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Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996) was an American jazz singer often referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing and intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing. After tumultuous teenage years, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb
Chick Webb
Orchestra, performing across the country, but most often associated with the Savoy Ballroom
Savoy Ballroom
in Harlem. Fitzgerald's rendition of the nursery rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket" helped boost both her and Webb to national fame. After taking over the band when Webb died, Fitzgerald left it behind in 1942 to start a solo career that would last effectively the rest of her life. Signed with manager and Savoy co-founder Moe Gale[1] from early in her career, she eventually gave managerial control for her performance and recording career to Norman Granz, who built up the label Verve Records based in part on Fitzgerald's vocal abilities. With Verve she recorded some of her more widely noted works, particularly her interpretation of the Great American Songbook. While Fitzgerald appeared in movies and as a guest on popular television shows in the second half of the twentieth century, her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career. These partnerships produced recognizable songs like "Dream a Little Dream of Me", "Cheek to Cheek", "Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall", and "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)". In 1993, Fitzgerald capped off her fifty-nine year career with her last public performance. Three years later, she died at the age of 79, following years of decline in her health. After her death, Fitzgerald's influence lived on through her fourteen Grammy
Grammy
Awards, National Medal of Arts, Presidential Medal of Freedom, and tributes in the form of stamps, music festivals, and theater namesakes.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Decca years 4 Verve years 5 Film and television 6 Collaborations 7 Illness and death 8 Personal life 9 Discography and collections

9.1 Awards, citations and honors

10 Tributes and legacy 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life[edit] Fitzgerald was born on April 25, 1917, in Newport News, Virginia, the daughter of William Fitzgerald and Temperance "Tempie" Fitzgerald (née Henry).[2] Her parents were unmarried but lived together for at least two and a half years after she was born. In the early 1920s, Fitzgerald's mother and her new partner, a Portuguese immigrant named Joseph Da Silva,[2] moved to the city of Yonkers, in Westchester County, New York, as part of the first Great Migration of African Americans.[2] Initially living in a single room, her mother and Da Silva soon found jobs. Her half-sister, Frances Da Silva, was born in 1923.[3] By 1925, Fitzgerald and her family had moved to nearby School Street, then a predominantly poor Italian area.[3] She began her formal education at the age of six and proved to be an outstanding student, moving through a variety of schools before attending Benjamin Franklin Junior High School from 1929.[4] Fitzgerald had been passionate about dancing from third grade, being a fan of Earl "Snakehips" Tucker in particular, and would perform for her peers on the way to school and at lunchtime.[5] Fitzgerald and her family were Methodists
Methodists
and were active in the Bethany African Methodist Episcopal Church, and she regularly attended worship services, Bible study, and Sunday school.[5] The church provided Fitzgerald with her earliest experiences in formal music making, and she may also have had a short series of piano lessons during this period.[6] During this period Fitzgerald listened to jazz recordings by Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, and The Boswell Sisters. Fitzgerald idolized the Boswell Sisters' lead singer Connee Boswell, later saying, "My mother brought home one of her records, and I fell in love with it....I tried so hard to sound just like her."[7] In 1932, her mother died from serious injuries she received in a car accident when Fitzgerald was 15 years of age.[8] This left her at first in the care of her stepfather but before the end of April 1933, she had moved in with her aunt in Harlem.[9] This seemingly swift change in her circumstances, reinforced by what Fitzgerald biographer Stuart Nicholson describes as rumors of her stepfather's "ill treatment" of Fitzgerald, leaves him to speculate that Da Silva might have abused her.[9] Following these traumas, Fitzgerald began skipping school and letting her grades suffer. During this period she worked at times as a lookout at a bordello and with a Mafia-affiliated numbers runner.[10] Fitzgerald never talked publicly about this time in her life.[11] When the authorities caught up with her, she was first placed in the Colored Orphan Asylum in Riverdale, in the Bronx.[12] However, when the orphanage proved too crowded, she was moved to the New York Training School for Girls in Hudson, New York, a state reformatory located about 120 miles north of New York City. Eventually she escaped and for a time she was homeless. Early career[edit]

A young Fitzgerald, photographed by Carl Van Vechten
Carl Van Vechten
in 1940

While she seems to have survived during 1933 and 1934 in part from singing on the streets of Harlem, Fitzgerald made her most important amateur singing debut at age 17 on November 21, 1934, in one of the earliest of the famous Amateur Nights at the Apollo Theater.[13][14] She had originally intended to go on stage and dance, but, intimidated by a local dance duo called the Edwards Sisters, she opted to sing instead.[14][15] Performing in the style of Connee Boswell, she sang "Judy" and "The Object of My Affection" and won the first prize of $25.00.[16] In theory, she also won the chance to perform at the Apollo for a week but, seemingly because of her disheveled appearance, the theater never gave her that part of her prize.[17] In January 1935, Fitzgerald won the chance to perform for a week with the Tiny Bradshaw
Tiny Bradshaw
band at the Harlem
Harlem
Opera House.[13] Around this same time, she was introduced to the drummer and bandleader Chick Webb, who had asked his recently signed singer Charlie Linton to help find him a female singer. Though Webb was "reluctant to sign her....because she was gawky and unkempt, a 'diamond in the rough,'"[7] he offered her the opportunity to test with his band when they played a dance at Yale University.[13] Met with approval by both audiences and her fellow musicians, Fitzgerald was asked to join Webb's orchestra and soon gained acclaim as part of the group's renowned performances at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom.[13] Fitzgerald recorded several hit songs with them, including "Love and Kisses" and "(If You Can't Sing It) You'll Have to Swing It (Mr. Paganini)".[13] But it was her 1938 version of the nursery rhyme, "A-Tisket, A-Tasket", a song she co-wrote, that brought her wide public acclaim.[18][19] Later that year Ella recorded her second hit, "I Found My Yellow Basket". Webb died of spinal tuberculosis on June 16, 1939,[20] and his band was renamed Ella and her Famous Orchestra, with Fitzgerald taking on the role of nominal bandleader.[21] Fitzgerald recorded nearly 150 songs with Webb's orchestra between 1935 and its final end in 1942. In her New York Times obituary of 1996, Stephen Holder echoed the conventional critical view of the time in describing "the majority" of her recordings during this period as "novelties and disposable pop fluff".[7] In addition to her work with Webb, Fitzgerald performed and recorded with the Benny Goodman Orchestra. She had her own side project, too, known as Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
and Her Savoy Eight. Decca years[edit]

