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The 1854 revolt in Epirus
Epirus
was one of the most important of a series of Greek uprisings that occurred in the Ottoman-occupied Greek world during that period. When the Crimean War
Crimean War
(1854–1856) broke out, many Epirote Greeks, with tacit support from the Greek state, revolted against the Ottoman rule. Although this movement was supported by distinguished military personalities, the correlation of forces doomed it from the start, leading to its suppression after a few months.

Contents

1 Background 2 Uprising 3 Suppression 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading

Background[edit]

Field Marshal Theodoros Grivas.

Kitsos Tzavelas.

When the Crimean War
Crimean War
broke out between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Russia, many Greeks
Greeks
felt that it was an opportunity to gain lands inhabited by Greeks
Greeks
but not included in the independent Kingdom of Greece. The Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1821–1829) was still fresh in their minds, as well as the Russian intervention that had helped secure Greek independence. Furthermore, Greeks
Greeks
had traditionally looked to help from fellow-Orthodox Russia. Although the official Greek state, under severe diplomatic and military pressure from the British and French (allies of the Ottomans), refrained from actively entering the conflict, a number of uprisings were organized in Epirus, Thessaly, Crete, with support from individuals and groups within independent Greece. Uprising[edit] On 30 January 1854, Spyridon Karaiskakis (a Lieutenant in the Greek Army and son of the hero of War of Independence, Georgios Karaiskakis), gave a number of inspiring speeches in villages east of Arta (Peta region),[1] seeking to inspire the Epirotes
Epirotes
to revolt against Ottoman rule and join their province to Greece. The initial objective was the provincial capital, Arta, which was captured by Karaiskakis with a force of 2,500 irregulars. In the meantime, the Greek General Theodoros Grivas took a band of 300 volunteers to the villages of Peta and Pente Pigadia.[2] Apart from the region of Arta, in Tzoumerka, the revolt also spread to most of the mountainous regions of Epirus
Epirus
and a number of towns soon came under the full control of the revolutionaries: Paramythia, Souli, Tsamantas, Himara and some villages around Ioannina.[3] The revolt was also in full swing in parts of the nearby region of Thessaly. Meanwhile, a number of Greek officers, most of them of Souliote descent (Nikolaos Zervas, Notis Botsaris, Athanasios Koutsonikas, Kitsos Tzavelas, Lambros Zikos), resigned from their posts in the Greek Army
Greek Army
and joined the rebellion. However, a unit of 1,600 Ottoman troops, reinforced by an additional 3,000, managed to recapture Arta with the help of heavy artillery.[4] In early March, Grivas managed to advance further north capturing Metsovo
Metsovo
which was afterwards looted by the Greek troops.[5] At March 27, after repeated Ottoman attacks, supported by Albanian irregulars, Grivas had to retreat. As a consequence the town of Metsovo
Metsovo
was looted by these bands and a large part of it was burned down.[6][7] Suppression[edit] On April 13, a 6,000-strong Ottoman force, with the support of British and French artillery, attacked the rebels’ headquarters east of Arta, in the town of Peta. After fierce battles and suffering heavy losses, Kitsos Tzavelas
Kitsos Tzavelas
with his men retreated behind the Greek border.[8][9] Meanwhile, the Ottomans moved north to eliminate every movement in the region around Ioannina. In Plaka, a force of 14,000 Ottomans with an addition of 1,500 Albanians fought against the armed groups of S. Karaiskakis and N. Zervas. The Ottoman force was forced to retreat, with the Albanians in particular suffering heavy losses.[10] The situation started to worsen for the Greeks
Greeks
when additional Ottoman reinforcements arrived in the region. On the other hand, the British and the French forces blockaded the port of Piraeus
Piraeus
and a number of other Greek ports, making reinforcement and ammunition for the revolutionaries hard to obtain and applying further pressure on the Greek government to force the return of its officers. After a number of vicious battles in Voulgareli, Skoulikaria and in Kleidi on 12 May, the revolt was doomed and the Epirotes
Epirotes
retreated behind the Greek border.[11] When the revolt in Epirus
Epirus
was finally suppressed, reprisals started, with Ottoman and Albanian bands looting and burning a number of towns and villages. These activities ended with the end of the Crimean War in 1856.[12] See also[edit]

Epirus
Epirus
Revolt of 1878 Cretan Revolt (1866–1869)

References[edit]

^ Reid 2000: 249 ^ Reid 2000: 249 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 288 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 289-290 ^ Hammond, Nicholas (1976). Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas. Noyes Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-8155-5047-2.  ^ Sakellariou 1997: 290 ^ Ruches 1967: 73 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 290 ^ Reid 2000: 250 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 290 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 291 ^ Sakellariou 1997: 291

Sources[edit]

Reid, James J. (2000). Crisis of the Ottoman Empire: prelude to collapse 1839-1878. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-07687-6.  Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. ISBN 978-960-213-371-2.  Ruches, P.J. (1967). Albanian Historical Folksongs. Argonaut. 

