighthouse Street.[70] The lighthouse was built in 1818 and replaced in 1867. The Bicentennial Tower, on Dobbins Landing at the foot of State Street, was built in 1995−96 to celebrate the city's bicentennial. It is 187 feet (57 m) tall and gives a panoramic view of Lake Erie and downtown. The Blasco Library and Erie Maritime Museum
Erie Maritime Museum
are its neighbors to the east. Presque Isle Downs opened on February 28, 2007, and was the fourth slots parlor in the state and the first in Western Pennsylvania.[71] Table games opened at the casino on July 8, 2010.[72] Erie has also been the location for many movies, including the hometown for fictional band "The Wonders" in That Thing You Do! featuring Tom Hanks. It is also mentioned in the film Wall Street as the location of the fictional company Anacott Steel. Erie is the hometown of Train lead singer, Patrick Monahan. Erie is also the hometown of Marc Brown, the author and illustrator of Arthur books and TV series. Media[edit]

The Erie Times-News
Erie Times-News
main office

Main article: Media in Erie, Pennsylvania Erie is served by Erie Times-News, the city's daily newspaper as well as Erie Reader, an alternative weekly newspaper. The Nielsen Company ranks Erie as 144 out of the 210 largest television market in the United States, as of the 2010−2011 report.[73] The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks including WICU-TV 12 (NBC), WJET-TV 24 (ABC), WFXP
35 (CBS), and WSEE-DT2
35.2 (CW). WQLN 54 is a member station of PBS
and also broadcasts in London, Ontario. Cable companies available for Erie include Charter Spectrum, DirecTV, and Dish Network. Erie is also served by several AM and FM radio stations based in the city, and dozens of other stations are received from elsewhere. Sports[edit]

from the first-base side, overlooking downtown Erie

Main article: Sports in Erie, Pennsylvania Erie plays host to a number of semi-pro and professional sports teams. The Erie SeaWolves
Erie SeaWolves
play AA baseball in the Eastern League as an affiliate of the Detroit Tigers. The Erie Otters
Erie Otters
play hockey in the Ontario Hockey League. The Erie BayHawks are a member of the NBA G League. The Erie Illusion
Erie Illusion
is a member of the United States
United States
Women's Football League. Hockey and basketball games are played at Erie Insurance Arena, while Minor League Baseball
Minor League Baseball
games are held at UPMC Park. Gannon University, Mercyhurst University, Edinboro University, and Penn State Behrend have active NCAA collegiate sports programs. The local high schools compete in PIAA District 10 sporting events. Additionally, Cathedral Preparatory School
Cathedral Preparatory School
hosts the annual high school basketball tournament featuring top national teams; called the Burger King Classic
Burger King Classic
since 2010. Scholastic and intramural sports are held at school and park facilities around the city. The Mercyhurst Ice Center, the JMC Ice Arena, Family First Sports Park, and Erie Veterans Memorial Stadium are many sports arenas and stadiums available in and around the city. The Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Speedway, a 3⁄8-mile (0.6 km) NASCAR
sanctioned race track is located in Greenfield Township. Horse racing
Horse racing
is found at the Presque Isle Downs and Casino located near Summit Township.

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships

Erie SeaWolves EL Baseball UPMC Park 1995 0

Erie BayHawks NBA G League Basketball Erie Insurance Arena 2008[a] 0

Erie Otters OHL Ice hockey Erie Insurance Arena 1996 2

Erie Commodores FC NPSL Soccer McConnell Family Stadium 2009 0

Erie Illusion USWFL Women's football Erie Veterans Memorial Stadium 2003 0

^ The first BayHawks franchise was established in 2008. A new franchise replaced the relocated team that became the Lakeland Magic in 2017.

Recreation[edit] See also: List of city parks of Erie, Pennsylvania Erie's location along the shores of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
provides a plethora of outdoor activities throughout the year. The region's largest attraction is Presque Isle State Park, drawing over four million visitors a year.[74] The region grows grapes and produces the third largest amount of wine in the United States.[5]

Aerial view of Presque Isle State Park. View is to the east-northeast.