Fitzgerald performing with Dizzy Gillespie, Ray Brown, Milt Jackson and Timme Rosenkrantz
Timme Rosenkrantz
in September 1947, New York

In 1942, Fitzgerald left the band to begin a solo career.[22] Continuing under contract to the Decca label that she had worked with while part of Webb's orchestra, she had several popular hits while recording with such artists as Bill Kenny & the Ink Spots,[23] Louis Jordan,[24] and the Delta Rhythm Boys.[25] With Decca's Milt Gabler
Milt Gabler
as her manager, Fitzgerald began working regularly for the jazz impresario Norman Granz
Norman Granz
and appeared regularly in his Jazz
Jazz
at the Philharmonic (JATP) concerts. Her relationship with Granz was further cemented when he became her manager, although it would be nearly a decade before he could record her on one of his many record labels. With the demise of the Swing era and the decline of the great touring big bands, a major change in jazz music occurred. The advent of bebop led to new developments in Fitzgerald's vocal style, influenced by her work with Dizzy Gillespie's big band. It was in this period that Fitzgerald started including scat singing as a major part of her performance repertoire. While singing with Gillespie, Fitzgerald recalled, "I just tried to do [with my voice] what I heard the horns in the band doing."[16] Her 1945 scat recording of "Flying Home" arranged by Vic Schoen
Vic Schoen
would later be described by The New York Times
The New York Times
as "one of the most influential vocal jazz records of the decade....Where other singers, most notably Louis Armstrong, had tried similar improvisation, no one before Miss Fitzgerald employed the technique with such dazzling inventiveness."[7] Her bebop recording of "Oh, Lady Be Good!" (1947) was similarly popular and increased her reputation as one of the leading jazz vocalists.[26] Verve years[edit] Fitzgerald made her first tour of Australia in July 1954 for the Australian-based American promoter Lee Gordon.[27] This was the first of Gordon's famous "Big Show" promotions and the 'package' tour also included Buddy Rich, Artie Shaw
Artie Shaw
and comedian Jerry Colonna. Although the tour was a big hit with audiences and set a new box office record for Australia, it was marred by an incident of racial discrimination that caused Fitzgerald to miss the first two concerts in Sydney, and Gordon had to arrange two later free concerts to compensate ticket holders. Although the four members of Fitzgerald's entourage – Fitzgerald, her pianist John Lewis, her assistant (and cousin) Georgiana Henry, and manager Norman Granz
Norman Granz
– all had first-class tickets on their scheduled Pan-American Airlines
Pan-American Airlines
flight from Honolulu to Sydney, Fitzgerald, Henry and Lewis were ordered to leave the aircraft after they had already boarded and they were refused permission to re-board the aircraft to retrieve their luggage and clothing, and as a result they were stranded in Honolulu for three days before they could get another flight to Sydney. Although a contemporary Australian press report[28] quoted an Australian Pan-Am spokesperson who denied that the incident was racially based, Fitzgerald, Henry, Lewis and Granz filed a civil suit for racial discrimination against Pan-Am in December 1954[29] and in a 1970 television interview Fitzgerald confirmed that they had won the suit and received what she described as a "nice settlement".[30] Fitzgerald was still performing at Granz's JATP concerts by 1955. She left Decca and Granz, now her manager, created Verve Records
Verve Records
around her. She later described the period as strategically crucial, saying, "I had gotten to the point where I was only singing be-bop. I thought be-bop was 'it', and that all I had to do was go some place and sing bop. But it finally got to the point where I had no place to sing. I realized then that there was more to music than bop. Norman ... felt that I should do other things, so he produced Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Cole Porter Song Book
Book
with me. It was a turning point in my life."[7] On March 15, 1955, Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
opened her initial engagement at the Mocambo
Mocambo
nightclub in Hollywood,[31][32] after Marilyn Monroe lobbied the owner for the booking.[33] The booking was instrumental in Fitzgerald's career. Bonnie Greer
Bonnie Greer
dramatized the incident as the musical drama, Marilyn and Ella, in 2008. It had previously been widely reported that Fitzgerald was the first black performer to play the Mocambo, following Monroe's intervention, but this is not true. African-American singers Herb Jeffries,[34] Eartha Kitt,[35] and Joyce Bryant[36] all played the Mocambo
Mocambo
in 1952 and 1953, according to stories published at the time in Jet magazine and Billboard. Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Cole Porter Song Book, released in 1956, was the first of eight Songbook sets Fitzgerald would record for Verve at irregular intervals from 1956 to 1964. The composers and lyricists spotlighted on each set, taken together, represent the greatest part of the cultural canon known as the Great American Songbook. Her song selections ranged from standards to rarities and represented an attempt by Fitzgerald to cross over into a non-jazz audience. The sets are the most well-known items in her discography.