Further reading[edit]

George, Dodd (1856). Pictorial history of the Russian war 1854-5-6: with maps, plans, and wood engravings. W. & R. Chambers.  New monthly magazine Vol. 102. Published for Henry Colburn by Richard Bentley. 1854.  Der Aufstand der Griechen im Epirus, ihr Land, ihre Sitten u. Gebräuche, ihre Lage unter der türkischen Regierung: Mit einer Karte. Hartleben. 1854.  [The Revolution of the Greeks
Greeks
in Epirus: their Land, Customs and Habits]. (German)

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Northern Epirus
Epirus
and Greeks
Greeks
in Albania

History

Ancient Epirus

Chaonians Dassaretae

Despotate of Epirus Revolt of 1854 Revolt of 1878 Himara
Himara
revolt of 1912 Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus Protocol of Corfu Battle of Morava–Ivan Northern Epirus
Epirus
Liberation Front

Society and culture

Greeks
Greeks
in Albania Himariote dialect Laiko Vima Polyphonic song of Epirus Postage stamps and postal history of Northern Epirus Lasso fund

Education: New Academy (Moscopole) Zographeion College
Zographeion College
(Qestorat) Acroceraunian School (Himara) Dhuvjan Monastery
Dhuvjan Monastery
(Dropull) Bangas Gymnasium
Bangas Gymnasium
(Korçë)

Settlements

Ancient: Phoenice Vouthroton Apollonia Thronion Amantia Antigonia Antipatreia Dimale Oricum

Modern: Gjirokastër Korçë Himara Delvinë Sarandë Dropull Pogon Tepelenë Përmet Leskovik Ersekë Moscopole Bilisht

Other1: Nartë Vlorë Berat Tirana Elbasan Durrës Fier Shkodër

Organizations

Omonoia Panepirotic Federation of America Panepirotic Federation of Australia Unity for Human Rights Party

Individuals

Benefactors: Alexandros Vasileiou Apostolos Arsakis Evangelos and Konstantinos Zappas Ioannis Pangas Georgios and Simon Sinas Alexandros and Michael Vasileiou Christakis Zografos Literature: Theodore Kavalliotis Katina Papa Konstantinos Skenderis Takis Tsiakos Tasos Vidouris Stavrianos Vistiaris Andreas Zarbalas Politics: Vasil Bollano Georgios Christakis-Zografos Vangjel Dule Spiro Ksera Military/Resistance: Kyriakoulis Argyrokastritis Panos Bitsilis Dimitrios Doulis Konstantinos Lagoumitzis Zachos Milios Athanasios Pipis Ioannis Poutetsis Vasileios Sachinis Spyromilios Spyros Spyromilios Sports: Pyrros Dimas Sotiris Ninis Panajot Pano Leonidas Sabanis Andreas Tatos Clergy: Photios Kalpidis Vasileios of Dryinoupolis Panteleimon Kotokos Eulogios Kourilas Lauriotis

1 Cities and towns in Albania with Greek-speaking communities, outside the political definition of 'Northern Epirus'.

v t e

Rebellions in the Ottoman Empire

Rise (1299–1453)

Sheikh Bedreddin rebellion Uprising of Konstantin and Fruzhin
Uprising of Konstantin and Fruzhin
(1404–18) Skanderbeg's rebellion
Skanderbeg's rebellion
(1443–68)

Classical Age (1453–1550)

Şahkulu Rebellion
Şahkulu Rebellion
(1511) Nur Ali Halife rebellion
Nur Ali Halife rebellion
(1512)

Transformation (1550-1700)

Mariovo and Prilep Rebellion
Mariovo and Prilep Rebellion
(1564–65) Beylerbeyi Event (1582) Jelali revolts
Jelali revolts
(1590–1610) Uprising in Banat
Uprising in Banat
(1594) Himara
Himara
Revolt (1596) Serb Uprising (1596–97) First Tarnovo Uprising
First Tarnovo Uprising
(1598) Thessaly
Thessaly
Rebellion (1600) Ioannina
Ioannina
Uprising (1611) Abaza rebellions (1624, 1627) Atmeydanı Incident (1648) Çınar Incident (1656) Abaza Hasan Revolt (1658-9) Second Tarnovo Uprising
Second Tarnovo Uprising
(1686) Chiprovtsi Uprising
Chiprovtsi Uprising
(1688) Karposh's Rebellion
Karposh's Rebellion
(1689)