Downtown Erie is surrounded by Presque Isle State Park, a National Natural Landmark.[74] The Seaway Trail
Seaway Trail
runs through downtown Erie along the lakefront. The Tom Ridge Environmental Center, at the foot of Presque Isle, features 7,000 square feet (650 m2) of exhibit space.[75] Other tourist destinations include the Bayfront Convention Center; the Bicentennial Tower
Bicentennial Tower
that overlooks Lake Erie; Dobbins Landing, a pier in downtown Erie; the Erie Land Light, and the Erie Maritime Museum, the home port of the Niagara. The 2,600,000-square-foot (240,000 m2) Millcreek Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in the United States, is located on Peach Street
Peach Street
in nearby Millcreek Township.[76] The indoor waterpark Splash Lagoon, in Summit Township, is the largest indoor waterpark on the East Coast and third largest in the United States.[69] Waldameer Park, located at the base of Presque Isle, is the fourth oldest amusement park in Pennsylvania, and the tenth oldest in the United States.[77] Government[edit] See also: List of mayors of Erie, Pennsylvania
and List of Members of Congress who have represented Erie, Pennsylvania

The Erie Municipal Building on State Street

The city of Erie is incorporated as a 3rd class city under Pennsylvania
law.[78] Incorporated under an "optional charter", the city is governed by a mayor–council government. The government consists of a mayor, treasurer, controller and a seven-member city council. They are elected to four-year terms, with the terms of the council designed to be overlapping.[78] The mayor is chief executive and the city council prepares legislation and conducts oversight. The city council meets in Mario S. Bagnoni Council Chambers at City Hall. Joseph Schember (D) is the mayor of the city of Erie and was first elected in 2017. As of March 2018[update], the Erie City Council consists of:[79]

Sonya M. Arrington Council President Robert Merski Liz Allen Kathleen A. Schaaf Casimir Kwitowski James Winarski Melvin Witherspoon

In exchange for tax revenue, the city of Erie provides its residents with police and fire protection. For separate quarterly payments, the city provides garbage, recycling, water and sewer services. The Erie Police Department provides law enforcement in the city and currently has a complement of 173 sworn personnel under the direct supervision of Chief of Police Daniel Spizarny. The City of Erie Fire Department is a full-time career fire department and employs around 150 uniformed personnel. These employees are under the direct supervision of Chief Guy Santone. The city currently operates out of six fire houses and protects approximately 20 square miles (52 km2). The city has five engines, one tower and one water rescue unit. The city provides mutual aid to fire departments of Millcreek Township, Summit Township and East County. Erie is the largest city in Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district and is currently represented in Congress by Republican Mike Kelly, who was elected in 2010. Republican Dan Laughlin of the 49th District represents Erie in the Pennsylvania
State Senate. The city of Erie is split by the 1st and 2nd Districts of the Pennsylvania
House of Representatives and is represented by Democrats Patrick Harkins and Florindo Fabrizio, respectively.[80] Education[edit] See also: Higher education in Erie, Pennsylvania Erie Public Schools enroll 12,527 students in primary and secondary grades.[81] The district has 23 public schools including elementary, middle, high, and one charter school. Other than public schools, the city is home to more than 40 private schools and academies. The City of Erie is served by one public high school, Erie High School, plus three Catholic high schools: Cathedral Preparatory School, Mercyhurst Preparatory School, and Villa Maria Academy. Erie County is served by McDowell High School, Harborcreek High School, and Iroquois
High School in adjacent Millcreek Township, Harbocreek Township, and Lawrence Park Township, respectively. Additional public Erie County high schools include: Fairview High School, Girard High School, Northwestern High School, General McLane High School, Seneca High School, Fort LeBoeuf High School, North East High School, and Corry High School.

LECOM's main campus

Erie is home to several colleges and universities. Lake Erie
Lake Erie
College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM), a large medical school, with branch campuses in Bradenton, Florida
Bradenton, Florida
and Greensburg, Pennsylvania, has the largest enrollments of medical students in the country, with over 3,000.[82]

The Erie Maritime Museum, the Brig Niagara, and the Blasco Library.