Fitzgerald in 1968, courtesy of the Fraser MacPherson
Fraser MacPherson
estate

Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Song Book
Book
was the only Songbook on which the composer she interpreted played with her. Duke Ellington and his longtime collaborator Billy Strayhorn
Billy Strayhorn
both appeared on exactly half the set's 38 tracks and wrote two new pieces of music for the album: "The E and D Blues" and a four-movement musical portrait of Fitzgerald (the only Songbook track on which Fitzgerald does not sing). The Songbook series ended up becoming the singer's most critically acclaimed and commercially successful work, and probably her most significant offering to American culture. The New York Times wrote in 1996, "These albums were among the first pop records to devote such serious attention to individual songwriters, and they were instrumental in establishing the pop album as a vehicle for serious musical exploration."[7] Days after Fitzgerald's death, The New York Times
The New York Times
columnist Frank Rich wrote that in the Songbook series Fitzgerald "performed a cultural transaction as extraordinary as Elvis' contemporaneous integration of white and African American
African American
soul. Here was a black woman popularizing urban songs often written by immigrant Jews to a national audience of predominantly white Christians."[10] Frank Sinatra, out of respect for Fitzgerald, prohibited Capitol Records
Capitol Records
from re-releasing his own recordings in separate albums for individual composers in the same way.[citation needed] Fitzgerald also recorded albums exclusively devoted to the songs of Porter and Gershwin in 1972 and 1983; the albums being, respectively, Ella Loves Cole and Nice Work If You Can Get It. A later collection devoted to a single composer was released during her time with Pablo Records, Ella Abraça Jobim, featuring the songs of Antônio Carlos Jobim. While recording the Songbooks and the occasional studio album, Fitzgerald toured 40 to 45 weeks per year in the United States and internationally, under the tutelage of Norman Granz. Granz helped solidify her position as one of the leading live jazz performers.[7] In 1961 Fitzgerald bought a house in the Klampenborg
Klampenborg
district of Copenhagen, Denmark, after she began a relationship with a Danish man. Though the relationship ended after a year, Fitzgerald regularly returned to Denmark over the next three years, and even considered buying a jazz club there. The house was sold in 1963, and Fitzgerald permanently returned to the United States.[37] There are several live albums on Verve that are highly regarded by critics. At the Opera House
At the Opera House
shows a typical JATP set from Fitzgerald. Ella in Rome and Twelve Nights in Hollywood
Twelve Nights in Hollywood
display her vocal jazz canon. Ella in Berlin is still one of her best-selling albums; it includes a Grammy-winning performance of "Mack the Knife" in which she forgets the lyrics but improvises magnificently to compensate. Verve Records
Verve Records
was sold to MGM in 1963 for $3 million and in 1967 MGM failed to renew Fitzgerald's contract. Over the next five years she flitted between Atlantic, Capitol and Reprise. Her material at this time represented a departure from her typical jazz repertoire. For Capitol she recorded Brighten the Corner, an album of hymns, Ella Fitzgerald's Christmas, an album of traditional Christmas carols, Misty Blue, a country and western-influenced album, and 30 by Ella, a series of six medleys that fulfilled her obligations for the label. During this period, she had her last US chart single with a cover of Smokey Robinson's "Get Ready", previously a hit for the Temptations, and some months later a top-five hit for Rare Earth. The surprise success of the 1972 album Jazz
Jazz
at Santa Monica Civic '72 led Granz to found Pablo Records, his first record label since the sale of Verve. Fitzgerald recorded some 20 albums for the label. Ella in London recorded live in 1974 with pianist Tommy Flanagan, guitarist Joe Pass, bassist Keter Betts and drummer Bobby Durham, was considered by many to be some of her best work. The following year she again performed with Joe Pass
Joe Pass
on German television station NDR in Hamburg. Her years with Pablo Records also documented the decline in her voice. "She frequently used shorter, stabbing phrases, and her voice was harder, with a wider vibrato", one biographer wrote.[38] Plagued by health problems, Fitzgerald made her last recording in 1991 and her last public performances in 1993.[39] Film and television[edit]

Fitzgerald shakes hands with President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
after performing in the White House, 1981

