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Eresos
Eresos
(/ˈɛrəsɒs/; Greek: Ερεσός) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou
Skala Eresou
are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos. They are villages visited by considerable number of tourists. Eresos
Eresos
and the village Antissa constitute the municipality Eresos-Antissa.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Archaic Period 2.2 Classical Period 2.3 Hellenistic Period 2.4 Imperial Period

3 Demographics 4 Sport 5 In literature 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit] The municipality of Eresos– Antissa contains five other villages: Messotopos, Vatoussa, Chidira, Sigri and Pterounda located in the west and most barren part of the island. Bare rocky hills, derived from ancient volcanic activity, dominate the area. Skala Eresou
Skala Eresou
is a centre for international tourism and is a favorite spot of Greek families, young people as well as gay women. With its long beautiful beach with dark volcanic sand and its crystal-clear unpolluted water, Skala Eressou was awarded Blue Flag status by the Foundation for Environmental Education. History[edit] Archaic Period[edit] Stephanus of Byzantium, a lexicographer of the 6th century AD, claimed that the city was named after Eresos, a son of the mythical king of Lesbos, Macar.[2] Archaeology suggests that the city of Eresos
Eresos
was founded in the 8th or 7th century BC.[3] Information about Eresos before the Classical period is extremely scant. The lyric poet Sappho was born at Eresos
Eresos
c. 620 BCE and belonged to an important family who were socially prominent at Mytilene, the island's most important city.[4] In addition, the oldest Greek inscription on the island, which dates to the 6th century BCE, has been found in the hills above Eresos, and is thought to have belonged to a temple.[5] The remains of defensive towers and large enclosures thought to have had a religious purpose built in the decorative Lesbian polygonal style and located at the edges of Eresian territory suggests a certain degree of wealth and prosperity in the Archaic period.[6] Classical Period[edit] Eresos, along with Antissa and Pyrrha, was one of the minor cities on Lesbos
Lesbos
in the 5th century BCE. When Mytilene
Mytilene
revolted from the Delian League in summer 428, Eresos
Eresos
supported Mytilene.[7] The following year, it fell to the Athenian general Paches and, along with the other cities of the island except for Methymna, had an Athenian cleruchy imposed on it.[8] In the latter part of the Peloponnesian War, Eresos went back and forth between Athenian and Spartan control on a number of occasions. In summer 412, Eresos
Eresos
revolted from Athens and joined the Spartan admiral Astyochus in making an unsuccessful attempt to seize Methymna. When Astyochus' attempt to take Lesbos
Lesbos
failed, Eresos returned to Athenian control.[9] The following year, exiles from Methymna
Methymna
again raised Eresos
Eresos
in revolt. The Athenian commanders, Thrasyllus at Methymna
Methymna
and Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
on Samos, both despatched forces to retake Eresos.[10] This siege was called off when the Athenians realised they had been out-flanked by the Spartan admiral Mindarus.[11] Following the Athenian victory at the Battle of Arginusae in 406, Eresos
Eresos
may have fallen under Athenian control as the rest of the island did.[12] Whatever the case, in 405 the Spartan commander Lysander
Lysander
imposed garrisons and Spartan governors on the cities of Lesbos, which remained in place for the next two decades.[13] Spartan control of Eresos
Eresos
ended in 389 when the Athenian commander Thrasybulus
Thrasybulus
retook the city.[14] In 377 Eresos
Eresos
is recorded as a member of the Second Athenian Empire.[15] About 371, Theophrastus, remembered as the "father of botany", was born at Eresos; he spent hs entire career at Athens, where he succeeded Aristotle
Aristotle
as head of the Peripatetic school. From 377 down to 332, the chronology of Eresian politics is difficult to establish with any certainty.[16] Athens is thought to have lost control of Eresos
Eresos
following the Social War (357–355 BC), after which its power in the Aegean waned.[17] It was perhaps at this point that the tyranny of Apollodorus and his brothers took power. This family and their descendants remained in power until 336, when Attalus and Parmenion campaigned in the region against the Persians at the behest of Philip II of Macedon.[18] It is assumed that a democracy was set up at Eresos
Eresos
and the city enrolled in the League of Corinth.[19] In 335, Memnon of Rhodes retook this region for the Persian Empire and re-installed the tyranny of Apollodorus and his brothers.[20] In spring 334, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
invaded Asia Minor, and it is assumed that the cities of Lesbos
Lesbos
(including Eresos) went over to the Macedonian forces soon after his victory at the Battle of the Granicus in May 334; again, the tyrants will have been expelled and the Eresian democrats re-installed.[21] In 333, the admiral Memnon of Rhodes again attacked the island of Lesbos: he seized all the cities except for Mytilene
Mytilene