Penn State-Erie, The Behrend College offers more than 40 degrees at the associate, bachelor's and master's levels. It has an enrollment of 4400, with housing for 1800 on campus.[83] Other notable colleges in the Erie area include Edinboro University
Edinboro University
of Pennsylvania, Gannon University, a Catholic university, situated in downtown Erie. Another Catholic institution, Mercyhurst University, is in the southeast part of the city. Ranking Erie city and county officials, as well as officials of the Erie School District, began looking into the need for a community college in the Erie area in 2006.[84] As of January 2008[update], county officials and representatives of Penn State-Behrend, Mercyhurst and Gannon were in serious discussions expected to lead to the creation of Northwest Pennsylvania
Community College by September 2009. Besides accreditation issues, officials must resolve whether to use local four-year educational institutions or to build a separate site in Summit Township for community college classes.[85] Erie is also home of the Barber National Institute and its Elizabeth Lee Black School, which provides services and education for children and adults with mental disabilities. Erie is home to its main campus, and it provides services in Philadelphia
and Pittsburgh.[86] The Achievement Center also serves the needs of children from birth to age 21 with physical and mental health disabilities. The public libraries in Erie are part of the Erie County library system. The Raymond M. Blasco, M. D. Memorial Library, named for its benefactor, opened in 1996.[87] It is the third largest library in Pennsylvania.[88] It is connected to the Erie Maritime Museum, both of which are part of a bayfront improvement project that includes the Bayfront Convention Center
Bayfront Convention Center
and the Bicentennial Tower
Bicentennial Tower
on Dobbins Landing. Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Erie, Pennsylvania

The Bayfront Connector
Bayfront Connector
connects Interstate 90
Interstate 90
with the bayfront.

The last McDonnell Douglas DC-9
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
to fly for US Air
US Air
arriving at Erie International Airport

Erie is well connected to the Interstate Highway System. There are six "Erie exits" along Interstate 90, a major cross-country thoroughfare running from Boston
to Seattle. Erie is the northern terminus of Interstate 79, which travels south to Pittsburgh
and, ultimately, West Virginia. The western terminus for Interstate 86, also called the "Southern Tier Expressway," is at Interstate 90
Interstate 90
between Erie and North East, Pennsylvania. Interstate 86 continues east through New York to Binghamton. The Bayfront Connector
Bayfront Connector
runs from Interstate 90
Interstate 90
in Harborcreek to the Bayfront Parkway and downtown Erie, along the east side of the city, then connects to Interstate 79
Interstate 79
on the west side of the city. Major thoroughfares in the city include 12th Street, 26th Street, 38th Street and Peach Street. Peach is also a part of U.S. Route 19, whose northern terminus is in Erie and continues south eventually reaching the Gulf of Mexico. Other major routes running through Erie are Pennsylvania
Route 5, known as the Seaway Trail
Seaway Trail
and is made up of parts of 6th Street, 8th Street, 12th Street, and East Lake Road in the city, U.S. Route 20, which is 26th Street in the city. The city is divided between east and west by State Street.

Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority

The Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority
Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority
(EMTA) operates the city's transit bus system, known as the 'e'. Buses run seven days a week in the city, with trips out to other parts of the county occurring a couple times a week. Intercity buses providing transportation between Buffalo, Cleveland
and Pittsburgh
are operated by Greyhound Lines. Service between Buffalo and Cleveland
is also provided by Lakefront Lines. Both companies operate out of the Intermodal Transportation Center, which opened in 2002 at the foot of Holland Street. The former "Water Level Route" of the New York Central Railroad travels directly through Erie. It is now the mainline for CSX freight trains. The mainline of the Norfolk Southern Railway, originally built by the Nickel Plate Railroad, also travels through Erie. At one time Norfolk Southern trains ran down the middle of 19th Street, but were removed in 2002.[89] Passenger rail service is provided by Amtrak's Lake Shore Limited
Lake Shore Limited
out of Union Station at 14th and State Streets. The Lake Shore Limited
Lake Shore Limited
stops twice daily—one eastbound towards New York City, and one westbound towards Chicago. Erie International Airport
Erie International Airport
/ Tom Ridge Field (IATA code: ERI; IACO code: KERI) is located 5 miles (8.0 km) west of the city and hosts general aviation, charter, and airline service. Destinations with non-stop flights out of Erie include Chicago
O'Hare International Airport via United Airlines, Philadelphia
International Airport via American Airlines
American Airlines
and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport
via Delta Air Lines. Erie International is in the midst of a $80.5 million runway extension. The extension is slated to increase the runway's length by 1,920 feet (590 m), for a total runway length of 8,420 feet (2,600 m), "to meet safety requirements" as well as allowing the airport to accommodate larger aircraft.[90] The Port of Erie is located on Presque Isle Bay, a natural harbor formed by Presque Isle. It offers some of the finest port facilities for cargo shipping on the Great Lakes, with direct rail access. The Erie−Western Pennsylvania
Port Authority provides water taxi service in the summer months between Dobbins Landing and Liberty Park in downtown Erie, and the Waterworks ferry landing on Presque Isle.[91] Sister cities[edit] Erie has four official sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International:

Dungarvan, Ireland (2007)[92] Lublin, Poland (1999)[93] Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico (1973) Zibo, Shandong, China (1985)

See also[edit]

Erie portal Geography portal Pennsylvania

List of people from Erie, Pennsylvania


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United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved Aug 13, 2017.  ^ a b c "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ a b "Interesting Facts about Erie County". Erie County Government. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Erie city, Pennsylvania". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 14, 2016.  ^ a b c "About Erie". The City of Erie. 2010. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. Retrieved February 3, 2011.  ^ Speggen, Ben (2 May 2012). "Out of the Mist: The Perry 200 Commemoration Begins". Erie Reader (Vol. 2, No. 9). Erie Reader. Retrieved 1 January 2017.  ^ History of Erie County, p. 503. ^ Miller, John (1909). A Twentieth Century History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Lewis Publishing Company. p. 60.  ^ a b Nelson, pp. 103−104. ^ History of Erie County, pp 505−506. ^ "History of Erie County", pp. 299, 306. ^ Rhodes, James Ford (1900). History of the United States
United States
from the compromise of 1850. 3. New York, New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 21.  ^ a b "Erie's Blackest Day & Other Accounts of Phenomenal Weather" (PDF). Erie County Historical Society. October 2008. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.  ^ a b c "Erie Detailed History". City-data.com. Retrieved 2007-06-22.  ^ "From the Editors". ErieReader.com. Flagship Multimedia, Inc. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013. We complain about the weather. Or that there's no culture here. Or that Erie's just plain ugly. The mistake on the lake. Dreary Erie. 

Miller, Jamie Lynn (December 2013). "A Cactus Story". SaltMagazine.com. Salt Magazine. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013. Originally from Erie, Pennsylvania
— Dreary Erie, says Ron, the Mistake on the Lake — his nursing career led him to Kentucky ...  Wheaton, Kristan J. (June 21, 2013). "Erie's top competitor? Answer may surprise you". IISMU.org. Institute for Intelligence Studies At Mercyhurst University. Archived from the original on July 10, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013. No, for us it is 'dreary Erie' or 'the mistake on the lake.' We don't talk, much less brag, about how we've changed and adapted to a difficult and complex world ... 