In her most notable screen role, Fitzgerald played the part of singer Maggie Jackson in Jack Webb's 1955 jazz film Pete Kelly's Blues.[40] The film costarred Janet Leigh
Janet Leigh
and singer Peggy Lee.[41] Even though she had already worked in the movies (she had sung briefly in the 1942 Abbott and Costello
Abbott and Costello
film Ride 'Em Cowboy),[42] she was "delighted" when Norman Granz
Norman Granz
negotiated the role for her, and, "at the time....considered her role in the Warner Brothers
Warner Brothers
movie the biggest thing ever to have happened to her."[38] Amid The New York Times
The New York Times
pan of the film when it opened in August 1955, the reviewer wrote, "About five minutes (out of ninety-five) suggest the picture this might have been. Take the ingenious prologue ... [or] take the fleeting scenes when the wonderful Ella Fitzgerald, allotted a few spoken lines, fills the screen and sound track with her strong mobile features and voice."[43] Fitzgerald's race precluded major big-screen success. After Pete Kelly's Blues, she appeared in sporadic movie cameos, in St. Louis Blues
Blues
(1958),[44] and Let No Man Write My Epitaph (1960).[45] Much later, she appeared in the 1980s television drama The White Shadow. She made numerous guest appearances on television shows, singing on The Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
Show, The Andy Williams Show, The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, and alongside other greats Nat King Cole, Dean Martin, Mel Tormé, and many others. She was also frequently featured on The Ed Sullivan Show. Perhaps her most unusual and intriguing performance was of the "Three Little Maids" song from Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operetta The Mikado
The Mikado
alongside Joan Sutherland
Joan Sutherland
and Dinah Shore
Dinah Shore
on Shore's weekly variety series in 1963. A performance at Ronnie Scott's Jazz
Jazz
Club in London was filmed and shown on the BBC. Fitzgerald also made a one-off appearance alongside Sarah Vaughan
Sarah Vaughan
and Pearl Bailey
Pearl Bailey
on a 1979 television special honoring Bailey. In 1980, she performed a medley of standards in a duet with Karen Carpenter
Karen Carpenter
on the Carpenters' television program Music, Music, Music.[46] Fitzgerald also appeared in TV commercials, her most memorable being an ad for Memorex.[47] In the commercials, she sang a note that shattered a glass while being recorded on a Memorex
Memorex
cassette tape.[48] The tape was played back and the recording also broke another glass, asking: "Is it live, or is it Memorex?"[48] She also appeared in a number of commercials for Kentucky Fried Chicken, singing and scatting to the fast-food chain's longtime slogan, "We do chicken right!"[49] Her last commercial campaign was for American Express, in which she was photographed by Annie Leibovitz.[50] Collaborations[edit] Fitzgerald's most famous collaborations were with the vocal quartet Bill Kenny & the Ink Spots, trumpeter Louis Armstrong, the guitarist Joe Pass, and the bandleaders Count Basie
Count Basie
and Duke Ellington.

From 1943 to 1950, Fitzgerald recorded seven songs with the Ink Spots featuring Bill Kenny. Out of all seven recordings, four reached the top of the pop charts including "I'm Making Believe" and "Into Each Life Some Rain Must Fall" which both reached #1. Fitzgerald recorded three Verve studio albums with Louis Armstrong, two albums of standards (1956's Ella and Louis
Ella and Louis
and 1957's Ella and Louis Again), and a third album featured music from the Gershwin musical Porgy and Bess. Fitzgerald also recorded a number of sides with Armstrong for Decca in the early 1950s. Fitzgerald is sometimes referred to as the quintessential swing singer, and her meetings with Count Basie
Count Basie
are highly regarded by critics. Fitzgerald features on one track on Basie's 1957 album One O'Clock Jump, while her 1963 album Ella and Basie!
Ella and Basie!
is remembered as one of her greatest recordings. With the 'New Testament' Basie band in full swing, and arrangements written by a young Quincy Jones, this album proved a respite from the 'Songbook' recordings and constant touring that Fitzgerald was engaged in during this period. Fitzgerald and Basie also collaborated on the 1972 album Jazz
Jazz
at Santa Monica Civic '72, and on the 1979 albums Digital III at Montreux, A Classy Pair and A Perfect Match. Fitzgerald and Joe Pass
Joe Pass
recorded four albums together toward the end of Fitzgerald's career. She recorded several albums with piano accompaniment, but a guitar proved the perfect melodic foil for her. Fitzgerald and Pass appeared together on the albums Take Love Easy (1973), Easy Living (1986), Speak Love
Speak Love
(1983) and Fitzgerald and Pass... Again (1976). Fitzgerald and Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
recorded two live albums and two studio albums. Her Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Songbook placed Ellington firmly in the canon known as the Great American Songbook, and the 1960s saw Fitzgerald and the 'Duke' meet on the Côte d'Azur
Côte d'Azur
for the 1966 album Ella and Duke at the Cote D'Azur, and in Sweden
Sweden
for The Stockholm Concert, 1966. Their 1965 album Ella at Duke's Place
Ella at Duke's Place
is also extremely well received.

