The Info List - Emperor Of Austria

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The Emperor
of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was a hereditary imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918. The emperors retained the title of Archduke
of Austria. The wives of the emperors bore the title of empress, while other members of the family bore the title archduke or archduchess.


1 Predecessors 2 The Emperor 3 Titles of the Emperor 4 House and court

4.1 The Imperial House 4.2 The Imperial Court

5 Austrian Empire 6 Abbreviations of common and non common institutions 7 Emperors of Austria (1804–1918) 8 Succession to the throne 9 Heads of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
(since 1918) 10 See also 11 References

Predecessors[edit] Members of the House of Austria, the Habsburg dynasty, had for centuries been elected to be Holy Roman Emperors and mostly resided in Vienna. Thus the term "Austrian emperor" may occur in texts dealing with the time before 1804, when no Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
existed. In these cases the word Austria means the composite monarchy ruled by the dynasty, not the country. A special case was Maria Theresa; she bore the imperial title as the consort of Francis I (r. 1745–1765), but she herself was the monarch of the Austrian Hereditary Lands including Bohemia
and Hungary. The Emperor[edit] In the face of aggressions by Napoleon
I, who had been proclaimed " Emperor
of the French" (French: Empereur des Français), by the French constitution on 18 May 1804, Francis II feared for the future of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and wished to maintain his and his family's Imperial status in the event that the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
should be dissolved. Therefore, on 11 August 1804 he created the new title of " Emperor
of Austria" for himself and his successors as heads of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.[1] For two years, Francis carried two imperial titles: being Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II and "by the Grace of God" (Von Gottes Gnaden) Emperor
Francis I of Austria. In 1805, an Austrian-led army suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
and the victorious Napoleon
proceeded to dismantle the old Reich (which at this time was only a powerless confederation) by motivating or pressuring several German princes to enter the separate Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
with their lands in July. This led Francis II/I on 6 August 1806 to declare the Reich dissolved and to lay down the Imperial Crown created in the second half of the 10th century (today displayed at the Treasury of Hofburg Palace in Vienna).[2] From 1806 onwards, Francis was Emperor
of Austria only. He had three successors—Ferdinand I, Francis Joseph I and Charles I—before the Empire broke apart in 1918. A coronation ceremony was never established; the heir to the throne became emperor the moment his predecessor died or abdicated. The symbol of the Austrian Emperor
was the dynasty's private crown dating back to Rudolf II (r. 1576–1612), (called Rudolfinische Hauskrone by the experts), which should convey the dignity and myth of the Habsburgs. Titles of the Emperor[edit] The Austrian Emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs. The grand title of the Emperor
of Austria had been changed several times: by a patent of 1 August 1804, by a court office decree from 22 August 1836, by an Imperial court ministry decree of 6 January 1867 and finally by a letter of 12 December 1867. Shorter versions were recommended for official documents and international treaties: " Emperor
of Austria, King
of Bohemia
etc. and Apostolic King of Hungary", " Emperor
of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary", "His Majesty the Emperor
and King" and "His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty". The full list (after the loss of the Lombardy in 1859 and Venetia in 1866): Emperor
of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King
of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, and of Illyria, King
of Jerusalem, and so forth, Archduke
of Austria, Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Tuscany and of Cracow, Duke
of Lorraine, of Salzburg, of Styria, of Carinthia, of Carniola and of the Bukovina, Grand Prince
Grand Prince
of Transylvania, Margrave
in Moravia, Duke
of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, of Auschwitz and Zator, of Teschen, Friuli, Ragusa and Zara, Princely Count
Princely Count
of Habsburg and Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca, Prince
of Trent and Brixen, Margrave
of Upper and Lower Lusatia
Lower Lusatia
and in Istria, Count
of Hohenems, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, and so forth, Lord
of Trieste, of Cattaro
and of the Windic March, Grand Voivode of the Voivodship of Serbia, and so forth, Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece. House and court[edit] The function of the emperor was styled like a secular papacy. Therefore, it was the overall goal to demonstrate the all-highest (allerhöchste) majesty and dignity of the monarch to his subjects and to other monarchs and countries. His and his entourage's life was governed by very strict rules all the time. The Imperial House[edit] See also: House of Habsburg-Lorraine The members of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
were ranked as princes and princesses of the blood imperial, with the honorary title of Erzherzog or Erzherzogin (archduke or archduchess). Their permanent address and their travels abroad had to be agreed to by the Emperor. Whoever wanted to marry an archduke or archduchess of the Habsburg dynasty had to originate from a ruling or formerly ruling house, as was stipulated by the Familienstatut des Allerhöchsten Herrscherhauses, the Family Statute of the Highest Monarch's House, issued by Ferdinand I in 1839. Otherwise the marriage would be one "to the left hand", called a morganatic marriage, excluding the offspring of the couple from any right the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
possessed. (The problems of such a situation were encountered when Archduke
Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the throne, dared to marry a "simple" countess in 1900.) To manage the political implications of the Imperial house after 1867 the Emperor
and King
appointed the k.u.k. Minister des kaiserlichen und königlichen Hauses und des Äußeren (the I.& R. Minister of the Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
House and of the Exterior), one of the three ministers common to Austria and Hungary. Under Francis I, Klemens Wenzel had covered these and many other agenda, bearing the title Haus-, Hof- und Staatskanzler (Chancellor of the House, the Court and the State). The Imperial Court[edit]