and installed a new pair of tyrants at Eresos, Eurysilaus and Agonippus.[22] A long inscription later set up at Eresos
Eresos
c. 306-301 by the Eresian democrats claims (not without partisan intent) that the tyrants committed many crimes, including expelling the men from the city, holding their women hostage on the acropolis, and exacting large sums of money from the populace, as well as helping the Persians commit piracy against Greek shipping.[23] In 332, Alexander's admiral Hegelochus of Macedon retook Lesbos
Lesbos
from the Persians once and for all and brought Eurysilaus and Agonippus to be tried before Alexander in Egypt, where he left their fate in the hands of the newly restored Eresian democracy.[24] The same long inscription which records the alleged crimes of the tyrants also details their trial which ended in their execution.[23] Biographical traditions of the philosophers Theophrastus
Theophrastus
and Phaenias of Eresos claims that they were involved in the overthrow of tyranny at Eresos.[25] Efforts were made by the exiled relatives of Apollodorus and his brothers to return to Eresos
Eresos
in 324 and 319 and by the exiled relatives of Agonippus and Eurysilaus to return c. 306-301, but on all three occasions the Eresian democracy was successfully able to argue that they should not be obliged to take back their exiles.[23] Hellenistic Period[edit] The history of Eresos
Eresos
after the Classical period is only known from its inscriptions, as almost no mention is made of it in the literary sources which survive. In the last two decades of the 4th century BCE Eresos
Eresos
had been subject to Antigonus I Monophthalmus.[26] After Antigonus' defeat at the Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
in 301, the region of north west Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the adjacent islands went over to King Lysimachus until his death at the Battle of Corupedium in 281. In the following decades, the cities of Lesbos
Lesbos
with the exception of Mytilene
Mytilene
drifted into the Ptolemaic sphere of influence.[27] Ptolemaic influence at Eresos
Eresos
in the second half of the 3rd century BCE is indicated by the creation of a religious festival in honour of the Ptolemaic royal family called the Ptolemaia at which gymnastic competitions were held.[28] Political infighting at the Ptolemaic court following the accession of Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
in 205 and the campaigns of Antiochus III in the years following led to the disintegration of Ptolemaic influence in the north Aegean. The power vacuum was filled by Rhodes, which soon after agreed a treaty of alliance with Eresos
Eresos
and the other cities of Lesbos.[29] In the first half of the 2nd century BCE, Eresos
Eresos
also drew closer to the other cities of Lesbos
Lesbos
under the aegis of the Lesbian koinon, a quasi-federal organisation which had existed on the island in various forms since the early 6th century BCE, but became more active in times when a common danger was perceived.[30] This period of Eresian history also saw closer ties with Rome, at this time an emerging power in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two Romans are honoured in a list of proxenoi from Eresos
Eresos
dating to the last third of the 3rd century BCE, one of the earliest appearances of negotiatores in the Greek East.[31] An inscription recording a letter sent to Eresos
Eresos
by a Roman magistrate and another document honouring the Romans as benefactors of the Greeks, both of which date to the 2nd century BCE, indicate that Eresos, much like the other cities on Lesbos, sought to forge closer ties with Rome.[32] The complete destruction of neighbouring Antissa in 167 will have been a further encouragement to do so. Imperial Period[edit] It is unclear what role Eresos
Eresos
played in the Mithridatic Wars
Mithridatic Wars
against Rome (88-63 BCE) and whether, like Mytilene, it subsequently suffered for its anti-Roman stance following victory over Mithridates VI of Pontus. However, by the reign of Augustus
Augustus
the elites of Eresos
Eresos
had become fiercely pro-Roman. There were cults to the Emperor Augustus, his wife Livia, and his heirs Lucius and Gaius Caesar, and the people of Eresos
Eresos
further honoured Gaius Caesar
Gaius Caesar
and Claudius Nero, later the Emperor Tiberius, by electing them honorary prytanis in certain years, the most important magistracy at Eresos.[33] Prominent Eresian aristocrats won Roman citizenship for their descendants by participating in the Imperial cult, dedicating altars and temples to the Imperial family, and arranging festivals in their honour.[34] A fragmentary inscription indicates that Eresos
Eresos
successfully petitioned Augustus
Augustus
in 12 BCE on an unknown matter, while in c. 7-4 BCE Publius Quinctilius Varus, the Roman senator and friend of Augustus
Augustus
later defeated at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
in 9 CE, may have visited Eresos
Eresos
on his way to Syria and conferred Roman citizenship on one of the city's prominent families.[35] In addition, numerous funerary epitaphs and other monuments indicate the existence of a permanently resident Roman population form the 1st century BCE onwards.[36] Demographics[edit]