Fitzgerald had a number of famous jazz musicians and soloists as sidemen over her long career. The trumpeters Roy Eldridge
Roy Eldridge
and Dizzy Gillespie, the guitarist Herb Ellis, and the pianists Tommy Flanagan, Oscar Peterson, Lou Levy, Paul Smith, Jimmy Rowles, and Ellis Larkins all worked with Ella mostly in live, small group settings. Possibly Fitzgerald's greatest unrealized collaboration (in terms of popular music) was a studio or live album with Frank Sinatra. The two appeared on the same stage only periodically over the years, in television specials in 1958 and 1959, and again on 1967's A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim, a show that also featured Antônio Carlos Jobim. Pianist Paul Smith has said, "Ella loved working with [Frank]. Sinatra gave her his dressing-room on A Man and His Music and couldn't do enough for her." When asked, Norman Granz
Norman Granz
would cite "complex contractual reasons" for the fact that the two artists never recorded together.[38][51] Fitzgerald's appearance with Sinatra and Count Basie in June 1974 for a series of concerts at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, was seen as an important incentive for Sinatra to return from his self-imposed retirement of the early 1970s. The shows were a great success, and September 1975 saw them gross $1,000,000 in two weeks on Broadway, in a triumvirate with the Count Basie
Count Basie
Orchestra. Illness and death[edit] Fitzgerald had suffered from diabetes for several years of her later life, which had led to numerous complications.[7] In 1985, Fitzgerald was hospitalized briefly for respiratory problems,[52] in 1986 for congestive heart failure,[53] and in 1990 for exhaustion.[54] In March 1990 she appeared at the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in London, England with the Count Basie
Count Basie
Orchestra for the launch of Jazz
Jazz
FM, plus a gala dinner at the Grosvenor House Hotel
Grosvenor House Hotel
at which she performed.[55] In 1993, she had to have both of her legs amputated below the knee due to the effects of diabetes.[56] Her eyesight was affected as well.[7] In 1996, tired of being in the hospital, she wished to spend her last days at home. Confined to a wheelchair, she spent her final days in her backyard of her Beverly Hills mansion on Whittier, with her son Ray and 12-year-old granddaughter, Alice. "I just want to smell the air, listen to the birds and hear Alice laugh," she reportedly said. On her last day, she was wheeled outside one last time, and sat there for about an hour. When she was taken back in, she looked up with a soft smile on her face and said, "I'm ready to go now." She died in her home from a stroke[57] on June 15, 1996 at the age of 79.[7] A few hours after her death, the Playboy Jazz
Jazz
Festival was launched at the Hollywood Bowl. In tribute, the marquee read: "Ella We Will Miss You."[58] Her funeral was private,[58] and she was buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. Personal life[edit] Fitzgerald married at least twice, and there is evidence that suggests that she may have married a third time. Her first marriage was in 1941, to Benny Kornegay, a convicted drug dealer and local dockworker. The marriage was annulled in 1942.[59] Her second marriage was in December 1947, to the famous bass player Ray Brown, whom she had met while on tour with Dizzy Gillespie's band a year earlier. Together they adopted a child born to Fitzgerald's half-sister, Frances, whom they christened Ray Brown Jr.
Ray Brown Jr.
With Fitzgerald and Brown often busy touring and recording, the child was largely raised by his mother's aunt, Virginia. Fitzgerald and Brown divorced in 1953, bowing to the various career pressures both were experiencing at the time, though they would continue to perform together.[7] In July 1957, Reuters
Reuters
reported that Fitzgerald had secretly married Thor Einar Larsen, a young Norwegian, in Oslo. She had even gone as far as furnishing an apartment in Oslo, but the affair was quickly forgotten when Larsen was sentenced to five months' hard labor in Sweden
Sweden
for stealing money from a young woman to whom he had previously been engaged.[60] Fitzgerald was notoriously shy. Trumpet
Trumpet
player Mario Bauzá, who played behind Fitzgerald in her early years with Chick Webb, remembered that "she didn't hang out much. When she got into the band, she was dedicated to her music....She was a lonely girl around New York, just kept herself to herself, for the gig."[38] When, later in her career, the Society of Singers named an award after her, Fitzgerald explained, "I don't want to say the wrong thing, which I always do but I think I do better when I sing."[16] From 1949 to 1956, Fitzgerald resided in St. Albans, New York, an enclave of prosperous African Americans where she counted among her neighbors, Fats Waller, Count Basie, Lena Horne, and other jazz luminaries.[61] Fitzgerald was a civil rights activist; using her talent to break racial barriers across the nation. She was awarded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Equal Justice Award and the American Black Achievement Award.[62] In 1949, Norman Granz recruited Fitzgerald for the Jazz
Jazz
at the Philharmonic tour.[63] The Jazz
Jazz
at the Philharmonic tour would specifically target segregated venues. Granz required promoters to ensure that there was no "colored" or "white" seating. He ensured Fitzgerald was to receive equal pay and accommodations regardless of her sex, race, and identity. If the conditions were not met shows were cancelled.[64] Bill Reed, author of Hot from Harlem: Twelve African American Entertainers, referred to Fitzgerald as the "Civil Rights Crusader", facing discrimination throughout her career.[65] In 1954 on her way to one of her concerts in Australia she was unable to board the Pan American flight due to racial discrimination.[66] Although she faced several obstacles and racial barriers, she was recognized as a "cultural ambassador," receiving the National Medal of Arts
National Medal of Arts
in 1987 and America's highest non-military honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[64] In 1993, Fitzgerald established the Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Charitable Foundation focusing on charitable grants for four major categories: academic opportunities for children, music education, basic care needs for the less fortunate, medical research revolving around diabetes, heart disease, and vision impaired.[67] Her goals were to give back and provide opportunities for those "at risk" and less fortunate. In addition, she supported several nonprofit organizations like the American Heart Association, City of Hope, and the Retina Foundation.[68][69][70] Discography and collections[edit] Further information: Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
discography The primary collections of Fitzgerald's media and memorabilia reside at and are shared between the Smithsonian
Smithsonian
Institution and the US Library of Congress[71] Awards, citations and honors[edit] Further information: List of awards received by Ella Fitzgerald Fitzgerald won thirteen Grammy
Grammy
Awards,[72] and received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1967.[73] In 1958 Fitzgerald was the first African American
African American
female to win at the inaugural show.[74] Other major awards and honors she received during her career were the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Medal of Honor Award, National Medal of Art, first Society of Singers Lifetime Achievement Award, named "Ella" in her honor, Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the George and Ira Gershwin Award for Lifetime Musical Achievement, UCLA Spring Sing, and the UCLA Medal (1987).[75] Across town at the University of Southern California, she received the USC "Magnum Opus" Award which hangs in the office of the Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Charitable Foundation. In 1990, she received an honorary doctorate of Music from Harvard University.[76] Tributes and legacy[edit]