^ Frederick, Robb (June 20, 2009). "Erie falls in award contest". Erie Times-News. Retrieved November 22, 2009.  ^ "Past Winners of the All-America City Award". National Civic League. 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.  ^ "General Geology Report 32". Pennsylvania
Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-11-02.  ^ a b City of Erie, Erie County (PDF) (Map). Type 5C. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. September 23, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Kottek, Marcus; Greiser, Jürgen; et al. (June 2006). "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 261. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.  ^ a b "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2017-02-25.  ^ "America's 20 Snowiest Cities, from Denver to Duluth, Buffalo to Billings". The Daily Beast. December 27, 2010. Retrieved December 29, 2010.  ^ "50-car pileup on snowy Erie highway". USA Today. Associated Press. January 26, 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2007.  ^ "Accident Report". National Transportation Safety Board. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-05-29.  ^ Craig, Tim (December 26, 2017). "Record-setting Christmas storm buries Pennsylvania's fourth largest city under more than 4 feet of snow". The Washington Post. ^ Fritz, Angela (December 26, 2017). "How this Pennsylvania
city got more than 4 feet of snow in just 30 hours". The Washington Post. ^ "Congratulations Erie, Pa Snowiest Big City 2013–2014". Golden Snowglobe. 2014. ^ "PA Erie INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 28, 2015.  ^ "WMO Climate Normals for Erie/INT'L ARPT, PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 28, 2015.  ^ Erie, PA Population and Races USA.com. Retrieved Oct. 3, 2013 ^ "Erie Population Profile". City-data.com. Retrieved 2007-06-28.  ^ United States
United States
Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2013.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2014.  ^ "Erie Social and Demographic Information". helloerie.com. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ "International Institute of Erie−Home". International Institute of Erie. Retrieved 2007-06-15.  ^ Church of the Nativity: Our Parish, retrieved 6-23-2008 Archived 2008-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Church of the Nativity". Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ "Russian Orthodox Bishops". Russian Orthodox Outside Russia. Archived from the original on 2007-05-18. Retrieved 2007-05-26.  ^ "Tah Erie". Archived from the original on 2008-01-04. Retrieved 2007-05-26.  ^ Massing, Dana (August 1, 2012). "New Catholic bishop named for Erie". Erie Times-News. Retrieved August 1, 2012.  ^ The ARDA Database has no precise figures on the membership of African American churches, so it provides an estimate of 25,000 members. The two Russian orthodox churches list no membership numbers. The Salvation Army lists over 4,000 members. Jews were under 1,000 and Quakers showed no membership.[1] Retrieved on June 1, 2007. ^ Comen, Evan; Sauter, Michael B. (3 November 2017). "The Worst Cities for Black Americans:Detailed Findings & Methodology". 24/7 WALL ST. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Comen, Evan; Sauter, Michael B. (3 November 2017). "The Worst Cities for Black Americans". 24/7 WALL ST. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ "Angela Euell-McNair". ballotpedia. April 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Flowers, Kevin (11 Nov 2017). "Black Erie residents react to worst city ranking". GoErie. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Kimmelman, Michael (12 March 2018). "In Erie, One City Block Is a Trek of Disrespect". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ McNeel, Rick. "Lord History". Lord Corporation. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ a b "Erie County, Top 50 Employers" (PDF). Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania
Department of Labor and Industry. September 24, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Carroll, Jim (2006-07-06). "Biodiesel could fuel economy". Erie Times-News. Retrieved 2007-07-02.  ^ Bruce, David (February 2, 2011). "Erie hospital now officially UPMC Hamot". Erie Times-News. Retrieved February 2, 2011.  ^ Bruce, David (Oct 23, 2012). "Saint Vincent to affiliate with Cleveland
Clinic". Erie Times-News. Retrieved Jan 17, 2014.  ^ Bruce, David (July 10, 2013). "Highmark, Saint Vincent formally announce deal". Erie Times-News. Retrieved Jan 17, 2014.  ^ "Imagine America Foundation". Archived from the original on 2013-08-29.  ^ "Erie Sewer Department". The City of Erie. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007.  ^ Leonardi, Ron (December 27, 2010). "Q & A with Patrick Jones, who resurrected time and temperature phone line". Erie Times-News. Retrieved July 22, 2011.  ^ "PUC: 582 Named as New Area Code for Portions of 814 Changing in 2012" (Press release). Pennsylvania
Public Utility Commission. December 21, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2011.  ^ "PUC Agrees to Further Review Decision in 814 Area Code Relief Case, Plans Additional Public Hearings, Technical Conferences" (Press release). Pennsylvania