Year Population

1981 1,494

1991 1,247

2001 1,130

2011 1,086

Sport[edit] The only sport club based in Eresos
Eresos
is a football team whose name is AO Papanikolís (Greek: Αθλητικός Όμιλος Παπανικολής), founded in 1979 and currently playing in one of local football championships of Greece, lowest leagues of Greek football. Its name was taken in honor of the captain Dimitrios Papanikolis and its main colors are red and blue. In literature[edit] Eresos
Eresos
is the setting of Lawrence Durrell's Sappho: a Play in Verse (1950), set in the Archaic period; Durrell invents an episode in which an earthquake causes a large part of the city to be submerged beneath the sea.[37] Eresos
Eresos
makes a brief appearance in the novel Sure of You, the sixth volume in the series Tales of the City
Tales of the City
by Armistead Maupin. In the chapter entitled "The Third Whale", Skala Eressou is described as a seaside town with concrete buildings and a beach of coarse grey sand. Some places in the town are described. These include the shop on the square where Mona found the key rings inscribed with the name "Sappho", the hotel called " Sappho
Sappho
the Eressian" where Mona stays in a spare, clean room with a single bed and a lone lamp, the big grey bluff at the end of the beach where more nude bathers were gathered, and the famous tents put up by the women who were part of Sappho's tribe. See also[edit]

List of settlements in Lesbos

References[edit]