This section is missing information about the impacts and influences of Ms Fitzgerald and her music on other artists, on the later history of music, and on society. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (March 2017)

Fitzgerald in 1960 by Erling Mandelmann

The career history and archival material from Fitzgerald's long career are housed in the Archives Center at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, while her personal music arrangements are at the Library of Congress. Her extensive cookbook collection was donated to the Schlesinger Library at Harvard University, and her extensive collection of published sheet music was donated to UCLA. In 1997, Newport News, Virginia
Newport News, Virginia
created a week-long music festival with Christopher Newport University
Christopher Newport University
to honor Fitzgerald in her birth city. Callaway, Dee Dee Bridgewater, and Patti Austin
Patti Austin
have all recorded albums in tribute to Fitzgerald. Callaway's album To Ella
To Ella
with Love (1996) features fourteen jazz standards made popular by Fitzgerald, and the album also features the trumpeter Wynton Marsalis. Bridgewater's album Dear Ella
Dear Ella
(1997) featured many musicians that were closely associated with Fitzgerald during her career, including the pianist Lou Levy, the trumpeter Benny Powell, and Fitzgerald's second husband, double bassist Ray Brown. Bridgewater's following album, Live at Yoshi's, was recorded live on April 25, 1998, what would have been Fitzgerald's 81st birthday. Austin's album, For Ella (2002) features 11 songs most immediately associated with Fitzgerald, and a twelfth song, "Hearing Ella Sing" is Austin's tribute to Fitzgerald. The album was nominated for a Grammy. In 2007, We All Love Ella, was released, a tribute album recorded for the 90th anniversary of Fitzgerald's birth. It featured artists such as Michael Bublé, Natalie Cole, Chaka Khan, Gladys Knight, Diana Krall, k.d. lang, Queen Latifah, Ledisi, Dianne Reeves, Linda Ronstadt, and Lizz Wright, collating songs most readily associated with the "First Lady of Song". Folk singer Odetta's album To Ella (1998) is dedicated to Fitzgerald, but features no songs associated with her. Her accompanist Tommy Flanagan
Tommy Flanagan
affectionately remembered Fitzgerald on his album Lady be Good ... For Ella (1994). "Ella, elle l'a", a tribute to Fitzgerald written by Michel Berger and performed by French singer France Gall, was a hit in Europe in 1987 and 1988.[77] Fitzgerald is also referred to in the 1976 Stevie Wonder hit "Sir Duke" from his album Songs in the Key of Life, and the song "I Love Being Here With You", written by Peggy Lee
Peggy Lee
and Bill Schluger. Sinatra's 1986 recording of "Mack the Knife" from his album L.A. Is My Lady (1984) includes a homage to some of the song's previous performers, including 'Lady Ella' herself. She is also honored in the song "First Lady" by Canadian artist Nikki Yanofsky. In 2008, the Downing-Gross Cultural Arts Center in Newport News named its brand new 276-seat theater the Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Theater. The theater is located several blocks away from her birthplace on Marshall Avenue. The Grand Opening performers ( October 11 and 12, 2008) were Roberta Flack
Roberta Flack
and Queen Esther Marrow. In 2012, Rod Stewart
Rod Stewart
performed a "virtual duet" with Ella Fitzgerald on his Christmas album Merry Christmas, Baby, and his television special of the same name.[78] There is a bronze sculpture of Fitzgerald in Yonkers, the city in which she grew up, created by American artist Vinnie Bagwell. It is located southeast of the main entrance to the Amtrak/Metro-North Railroad station in front of the city's old trolley barn. A bust of Fitzgerald is on the campus of Chapman University
Chapman University
in Orange, California. On January 9, 2007, the United States Postal Service announced that Fitzgerald would be honored with her own postage stamp.[47] The stamp was released in April 2007 as part of the Postal Service's Black Heritage series.[79] In April 2013, she was featured in Google Doodle, depicting her performing on stage. It celebrated what would have been her 96th birthday.[80][81] On April 25, 2017, the centenary of her birth, UK's BBC Radio 2 broadcast three programmes as part of an "Ella at 100" celebration: Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Night introduced by Jamie Cullum, Remembering Ella introduced by Leo Green and Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
- the First Lady of Song introduced by Petula Clark.[82] References[edit]

