The Info List - Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

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The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.


1 Background 2 Notable commentary on the Eleventh Edition 3 1911 Britannica in the 21st century 4 Gutenberg Encyclopedia 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

8.1 Free, public-domain sources for 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
text 8.2 Other sources for 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica


Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition

The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor.[2] Originally, Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times
The Times
to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes (35 volumes total) as the tenth edition, which was published in 1902. Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, and he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is generally perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but also in the efforts made to make it more popular.[citation needed] American marketing methods also assisted sales. Some 14% of the contributors (214 of 1507) were from North America, and a New York office was established to coordinate their work.[3] The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, and a key is given in each volume to these initials. Some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the then lesser-known contributors were some who would later become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
and Bertrand Russell. Many articles were carried over from the 9th edition, some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged. The best-known authors generally contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by journalists, British Museum
British Museum
scholars and other scholars. The 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition.[4] The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica. It was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was kept in galley proofs and subject to continual updating until publication. It was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in which was added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Even though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000. It was also the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas
Stielers Handatlas
were exclusively translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes
Justus Perthes
and became part this edition. Later editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions.[5] According to Coleman and Simmons,[6] the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows:

Subject Content

Geography 29%

Pure and applied science 17%

History 17%

Literature 11%

Fine art 9%

Social science 7%

Psychology 1.7%

Philosophy 0.8%

Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck
Sears Roebuck
of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a substantially American publication.[7] In 1922, an additional three volumes (also edited by Hugh Chisholm), were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were closely related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content. However, it became increasingly apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was considerably revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics. Nevertheless, the eleventh edition was the basis of every later version of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
until the completely new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars, especially as a cultural artifact: the British Empire
British Empire
was at its maximum, imperialism was largely unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, and the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future. They are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias, particularly for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy (attribution of human-like traits to impersonal forces or inanimate objects), which are not as common in modern reference texts.[6] Notable commentary on the Eleventh Edition[edit]

1913 advertisement for the eleventh edition

has original text related to this article: Misinforming a Nation

In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+ page criticism of inaccuracies and biases of the Encyclopædia Britannica eleventh edition. Wright claimed that Britannica was "characterized by misstatement, inexcusable omissions, rabid and patriotic prejudices, personal animosities, blatant errors of fact, scholastic ignorance, gross neglect of non-British culture, an astounding egotism, and an undisguised contempt for American progress".[8] Amos Urban Shirk, known for having read the eleventh and fourteenth editions in their entirety, said he found the fourteenth edition to be a "big improvement" over the eleventh, stating that "most of the material had been completely rewritten". Robert Collison, in Encyclopaedias: Their History
Throughout The Ages (1966), wrote of the eleventh edition that it "was probably the finest edition of the Britannica ever issued, and it ranks with the Enciclopedia Italiana and the Espasa as one of the three greatest encyclopaedias. It was the last edition to be produced almost in its entirety in Britain, and its position in time as a summary of the world's knowledge just before the outbreak of World War I
World War I
is particularly valuable". Sir Kenneth Clark, in Another Part of the Wood (1974), wrote of the eleventh edition, "One leaps from one subject to another, fascinated as much by the play of mind and the idiosyncrasies of their authors as by the facts and dates. It must be the last encyclopaedia in the tradition of Diderot which assumes that information can be made memorable only when it is slightly coloured by prejudice. When T. S. Eliot wrote 'Soul curled up on the window seat reading the Encyclopædia Britannica,' he was certainly thinking of the eleventh edition." (Clark refers to Eliot's 1929 poem "Animula".) It was one of Jorge Luis Borges's favorite works, and was a source of information and enjoyment for his entire working life.[9] In 1912, mathematician L. C. Karpinski criticised the eleventh edition for inaccuracies in articles on the history of mathematics, none of which had been written by specialists.[10] English writer and former priest Joseph McCabe claimed in Lies and Fallacies of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(1947) that Britannica was censored under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church after the 11th edition.[11] Authorities ranging from Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
to professors criticised the 11th edition for having bourgeois and old-fashioned opinions on art, literature, and social sciences.[4] A contemporary Cornell professor, Edward B. Titchener, wrote in 1912, "the new Britannica does not reproduce the psychological atmosphere of its day and generation... Despite the halo of authority, and despite the scrutiny of the staff, the great bulk of the secondary articles in general psychology ... are not adapted to the requirements of the intelligent reader".[12] Critics have charged several editions with racism and sexism.[4][13] The eleventh edition characterises the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
as protecting the white race and restoring order to the American South after the American Civil War, citing the need to "control the negro", and "the frequent occurrence of the crime of rape by negro men upon white women".[14][15] Similarly, the "Civilization" article argues for eugenics, stating that it is irrational to "propagate low orders of intelligence, to feed the ranks of paupers, defectives and criminals ... which to-day constitute so threatening an obstacle to racial progress".[16] The eleventh edition has no biography of Marie Curie, despite her winning of the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1903 and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
in 1911, although she is mentioned briefly under the biography of her husband Pierre Curie.[17] The Britannica employed a large female editorial staff that wrote hundreds of articles for which they were not given credit.[4] 1911 Britannica in the 21st century[edit] The 1911 edition is no longer restricted by copyright, and it is therefore available in several more modern forms. While it may once have been a reliable description of the consensus of its time, for many modern readers, the Encyclopedia has several major errors, ethnocentric remarks, and other issues:

Contemporary opinions of race and ethnicity are included in the Encyclopedia's articles. For example, the entry for "Negro" states, "Mentally the negro is inferior to the white... the arrest or even deterioration of mental development [after adolescence] is no doubt very largely due to the fact that after puberty sexual matters take the first place in the negro's life and thoughts."[18] The article about the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
attributes the success of the United States in part to "a population mainly of good English blood and instincts".[19] Many articles are now outdated factually, in particular those concerning science, technology, international and municipal law, and medicine. For example, the article on the vitamin deficiency disease beriberi speculates that it is caused by a fungus, vitamins not having been discovered at the time. Articles about geographic places mention rail connections and ferry stops in towns that no longer employ such transport (though this in itself can be useful for those looking for historical information). Even where the facts might still be accurate, new information, theories and perspectives developed since 1911 have substantially changed the way the same facts might be interpreted. For example, the modern interpretation of the history of the Visigoths
is now very different from that of 1911; readers of the eleventh edition who want to know about the social customs and political life of the tribe and its warriors are told to look up the entry for their king, Alaric I.

The eleventh edition of Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
has become a commonly quoted source, both because of the reputation of the Britannica and because it is now in the public domain and has been made available on the Internet. It has been used as a source by many modern projects, including and the Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Encyclopedia. Gutenberg Encyclopedia[edit] The Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Encyclopedia is the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, renamed to address Britannica's trademark concerns. Project Gutenberg's offerings are summarized below in the External links section and include text and graphics. Distributed Proofreaders are currently working on producing a complete electronic edition of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. See also[edit]