^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.  ^ Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
s.v. Ἔρεσος. ^ N. Spencer, A Gazetteer of Archaeological Sites on Lesbos
Lesbos
(1995). ^ D. A. Campbell, Greek Lyric I. Sappho
Sappho
and Alcaeus (1990) x-xiii. ^ Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 48.1053. ^ G. P. Schaus and N. Spencer, 'Notes on the topography of Eresos' American Journal of Archaeology 98 (1994) 411-430. ^ Thucydides 3.18.1. ^ Thucydides 3.35.1. ^ Thucydides 8.23.2-4. ^ Thucydides 8.100.3-5. ^ Thucydides 8.103.2. ^ Xenohpon, Hellenica 1.6.23-38. ^ Xenophon, Hellenica 2.2.5, 4.8.29, Diodorus Siculus 14.74.3. ^ Diodorus Siculus 14.94.3-4. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae II2 43 B.21. ^ P. J. Rhodes and R. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions 404-323 BC (2003) 414-17. ^ P. J. Rhodes and R. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions 404-323 BC (2003) 238-43. ^ Diodorus Siculus 16.91.2. ^ P. J. Rhodes and R. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions 404-323 BC (2003) 372-9. ^ Diodorus Siculus 17.7. ^ Arrian, Anabasis 1.17-23, Diodorus Siculus 17.22-7. ^ Arrian, Anabasis 2.1-2, Diodorus Siculus 17.29.2. ^ a b c Inscriptiones Graecae XII (2) 526 ( OGIS 8 ). ^ Arrian, Anabasis 3.2.6-7, Curtius 4.8.11. ^ Theophrastus, testimonium 33A-B in W. W. Fortenbaugh et al. (eds.), Theophrastus
Theophrastus
of Eresos: Sources for his Life, Writings, Thought, and Influence, vol. 1 (1992). ^ Antigonus is the authority to whom they appeal in c. 306-301 regarding their exiles: Inscriptiones Graecae XII (2) 526 ( OGIS 8.C ). ^ The exact chronology is disputed by scholars: see R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt (1976), P. Brun, 'Les Lagides à Lesbos: essai de chronologie' Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 85 (1991) 99-113, Ph. Gauthier, Bulletin épigraphique (1992) no. 343. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae XII (2) 527 (c. 221-205 BCE), 528 (c. 175-150 BCE), Supplementum 122 (c. 209-205 BCE), 125 (late 3rd century BCE). ^ Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 120 (190s BCE). ^ L. Robert, 'Inscriptions de Lesbos' Opera Minora Selecta 2.801-31, G. Labarre, 'Κοινὸν Λεσβίων' Revue des études anciennes 96.3-4 (1994) 415–46, G. Labarre, Les cités de Lesbos
Lesbos
aux époques hellénistique et impériale (1996) 70-4, 137-45 H. J. Mason, Phoenix 52 (1998) 175. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 127. W. Mack, 'The Eresian catalogue of proxenoi (IG XII Suppl. 127)' Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 180 (2012) 219, 223. ^ Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 123, 692. ^ Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien Bd. 59, no. 136 (23-22 BCE); Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 124 (c. 1-4 CE). ^ Damarchos son of Leon: Inscriptions Graecae XII (2) 539-42 (reigns of Augustus
Augustus
and Tiberius). His grandson, Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius Damarchos son of Leon, was a Roman citizen: Inscriptions Graecae XII (2) 549 (c. 41-54 CE). ^ Letter: Inscriptiones Graecae XII (2) 531. Varus: Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 52.770. Quinctilii of Eresos: Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 47 (1st or 2nd century CE). ^ Inscriptiones Graecae XII (2) 531, 536-45, 548-9, 562, 565-6, 573, Inscriptiones Graecae XII Supplementum 47, 123-4, 127-8, 130, 693. ^ Eric Salmon, Is the Theatre Still Dying?, Greenwood Press (1985) 115.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eresos.

"Theophrastos" Association of all over the World Eresians Eresos
Eresos
& Skala Eresos Calendar of Lesvos Eressos.com

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Lesbos

Municipal unit of Agia Paraskevi

Agia Paraskevi Napi

Municipal unit of Agiasos

Agiasos

Municipal unit of Eresos-Antissa

Antissa Chidira Eresos Mesotopos Pterounta Sigri Vatoussa

Municipal unit of Evergetoulas

Asomatos Ippeio Kato Tritos Kerameia Lampou Myloi Mychos Sykounta

Municipal unit of Gera

Mesagros Palaiokipos Pappados Perama Plakados Skopelos

Municipal unit of Kalloni

Agra Anemotia Arisvi Dafia Filia Kalloni Kerami Parakoila Skalochori

Municipal unit of Loutropoli Thermis

Komi Loutropoli Thermis Mistegna Nees Kydonies Pigi Pyrgoi Thermis

Municipal unit of Mantamados

Kapi Kleio Mantamados Pelopi

Municipal unit of Mithymna

Argennos Lepetymnos Mithymna Sykaminia

Municipal unit of Mytilene

Afalonas Agia Marina Alyfanta Loutra Moria Mytilene Pamfila Panagiouda Taxiarches

Municipal unit of Petra

Lafionas Petra Skoutaros Stypsi Ypsilometopo

Municipal unit of Plomari

Akrasi Ampeliko Megalochori Neochori Palaiochori Plagia Plomari Trygonas

Municipal unit of Polichnitos

Lisvori Polichnitos Stav

.