^ "The Savoy Ballroom
Savoy Ballroom
opens African American
African American
Registry". Aaregistry.org. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  ^ a b c Nicholson 1996, p. 4. ^ a b Nicholson 1996, p. 5. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 7, 13. ^ a b Nicholson 1996, p. 6. ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Holden, Stephen (June 16, 1996). "Ella Fitzgerald, the Voice of Jazz, Dies at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "Biography". EllaFitzgerald.com (Official website). Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ a b Nicholson 1996, p. 14. ^ a b Rich, Frank (June 19, 1996). "Journal; How High the Moon". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
is born". History. Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ Bernstein, Nina (June 23, 1996). "Ward of the State; The Gap in Ella Fitzgerald's Life". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ a b c d e Fritts, Ron; Vail, Ken (January 1, 2003). Ella Fitzgerald: The Chick Webb
Chick Webb
Years & Beyond. Scarecrow Press. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-8108-4881-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ a b Horton, James Oliver (March 24, 2005). Landmarks of African American History. Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-514118-4. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Hemming, Roy (December 1, 1992). Discovering Great Singers of Classic Pop: A New Listener's Guide to the Sounds and Lives of the Top Performers. Newmarket Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-55704-148-7. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ a b c Moret, Jim (June 15, 1996). "'First Lady of Song' passes peacefully, surrounded by family". CNN. Archived from the original on November 29, 2006. Retrieved January 30, 2007.  ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 19. ^ Hemming, Roy (1991). Discovering Great Singers of Classic Pop: A New Listener's Guide to the Sounds and Lives of the Top Performers and Their Recordings, Movies, and Videos. Newmarket Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-55704-072-5. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ Robinson, Louie (November 1961). "First Lady of Jazz". Ebony. Vol. 17 no. 1. Johnson Publishing Company. pp. 131–132, 139. ISSN 0012-9011. Retrieved October 10, 2014.  ^ Otfinoski, Steven (2010). African Americans in the Performing Arts. Infobase Publishing. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4381-2855-9. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ James, Edward T.; James, Janet Wilson; Boyer, Paul S. Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary. Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-674-01488-6. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Humphrey, Harold (April 4, 1942). "News Notes". The Billboard. Vol. 54 no. 14. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.
Nielsen Business Media, Inc.
p. 67. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved October 10, 2014.  ^ Goldberg, Marv (1998). More Than Words Can Say: The Ink Spots
The Ink Spots
and Their Music. Scarecrow Press. p. 125. ISBN 9781461669722.  ^ Tyler, Don (2007). Hit Songs, 1900–1955: American Popular Music of the Pre-Rock Era. McFarland. p. 304. ISBN 9780786429462.  ^ "Coming Up". The Billboard. December 7, 1946. p. 27.  ^ Gioia, Ted (September 27, 2012). The Jazz
Jazz
Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire. Oxford University Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-19-993739-4. Retrieved October 11, 2014.  ^ Stratton, Jon (August 3, 2007). "'All Rock and Rhythm and Jazz': Rock 'n' Roll Origin Stories and Race in Australia" (PDF). Continuum. 21 (3): 379–392. doi:10.1080/10304310701460730. Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ "'Stop the music,' said Artie Shaw". The Argus. July 24, 1954. p. 3. Retrieved February 7, 2018 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ "Complaint, Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
et al v. Pan American, December 23, 1954". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sues Airline for Discrimination (1970)". CBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2018.  ^ "Talent topics". The Billboard: 24. March 12, 1955. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved February 8, 2018.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
a big hit". Jet. 7 (22): 60. April 7, 1955. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 8, 2018.  ^ Nicholson, Stuart (1993). Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz. Da Capo Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-306-80642-8.  ^ Johnson Publishing Company (August 13, 1953). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. p. 60. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.  ^ Johnson Publishing Company (December 10, 1953). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.  ^ Johnson Publishing Company (November 12, 1953). Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved August 16, 2013.  ^ Nicholson 1996, p. 198. ^ a b c d Nicholson, Stuart (1993). Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-575-40032-3. For many years Fitzgerald's birthdate was thought to be on the same date one year later in 1918 – and it is still listed as such in some sources – but research by Nicholson and another biographer, Tanya Lee Stone, established 1917 as the correct year of birth.  ^ Davies, Hugh (December 31, 2005). "Sir Johnny up there with the Count and the Duke". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved March 16, 2007.  ^ "Movie of the week: Pete Kelly's Blues". Jet. August 25, 1955. p. 62. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Capua, Michelangelo (March 8, 2013). Janet Leigh: A Biography. McFarland. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7864-7022-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Furia, Philip; Patterson, Laurie (March 10, 2010). The Songs of Hollywood. Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-19-979266-5. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Dargis, Manohla (August 19, 1955). "Webb Plays the Blues". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2007.  ^ Storb, Ilse (2000). Jazz
Jazz
Meets the World – The World Meets Jazz (in German). LIT Verlag Münster. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-8258-3748-8. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ Croix, St. Sukie de la (July 11, 2012). Chicago Whispers: A History of LGBT Chicago before Stonewall. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-299-28693-4. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ "Ella on Special
Special
1980 Duet with Karen Carpenter". YouTube. December 25, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ a b "New stamp honors first lady of song". USA Today. AP. January 9, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ a b Rosen, Larry (July 18, 2013). "Is It Live or Is It Memorex?". Psychology Today. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
For Kentucky Fried Chicken". Rerojunk.com. Retrieved December 28, 2012.  ^ "She puts the famous in focus". St. Petersburg Times. November 22, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ "On Frank Sinatra's Hair". Retrieved April 26, 2017.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Hospitalized". The Lewiston Journal. AP. August 13, 1985. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Hospitalized". AP News Archive. AP. July 27, 1986. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ "WORLD: Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Hospitalized". Los Angeles Times. July 10, 1990. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ "25 years of Jazz
Jazz
FM". Jazz
Jazz
FM. Retrieved April 19, 2017.  ^ " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Had Both Legs Amputated". Daily News. Kingsport, Tennessee. Reuters. April 13, 1994. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ Death certificate ^ a b Weinstein, Henry; Brazil, Jeff (June 16, 1996). "Ella Fitzgerald, Jazz's First Lady of Song, Dies". Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–3. Retrieved February 22, 2014.  ^ Nicholson, Stuart (1995). Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 0-306-80642-8.  ^ Nicholson, Stuart (1995). Ella Fitzgerald: A Biography of the First Lady of Jazz. New York: Da Capo Press. pp. 173–175. ISBN 0-306-80642-8.  ^ "This Green and Pleasant Land" by Bryan Greene, in Poverty and Race, page 3. ^ "Awards". Ella Fitzgerald. April 7, 2017. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ Hershorn, Tad (November 1, 2011). Norman Granz: The Man Who Used Jazz
Jazz
for Justice. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520267824.  ^ a b Jessica Bissett Perea. "Fitzgerald, Ella." Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. October 10, 2017. <http://0-www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ignacio.usfca.edu/subsc riber/article/grove/music/A2275792>. ^ Bill, Reed (2010). Hot from Harlem: Twelve African American Entertainers, 1890-1960. McFarland & Co. ISBN 9780786457267.  ^ "Post Civil War: Freedmen and Civil Rights". National Archives. August 15, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2017.  ^ "The Foundation." Ella Fitzgerald, Universal Music Enterprises, www.ellafitzgerald.com/foundation. ^ Wilson, John S. "A Tribute to Fitzgerald With Heart and Soul." The New York Times, The New York Times, February 11, 1990, www.nytimes.com/1990/02/12/arts/a-tribute-to-fitzgerald-with-heart-and-soul.html. ^ Easterling, Michael. "CELEBRATING 100 YEARS OF SONG." Breakthroughs, City of Hope, April 24, 2017, www.cityofhope.org/celebrating-ella-fitzgerald. ^ Bishop, Elizabeth, and Robert Giroux. One Art: Letters. Pimlico, 1996. ^ Wong, Hannah. "'First Lady of Song' LC Collection Tells Ella Fitzgerald Story". LOC. Retrieved March 19, 2013.  ^ "Past Winners Search". Grammy
Grammy
Awards. The Recording Academy. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ Grein, Paul (December 13, 2013). "The GRAMMYs' Biggest Winners: The '50s And '60s". Grammy
Grammy
Awards. The Recording Academy. Retrieved October 6, 2014.  ^ "Log in". 0-web.a.ebscohost.com.library.unl.edu. Retrieved October 31, 2016.  ^ "Calendar & Events: Spring Sing: Gershwin Award". UCLA. Archived from the original on August 17, 2011.  ^ "Partial List of Harvard Honorary Degrees". Harvard University. Retrieved May 30, 2013.  ^ "France Gall". Radio Swizz Jazz. Retrieved March 25, 2015.  ^ Graff, Gary (October 30, 2012). "Rod Stewart: I Thought Christmas Album Was 'Beneath Me'". Billboard. Retrieved February 23, 2014.  ^ "New Stamp Honors First Lady of Song". WHSV News 3. January 9, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2009.  ^ Batty, David (April 25, 2013). "Google celebrates Ella Fitzgerald with doodle on 96th birthday". Guardian. Retrieved September 9, 2017.  ^ Smith, Patrick (April 25, 2013). " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
celebrated in Google Doodle; 'The Queen of Jazz' Ella Fitzgearld is commemorated with a Google Doodle
Google Doodle
on what would have been her 96th birthday". The Telegraph Online. Retrieved September 9, 2017.  ^ "Ella at 100, Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
- The First Lady of Song - BBC Radio 2". bbc.co.uk. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017. 