Old Regime (1700–1789)

Edirne event
Edirne event
(1703) Uprising in Vučitrn (1717) Patrona Halil Rebellion
Patrona Halil Rebellion
(1730) Serb Uprising (1737–39) Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
(1770) Koča's frontier rebellion
Koča's frontier rebellion
(1788)

Decline (1789–1908)

Dahije
Dahije
in Belgrade (1801–04) First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising
(1804–13) Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion (1807) Jančić's Rebellion (1809) Hadži-Prodan's Rebellion
Hadži-Prodan's Rebellion
(1814) Second Serbian Uprising
Second Serbian Uprising
(1815-17) Wallachian Uprising (1821) Niš Rebellion (1821) Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
(1821–29) Atçalı Kel Mehmet revolt (1830) Bosnian Uprising (1831–33) Bilmez Rebellion (1832–33) Shkodër
Shkodër
Rebellion (1833) Priest Jovica's Rebellion (1834) Second Mašići Rebellion (1834) Posavina Rebellion (1836) Livno Rebellion (1836) Pirot Rebellion
Pirot Rebellion
(1836) Berkovitsa Rebellion (1836) Belogradchik Rebellion (1836) Vlora Rebellion (1836) Diber Rebellion (1838–39) Cretan Revolt (1841) Niš Rebellion (1841) Uprising of Dervish Cara (1843–44) Albanian Revolt (1845) Albanian Revolt (1847) Herzegovina Uprising (1852–62) Epirus
Epirus
Revolt (1854) Doljani Revolt (1858) Mount Lebanon civil war (1860) Cretan Revolt (1866–69) Herzegovina Uprising (1875–77) Bulgarian April uprising (1876) Razlovtsi insurrection
Razlovtsi insurrection
(1876) Kumanovo Uprising
Kumanovo Uprising
(1878) Greek Macedonian rebellion (1878) Cretan Revolt (1878) Kresna–Razlog Uprising
Kresna–Razlog Uprising
(1878–79) Epirus
Epirus
Revolt (1878) Thessaly
Thessaly
Revolt (1878) Ulcinj rebellion (1878) Brsjak Revolt (1880–81) Cretan Revolt (1896–97) Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising
Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising
(1903) Shoubak Revolt
Shoubak Revolt
(1905) Theriso revolt
Theriso revolt
(1905) Hauran Druze Rebellion
Hauran Druze Rebellion
(1909)

Dissolution (1908–1922)

31 March Incident
31 March Incident
(1909) Karak revolt
Karak revolt
(1910) Albanian revolt of 1910
Albanian revolt of 1910
(1910) Albanian revolt of 1911
Albanian revolt of 1911
(1911) Albanian revolt of 1912
Albanian revolt of 1912
(1912) Savior Officers (1912) Raid on the Sublime Porte (1913) First Dersim rebellion (1914) Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
(1916–18) Koçgiri rebellion
Koçgiri rebellion
(1921)

v t e

Reign of Otto (1832–1862)

Notable People

Bavarians: Josef Ludwig von Armansperg Ignaz von Rudhart Georg Ludwig von Maurer Karl von Abel Carl Wilhelm von Heideck

Greeks: Dimitrios Kallergis Constantine Kanaris Theodoros Kolokotronis Ioannis Kolettis Yiannis Makriyiannis Andreas Metaxas Anastasios Polyzoidis Spyridon Trikoupis Theoklitos Farmakidis

Architects: Eduard Schaubert Stamatios Kleanthis Panagis Kalkos Theophil Hansen Christian Hansen (architect) Friedrich von Gärtner Leo von Klenze

Early Greek Parties

Russian Party French Party English Party

Events

London Conference of 1832 3 September 1843 Revolution Greek Constitution of 1844 Crimean War Epirus
Epirus
Revolt of 1854 23 October 1862 Revolution

Influence

Greek legal system Greek academic art of the 19th century

Structures

National Gardens of Athens Old Royal Palace National Observatory of Athens Syntagma Square Old Parliament House, Athens

Institutions

Bavarian Auxiliary Corps Church of Greece Hellenic Gendarmerie National Bank of Greece Greek Archaeological Service Court of Cassation Council of State Court of Audit Athens School of Fine Arts Archaeological Society of Athens Greek

.