New American Cyclopedia


^ Boyles, Denis (2016). Everything Explained That Is Explainable: On the Creation of the Encyclopaedia Britannica's Celebrated Eleventh Edition, 1910-1911. New York: Knopf. ISBN 9780307269171. "Prologue", pp. ix-x. ^ S. Padraig Walsh, Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography (1968), p. 49 ^ Boyles (2016), p. 242. ^ a b c d Thomas, Gillian (1992). A Position to Command Respect: Women and the Eleventh Britannica. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-2567-8.  ^ Wolfgang Lierz: Karten aus Stielers Hand-Atlas in der „Encyclopaedia Britannica“. In: Cartographica Helvetica. Heft 29, 2004, ISSN 1015-8480, S. 27–34 online. ^ a b All There is to Know (1994), edited by Alexander Coleman and Charles Simmons. Subtitled: "Readings from the Illustrious Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica". p. 32. ISBN 0-671-76747-X ^ " Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
- Eleventh edition and its supplements English language reference work". Retrieved 2016-08-29.  ^ Misinforming a Nation. 1917. Chapter 1. ^ Woodall, James (1996). Borges: A Life. New York: BasicBooks. p. 76. ISBN 0-465-04361-5.  ^ Karpinski, L. C. (1912). " History
of Mathematics in the Recent Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica". Science. 35 (888): 29–31. Bibcode:1912Sci....35...29K. doi:10.1126/science.35.888.29. PMID 17752897.  ^ McCabe, J (1947). Lies and Fallacies of the Encyclopædia Britannica. Haldeman-Julius. ASIN B0007FFJF4. Retrieved 2011-06-30.  ^ Titchener, EB (1912). "The Psychology
of the new 'Britannica'". American Journal of Psychology. University of Illinois Press. 23 (1): 37–58. doi:10.2307/1413113. JSTOR 1413113.  ^ Chalmers, F. Graeme (1992). "The Origins of Racism in the Public School Art Curriculum". Studies in Art Education. 33 (3): 134–143. doi:10.2307/1320895. JSTOR 1320895.  ^  Fleming, Walter Lynwood (1911). "Lynch Law". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^  Fleming, Walter Lynwood (1911). "Ku Klux Klan". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^  Williams, Henry Smith (1911). "Civilization". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Curie, Pierre". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 644.  ^  Joyce, Thomas Athol (1911). "Negro". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 344.  ^  Hannay, David (1911). "American War of Independence". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 845. 

Further reading[edit]

Boyles, Denis. Everything Explained That Is Explainable: On the Creation of the Encyclopaedia Britannica's Celebrated Eleventh Edition, 1910-1911 (2016), ISBN 0307269175, online review

External links[edit]

has original text related to this article: 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.

Free, public-domain sources for 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica text[edit]

via HathiTrust Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
11th ed. 1911, separate volumes in several formats, on the Internet Archive:

Internet Archive
Internet Archive
– Text Archives Individual Volumes

Volume From To

Volume 1 A Androphagi

Volume 2 Andros, Sir Edmund Austria

Volume 3 Austria, Lower Bisectrix

Volume 4 Bisharin Calgary

Volume 5 Calhoun, John Caldwell Chatelaine

Volume 6 Châtelet Constantine

Volume 7 Constantine Pavlovich Demidov

Volume 8 Demijohn Edward the Black Prince

Volume 9 Edwardes, Sir Herbert Benjamin Evangelical Association

Volume 10 Evangelical Church Conference Francis Joseph I

Volume 11 Franciscans Gibson, William Hamilton

Volume 12 Gichtel, Johann Georg Harmonium

Volume 13 Harmony Hurstmonceaux

Volume 14 Husband Italic

Volume 15 Italy Kyshtym

Volume 16 L Lord Advocate

Volume 17 Lord Chamberlain Mecklenburg

Volume 18 Medal Mumps

Volume 19 Mun, Adrien Albert Marie de Oddfellows, Order of

Volume 20 Ode Payment of members

Volume 21 Payn, James Polka

Volume 22 Poll Reeves, John Sims

Volume 23 Refectory Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin

Volume 24 Sainte-Claire Deville, Étienne Henri Shuttle

Volume 25 Shuválov, Peter Andreivich Subliminal self

Volume 26 Submarine mines Tom-Tom

Volume 27 Tonalite Vesuvius

Volume 28 Vetch Zymotic diseases

Volume 29 Index List of contributors

Volume 1 of 1922 supp Abbe English History

Volume 2 of 1922 supp English Literature Oyama, Iwao

Volume 3 of 1922 supp Pacific Ocean Islands Zuloaga

Reader's Guide – 1913

Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Encyclopedia As of 16 December 2014[update]