Public Utility Commission. January 13, 2011. Retrieved February 1, 2011.  ^ "PUC puts 814 split on hold" (Press release).  ^ " Lake Erie
Lake Erie
Ballet". Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ "Erie Civic Music Association". Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ Hubert, Tom. "Baked Fish". Ceramics Monthly. Retrieved 27 September 2012.  ^ Paris, Vanessa W. (2004). LeapFrog! the Ribbitting Tale: 2004 Lake Erie Art Project. Erie, Pennsylvania: Erie Art Museum. ISBN 978-0-9709282-8-3.  ^ Erwin, Erica (14 September 2012). " Erie Art Museum
Erie Art Museum
unveils latest public art project". Erie Times-News. Retrieved 28 September 2012.  ^ "Bike Rack Public Art". Erie Art Museum. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.  ^ "Warner Renovations Unveiled". WSEE-TV. March 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ a b Erie Area Convention and Visitors Bureau (2007). "ERIE 2007–2008 All Seasons Visitors Guide". Erie.  ^ "Inventory of Historic Light Stations Pennsylvania Lighthouses−Erie Land Lighthouse". The National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2013-09-01. Retrieved 2007-05-30.  ^ Miller, George; Thompson, Lisa (March 2, 2007). "$8.9 million take". Erie Times-News. Retrieved February 3, 2011.  ^ Guerriero, John (June 22, 2011). "Table games and equipment arrives at Presque Isle Downs". Erie Times-News. Retrieved February 3, 2011.  ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). Nielsen Company. 2010. p. 4. Retrieved February 3, 2011.  ^ a b "Presque Isle State Park". Pennsylvania
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved May 21, 2007.  ^ "TREC Features". Tom Ridge Environmental Center. Retrieved 2007-05-25.  ^ "Largest Shopping Malls in the United States". Eastern Connecticut State University. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011.  ^ National Scenic Byways Program. " Waldameer Park
Waldameer Park
and WaterWorld". Federal Highway Administration.  ^ a b The Pennsylvania
Manual, p. 6–5. ^ "Erie City Council Members". City of Erie Government. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ The Pennsylvania
Manual, p. 3-162. ^ " Erie City School District
Erie City School District
Profile". GreatSchools.com. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ "Facts You Should Know About LECOM". LECOM. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2012-04-28.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-26. Retrieved 2015-03-28. . Retrieved March 28, 2015. ^ Flowers, Kevin, DiVecchio to Visit Community College, Erie Times-News, May 10, 2007, pg 6B; Exploratory trips have included visits to Lehigh Carbon Community College near Allentown, Pennsylvania in November 2006, and Sinclair Community College
Sinclair Community College
in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
in May 2007. ^ We're All Positive About This: County Hopes to Have Community College in September 2009, by Kevin Flowers, Erie Times-News, pp 1B, 2B, January 18, 2008 ^ Barber National Institute http://www.barberinstitute.org ^ "History of the Library". Erie's Libraries. Retrieved 2012-02-16.  ^ "Raymond M. Blasco Library". City of Erie. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ Hofius, Sarah; Piet, Elizabeth (June 8, 2005). "Residents track changes along old railroad line". Erie Times-News. Retrieved February 2, 2011.  ^ Myers, Valerie (January 29, 2011). "Bidding to begin on next phase of Erie runway extension". Erie Times-News. Retrieved February 2, 2011.  ^ "Erie Bayfront Transportation System". The Port of Erie. Archived from the original on November 6, 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-21.  ^ Miller, George (March 24, 2007). "Erie adds Irish Sister City". Erie Times-News. Retrieved May 21, 2007.  ^ "Erie". Miasta partnerskie Lublina [ Sister cities
Sister cities
of Lublin] (in Polish). City of Lublin. 2008. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 


"Chapter MDCCCXLIV: An Act to provide for laying out an establishing towns and outlots within several tracts of land heretofore reserved for public uses, situated respectively at Presqu'-Isle [sic], on Lake Erie, at the mouth of French creek, at the mouth of the Conewango creek, and at Fort le Bœuf". Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 3. Philadelphia: John Bioren. 1810. pp. 233−240. Retrieved August 28, 2010.  "Erie County Elected Officials" (PDF). Government of Erie County. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2011.  History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Chicago: Warner, Beers and Company. 1884.  Nelson, S.B. (1896). Nelson's Biographical Dictionary and Historical Reference Book of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Erie, Pennsylvania: S.B. Nelson.  Trostle, Sharon, ed. (2009). The Pennsylvania
Manual. 119. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania
Department of General Services. ISBN 0-8182-0334-X. 

External links[edit]

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125769299 LCCN: n79108948 GND: 4695406-5 BNF: cb1581