Crown Jewels of Austria

The Emperor's household, his personal officers and the premises where they worked were called Hof ("court"). The four highest officials managing the Imperial Court were the Grand Master (Obersthofmeister), the Grand Marshal (Obersthofmarschall), the Grand Chamberlain (Oberstkämmerer) and the Master of the Stables (Oberststallmeister), who were drawn from among the highest noblemen of the empire.[3][4] Whoever sought an audience with the Emperor
himself had to apply at the Office of the Grand Master (Obersthofmeisteramt). Francis I used to wear civilian clothes of the Biedermeier
era, while Francis Joseph I and Charles I mostly were seen in the uniform of an Austrian field marshal to underline the importance of the army to the throne. Francis Joseph I expected soldiers to appear in uniform at his court and civilians to appear in tails. He never shook hands with visitors; in letters he never addressed his subjects as "Sir" or "Mr." (Herr). The Emperor's court managed the following institutions:

the Imperial Palace in Vienna
(Hofburg); each of the four Emperors of Austria chose his living and working rooms in another part of this huge palace; the Imperial Treasury at Hofburg, where the Habsburgs' crown insignia were kept; the Imperial Court Library, today Austrian National Library Imperial residences outside Vienna, like Schönbrunn Palace
Schönbrunn Palace
(the area was included into the Vienna
city area in 1892) and Laxenburg Palace; the court's collection of carriages (today Wagenburg at Schönbrunn Palace Gardens); the I.R. Hofburgtheater and the I.R. Hofoperntheater; the Imperial Crypt
Imperial Crypt
below the Capuchin Church and Monastery in Vienna, where three of the four Emperors of Austria have been buried (Charles I was buried on Madeira, his last exile).

Austrian Empire[edit] The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(Kaisertum Österreich) from 1804 to 1867 consisted of the Habsburg lands as a whole, leaving each land its special definition as kingdom (e.g., Bohemia, Hungary), archduchy (Lower and Upper Austria), duchy (e.g., Carniola) or princely county (e.g., Tyrol).[5] Kaisertum might literally be translated as "emperordom" on analogy with "kingdom" or "emperor-ship"; the term denotes specifically "the territory ruled by an emperor". Austria proper (as opposed to the complex of Habsburg lands as a whole) had been an Archduchy since the 15th century, and most of the other territories of the Empire had their own institutions and territorial history, although there were some attempts at centralization, especially between 1848 and 1859. In 1866, Austria lost the war with Prussia
and Italy. Francis Joseph I was urged to solve the internal problems of his realm and was well-advised to provide a substantial rise to the Hungarian nobility, which had stayed in passive resistance to him after the crushed Hungarian revolution of 1848 and 1849. In the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich), Hungary
was recognized as a self-governing kingdom outside of the Austrian Empire. The Habsburg lands were restructured into a dual union which shared a monarch and a common army, navy and foreign policy. Transylvania
and Croatia-Slavonia were acknowledged as lands of the Hungarian crown, which were called Transleithania
by government officials to distinguish them from Cisleithania, the lands remaining in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
from 1867 onwards. These were officially known only as the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council" (Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder). Unofficially ever since, these territories officially were called "Austria" from 1915 to 1918 only, despite the fact that all the citizens held the common Austrian citizenship since 1867. The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
disintegrated at the end of World War I
World War I
in 1918, when the Austrian lands established their independence. Bohemia
and Moravia in the newly created Czechoslovakia, Galicia joined Poland, while Bukovina
became a part of Romania. Carniola
and Dalmatia
joined Yugoslavia. Other territories were annexed by Italy
(South Tyrol, Trieste
and Istria). Yet the last Emperor, Charles I, used his imperial title until the end of his life. The Kingdom of Hungary, having terminated the 1867 compromise by 31 October 1918, similarly broke apart. Abbreviations of common and non common institutions[edit] The term Kaiserlich und Königlich (k.u.k., spoken /ka ʔʊnt ka/, meaning "Imperial and Royal") was decreed in a letter of 17 October 1889 for the army, the navy and the institutions shared by both parts of the monarchy.[6] Institutions of Cisleithania
used the term Kaiserlich-Königlich (K.K., meaning "Imperial Royal", e.g. K.K. österreichische Staatsbahnen, Imperial Royal Austrian State Railways). Emperors of Austria (1804–1918)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Francis I (1768-02-12)12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835(1835-03-02) (aged 67) 11 August 1804 2 March 1835 The last Holy Roman Emperor; Son of Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine

Ferdinand I (1793-04-19)19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875(1875-06-29) (aged 82) 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 (abdicated) Son of Francis I Habsburg-Lorraine

Francis Joseph I (1830-08-18)18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916(1916-11-21) (aged 86) 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 Nephew of Ferdinand I; grandson of Francis I Habsburg-Lorraine

Charles I

the Blessed

(1887-08-17)17 August 1887 – 1 April 1922(1922-04-01) (aged 34) 21 November 1916 11 November 1918 (resigned) Grand-Nephew of Francis Joseph I; great-great-grandson of Francis I Habsburg-Lorraine

Succession to the throne[edit] See also: List of heirs to the Austrian throne The heir apparent to the throne bore the title of Crown Prince (Kronprinz); heirs presumptive were called Thronfolger, in addition to their title of Archduke. Francis I was followed by Ferdinand Charles, (later Ferdinand I). In the wake of the 1848 revolutions, the empire's existence was in danger. The Habsburg family tried a new start with a new emperor: Ferdinand I was urged to hand over government on 2 December 1848. He then moved to Hradcany Castle
Hradcany Castle
in Prague
and, without laying down his imperial title, lived there privately until his death in 1875.[7] As Ferdinand I had no sons, his brother Francis Charles would have become emperor, but was persuaded by his wife to pass over the right of succession to their son, Francis Joseph. He accepted the duty of the Emperor
of Austria without having been Crown Prince
or Thronfolger before. Francis Joseph's only son Rudolf committed suicide in 1889, Francis Joseph's brother Karl Ludwig died in 1896. Karl Ludwig's son Franz Ferdinand became heir presumptive to the throne. He was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914; due to his morganatic marriage, his son had no rights to the throne. At this time his younger brother Otto Franz had already died, which made Otto's son Charles the new heir presumptive to the throne, to which he acceded in 1916 as Charles I, upon the death of Francis Joseph I. In this moment Charles I's son, four-year-old Otto became the last Crown Prince
of Austria-Hungary. He declared himself a loyal citizen of the Republic of Austria in 1961.

Franz Joseph I and his great grand-nephew and second-in-line to the throne Otto von Habsburg, in 1914

Heads of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
(since 1918)[edit] Charles I did not see himself as a pretender but as the monarch of Austria, while the Habsburg Law of the Republic of Austria of 1919 called him "the former bearer of the crown" (der ehemalige Träger der Krone). His son Otto von Habsburg, who had used the title Archduke
of Austria in his earlier life outside of Austria, declared himself a loyal citizen of the Republic in order to be allowed to enter Austria; from 1961 onwards he no longer considered himself pretender. Otto's son Karl von Habsburg
Karl von Habsburg
has never pretended to be the rightful monarch of Austria.

Charles I (11 November 1918 – 1 April 1922) Otto von Habsburg
Otto von Habsburg
(1 April 1922 – 1 January 2007) Karl von Habsburg
Karl von Habsburg
(1 January 2007 – present)

Heir apparent: Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg

See also[edit]

Austrian nobility Holy Roman Emperor List of Austrian consorts List of rulers of Austria Pragmatic Sanction of 1713


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^ Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11. August 1804. In: Otto Posse: Die Siegel der Deutschen Kaiser und Könige. (The Seals of German Emperors and Kings), tom. 5, attachment 2, p. 249 ^ Erklärung des Kaisers Franz II. über die Niederlegung der deutschen Kaiserkrone, in: Quellensammlung zur Geschichte der Deutschen Reichsverfassung in Mittelalter und Neuzeit (Collection of Sources to the History of the Constitution of the German Reich), edited by Karl Zeumer, p. 538–539 (full text on Wikisource) ^ Daniel Unowsky (2001). Maria Bucur; Nancy Meriwether Wingfield, ed. Staging the Past: The Politics of Commemoration in Habsburg Central Europe, 1848 to the Present. Purdue University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-55753-161-2.  ^ William M. Johnston (23 March 1983). The Austrian Mind: An Intellectual and Social History, 1848-1938. University of California Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-520-04955-0.  ^ " In 1804 Emperor
Franz assumed the title of Emperor
of Austria for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other Lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary
formally became part of the Empire of Austria. The Court reassured the diet, however, that the assumption of the monarch’s new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary
Laszlo, Péter (2011), Hungary's Long Nineteenth Century: Constitutional and Democratic Traditions, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, the Netherlands, p. 6  ^ From the Otto's encyclopedia
Otto's encyclopedia
(published during 1888-1909), subject 'King', online in Czech. ^ Notice on Ferdinand's death in the official newspaper Wiener Zeitung, No. 146 / J