Section From


Volume 1:   A  –   Androphagi

Volume 2.1:   Andros, Sir Edmund  –   Anise

Volume 2.2:   Anjar  –   Apollo

Volume 2.3:   Apollodorus  –   Aral

Volume 2.4:   Aram, Eugene  –   Arcueil

Volume 2.5:   Arculf  –   Armour, Philip

Volume 2.6:   Armour Plates  –   Arundel, Earls of

Volume 2.7:   Arundel, Thomas  –   Athens

Volume 2.8:   Atherstone  –   Austria

Volume 3.1:   Austria, Lower  –   Bacon

Volume 3.2:   Baconthorpe  –   Bankruptcy

Volume 3.3:   Banks  –   Bassoon

Volume 3.4:   Basso-relievo  –   Bedfordshire

Volume 3.5:   Bedlam  –   Benson, George

Volume 3.6:   Bent, James  –   Bibirine

Volume 3.7:   Bible  –   Bisectrix

Volume 4.1:   Bisharin  –   Bohea

Volume 4.2:   Bohemia  –   Borgia, Francis

Volume 4.3:   Borgia, Lucrezia  –   Bradford, John

Volume 4.4:   Bradford, William  –   Brequigny, Louis

Volume 4.5:   Bréquigny  –   Bulgaria

Volume 4.6:   Bulgaria  –   Calgary

Volume 5.1:   Calhoun  –   Camoens

Volume 5.2:   Camorra  –   Cape Colony

Volume 5.3:   Capefigue  –   Carneades

Volume 5.4:   Carnegie, Andrew  –   Casus Belli

Volume 5.5:   Cat  –   Celt

Volume 5.6:   Celtes, Konrad  –   Ceramics

Volume 5.7:   Cerargyrite  –   Charing Cross

Volume 5.8:   Chariot  –   Chatelaine

Volume 6.1:   Châtelet  –   Chicago

Volume 6.2:   Chicago, University of  –   Chiton

Volume 6.3:   Chitral  –   Cincinnati

Volume 6.4:   Cincinnatus  –   Cleruchy

Volume 6.5:   Clervaux  –   Cockade

Volume 6.6:   Cockaigne  –   Columbus, Christopher

Volume 6.7:   Columbus  –   Condottiere

Volume 6.8:   Conduction, Electric  –  

Volume 7.1:   Prependix  –  

Volume 7.2:   Constantine Pavlovich  –   Convention

Volume 7.3:   Convention  –   Copyright

Volume 7.4:   Coquelin  –   Costume

Volume 7.5:   Cosway  –   Coucy

Volume 7.6:   Coucy-le-Château  –   Crocodile

Volume 7.7:   Crocoite  –   Cuba

Volume 7.8:   Cube  –   Daguerre, Louis

Volume 7.9:   Dagupan  –   David

Volume 7.10:   David, St  –   Demidov

Volume 8.2:   Demijohn  –   Destructor

Volume 8.3:   Destructors  –   Diameter

Volume 8.4:   Diameter  –   Dinarchus

Volume 8.5:   Dinard  –   Dodsworth

Volume 8.6:   Dodwell  –   Drama

Volume 8.7:   Drama  –   Dublin

Volume 8.8:   Dubner  –   Dyeing

Volume 8.9:   Dyer  –   Echidna

Volume 8.10:   Echinoderma  –   Edward

Volume 9.1:   Edwardes  –   Ehrenbreitstein

Volume 9.2:   Ehud  –   Electroscope

Volume 9.3:   Electrostatics  –   Engis

Volume 9.4:   England  –   English Finance

Volume 9.5:   English History  –  

Volume 9.6:   English Language  –   Epsom Salts

Volume 9.7:   Equation  –   Ethics

Volume 9.8:   Ethiopia  –   Evangelical Association

Volume 10.1:   Evangelical Church Conference  –   Fairbairn, Sir William

Volume 10.2:   Fairbanks, Erastus  –   Fens

Volume 10.3:   Fenton, Edward  –   Finistère

Volume 10.4:   Finland  –   Fleury, Andre

Volume 10.5:   Fleury, Claude  –   Foraker

Volume 10.6:   Foraminifera  –   Fox, Edward

Volume 10.7:   Fox, George  –   France[p.775-p.894]

Volume 10.8:   France[p.895-p.929]  –   Francis Joseph I.

