HOME
The Info List - Era Of Fragmentation


--- Advertisement ---



The Era of Fragmentation (སིལ་ཆད་དུ་འཆད་པ) is a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th century. During this era, the political centralization of the earlier Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
collapsed following a civil war between Yumtän (Yum brtan) and Ösung (’Od-srung).[1] The period was dominated by rebellions against the remnants of imperial Tibet
Tibet
and the rise of regional warlords.[2]

Contents

1 Civil war and the decline of imperial Tibet 2 Revolts and warlords 3 References

3.1 Citations 3.2 Sources

Civil war and the decline of imperial Tibet[edit] Main article: Tibetan Empire The last emperor of the unified Tibetan Empire, Langdarma, was assassinated in 842-846, by either a Buddhist hermit or a monk named Pelgyi Dorje of Lhalung.[3][4] The assassination left two possible heirs, Yumtän and Ösung, to fight for the throne, leading to a civil war. The successors of Osung controlled the region of Ngari, while the successors of Yumtän controlled the Ü region.[5] The son of Ösung was Pälkhortsän (Dpal 'khor brtsan) (865–895 or 893–923), who would sire two sons, Trashi Tsentsän (Bkra shis brtsen brtsan) and Thrikhyiding (Khri khyi lding), also called Kyide Nyigön (Skyid lde nyi ma mgon) in some sources. Thrikhyiding migrated to the western Tibetan region of upper Ngari (Stod Mnga ris) and married a woman of high central Tibetan nobility, with whom he founded a local dynasty.[6] This civil war weakened the political authority of the Tibetan monarchy,[7] dissolving Tibet
Tibet
into separate tribes and small kingdoms.[5] Revolts and warlords[edit] The dissolution of a centralized empire allowed Tibetan peasants, dissatisfied with the political turmoil, to rebel against regional governments. These uprisings split imperial Tibet
Tibet
into a multitude of separate, autonomous kingdoms, each ruled by a local warlord.[5] The warlords constantly fought for political dominance, utilizing private armies and military fortresses.[5] Between 842 and 1247, no central authority was in control of Tibet. The period ended with the Mongol conquest of Tibet
Tibet
and subsequent Yuan rule of Tibet. Traditional accounts of the period focus on religion. The Era of Fragmentation is depicted as a low point in the development of Tibetan Buddhism, with the Buddhist monastic order facing persecution and exile. Monastic Buddhism was alleged to have only persevered in Amdo, then largely dominated by non-Tibetan peoples, and would not be conquered by a Tibetan polity until the 10th century.[2] According to this account, during the reign of Langdarma, three monks fled to Mt. Dantig in Amdo. Their disciple Muzu Selbar (Wylie: mu zu gsal 'bar), later known as the scholar Gongpa Rapsel (Wylie: dgongs pa rab gsal, 953-1035[8]), was responsible for the renewal of Buddhism in northeastern Tibet. The students of Rapsal are said to have returned to Ü-Tsang, where they re-introduced monastic Buddhism. Modern historians contest traditional views of the era, arguing that Buddhism was in fact widespread during the period, and that regional political authorities shared a close relationship with Buddhist monastic leaders.[2] References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Shakabpa. p.173. ^ a b c Schaik, Galambos. p.4. ^ Beckwith 1987, pp. 168-169 ^ Stein 1972, pp. 70-71 ^ a b c d Shakabpa. p.177. ^ Petech, L. The Kingdom of Ladakh, (Serie Orientale Roma 51) Rome: Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1977: 14-16 ^ Samten Karmay in McKay 2003, p. 57 ^ "dgongs pa rab gsal". Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center. Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center. 

Sources[edit]

Beckwith, Christopher I. (1987). The Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02469-3.  McKay, Alex (2003). Tibet
Tibet
and Her Neighbors: A History. Walther Konig. ISBN 3-88375-718-7.  van Schaik, Sam; Galambos, Imre (2011). Manuscripts and Travellers: The Sino-Tibetan Documents of a Tenth-Century Buddhist Pilgrim. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110225655.  Shakabpa, W. D. (2010). One Hundred Thousand Moons: An Advanced Political History of Tibet. 1. Brill Publishers. ISBN 9789004177888.  Stein, Rolf (1972). Tibetan Civilization. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0901-7. 

v t e

Tibet articles

History

Overviews

Timeline List of rulers European exploration Historical money

Chronology

Prehistory (Neolithic) Zhangzhung Pre-Imperial Empire (7th–9th century)

List of emperors Great Ministers Relations with Tang (618–907)

Era of Fragmentation
Era of Fragmentation
(9th–11th century)

Guge
Guge
kingdom

Yuan dynasty rule (1270–1350)

Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs

Phagmodrupa dynasty

Relations with Ming (1368–1644)

Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
dynasty Tsangpa
Tsangpa
dynasty Ganden Phodrang

Kashag

Qing dynasty rule (1720–1912)

Lifan Yuan List of imperial residents

Post-Qing to 1950

Tibetan Army

People's Republic of China (PRC) rule

PRC incorporation political leaders

Wars and conflicts

Tibetan attack on Songzhou Battle of Dafei River Mongol invasions of Tibet Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Battle of Dartsedo Battle of the Salween River Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1720) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Nepalese War Sino-Sikh War Nepalese–Tibetan War Sikkim expedition British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1910) Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Sino-Tibetan War

Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
War

1938–39 German expedition to Tibet 1939 Japanese expedition to Tibet Battle of Chamdo Protests and uprisings since 1950

1959 Tibetan uprising 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 2008 Tibetan unrest Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China

Documents

70,000 Character Petition Treaty of Chushul Treaty of Thapathali Treaty of Lhasa Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia Simla Accord (1914) Seventeen-Point Agreement

Geography

Flora

Mountains

Lhotse / Changtse Namcha Barwa Tanggula

rivers

Yarlung Tsangpo

Grand Canyon

Rongbuk Glacier Tibetan Plateau

Changtang

Nature Reserve

Valleys

Traditional regions

Amdo Kham Ü-Tsang

Ü Tsang Ngari

Politics

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) Central Tibetan Administration

Parliament

Definitions of Tibet Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Patron and priest relationship Golden Urn Tibet
Tibet
Area Independence movement Serfdom controversy Sovereignty debate CIA Tibetan program

Government

Regional Government

Economy

Postage and postal history Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Highway Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway

Society

Education Languages Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Sakya

Imperial Preceptor Dpon-chen

Nyingma Kagyu Jonang Gelug

Ganden Tripa Dalai Lama

list

Lhamo La-tso Panchen Lama

list

Bon

Sinicization Social classes Tibetan people

Changpa Yolmo Diaspora Names

Culture

Art Calendar Cuisine Dzong architecture Emblem Festivals Flag Historical and cultural sites Khata
Khata
(ceremonial scarf) Literature

Annals Chronicle writers

Music Tibetology Traditional medicine

Outline Index

.