Volume 11.1:   Franciscians  –   French Language

Volume 11.2:   French Literature  –   Frost, William

Volume 11.3:   Frost  –   Fyzabad

Volume 11.4:   G  –   Gaskell, Elizabeth

Volume 11.5:   Gassendi, Pierre  –   Geocentric

Volume 11.6:   Geodesy  –   Geometry

Volume 11.7:   Geoponici  –   Germany[p.804-p.840]

Volume 11.8:   Germany[p.841-p.901]  –   Gibson, William

Volume 12.1:   Gichtel, Johann  –   Glory

Volume 12.2:   Gloss  –   Gordon, Charles George

Volume 12.3:   Gordon, Lord George  –   Grasses

Volume 12.4:   Grasshopper  –   Greek Language

Volume 12.5:   Greek Law  –   Ground-Squirrel

Volume 12.6:   Groups, Theory of  –   Gwyniad

Volume 12.7:   Gyantse  –   Hallel

Volume 12.8:   Haller, Albrecht  –   Harmonium

Volume 13.1:   Harmony  –   Heanor

Volume 13.2:   Hearing  –   Helmond

Volume 13.3:   Helmont, Jean  –   Hernosand

Volume 13.4:   Hero  –   Hindu Chronology

Volume 13.5:   Hinduism  –   Home, Earls of

Volume 13.6:   Home, Daniel  –   Hortensius, Quintus

Volume 13.7:   Horticulture  –   Hudson Bay

Volume 13.8:   Hudson River  –   Hurstmonceaux

Volume 14.1:   Husband  –   Hydrolysis

Volume 14.2:   Hydromechanics  –   Ichnography

Volume 14.3:   Ichthyology  –   Independence

Volume 14.4:   Independence, Declaration of  –   Indo-European Languages

Volume 14.5:   Indole  –   Insanity

Volume 14.6:   Inscriptions  –   Ireland, William Henry

Volume 14.7:   Ireland  –   Isabey, Jean Baptiste

Volume 14.8:   Isabnormal Lines  –   Italic

Volume 15.1:   Italy  –   Jacobite Church

Volume 15.2:   Jacobites  –   Japan (part)

Volume 15.3:   Japan (part)  –   Jeveros

Volume 15.4:   Jevons, Stanley  –   Joint

Volume 15.5:   Joints  –   Justinian I.

Volume 15.6:   Justinian II.  –   Kells

Volume 15.7:   Kelly, Edward  –   Kite

Volume 15.8:   Kite-flying  –   Kyshtym

Volume 16.1:   L  –   Lamellibranchia

Volume 16.2:   Lamennais, Robert de  –   Latini, Brunetto

Volume 16.3:   Latin Language  –   Lefebvre, Pierre François Joseph

Volume 16.4:   Lefebvre, Tanneguy  –   Letronne, Jean Antoine

Volume 16.5:   Letter  –   Lightfoot, John

Volume 16.6:   Lightfoot, Joseph Barber  –   Liquidation

Volume 16.7:   Liquid Gases  –   Logar

Volume 16.8:   Logarithm  –   Lord Advocate

Volume 17.1:   Lord Chamberlain  –   Luqmān

Volume 17.2:   Luray Cavern  –   Mackinac Island

Volume 17.3:   McKinley, William  –   Magnetism, Terrestrial

Volume 17.4:   Magnetite  –   Malt

Volume 17.5:   Malta  –   Map, Walter

Volume 17.6:   Map  –   Mars

Volume 17.7:   Mars  –   Matteawan

Volume 17.8:   Matter  –   Mecklenburg

Flash reader (Empanel) with full-page scans

Other sources for 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica

Online Encyclopedia, Net Industries and its Licensors  – includes original and contributed articles; the originals may have been edited and the collection is subject to a claimed copyright. Encyclopedia Britannica 1911, www.theodora.com  – unedited, html version, from scan/ocr of the original text, with interactive alphabetical index, and Google translation into Spanish, Chinese, French, German, Russian, Hindi, Arabic and Portuguese. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, StudyLight.org  – "Containing 35,820 entries cross-referenced and cross-linked to other resources on StudyLight.org". " Copyright
Statement[:] these [EB 1911] files are public domain". The Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information (11th edition) at the Online Books Page of the University of Pennsylvania.

The preceding links adopt the spellings u