General

Gourse, Leslie (1998). The Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Companion. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-6916-7.  Johnson, J. Wilfred (2001). Ella Fitzgerald: An Annotated Discography. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0906-1.  Nicholson, Stuart (1996). Ella Fitzgerald: 1917–1996. London: Indigo. ISBN 978-0-575-40032-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Library resources about Ella Fitzgerald

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Ella Fitzgerald

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Gourse, Leslie. (1998) The Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Companion: Seven Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Ltd.; ISBN 0-02-864625-8 Johnson, J. Wilfred. (2001) Ella Fitzgerald: A Complete Annotated Discography. McFarland & Co Inc.; ISBN 0-7864-0906-1

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ella Fitzgerald.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ella Fitzgerald

Book: Ella Fitzgerald

African American
African American
portal Biography portal Music portal

Official website Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
on IMDb Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
at Find a Grave Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
at the Library of Congress 'Remembering Ella' by Phillip D. Atteberry Listen to Big Band Serenade podcast, episode 6 Includes complete NBC remote broadcast of " Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
& her Orchestra" from the Roseland Ballroom
Roseland Ballroom
(or download)

v t e

Ella Fitzgerald

Studio albums

Ella Sings Gershwin Songs in a Mellow Mood Lullabies of Birdland For Sentimental Reasons Miss Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
& Mr Gordon Jenkins Invite You to Listen and Relax Sweet and Hot Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Cole Porter Song Book Ella and Louis Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Rodgers & Hart Song Book Ella and Louis
Ella and Louis
Again Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
Song Book Like Someone in Love Porgy and Bess Ella Swings Lightly Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Irving Berlin Song Book Get Happy! Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings Sweet Songs for Swingers Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the George and Ira Gershwin Song Book Ella Wishes You a Swinging Christmas Hello, Love Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings Songs from "Let No Man Write My Epitaph" Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Harold Arlen Songbook Clap Hands, Here Comes Charlie! Rhythm Is My Business Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson Ella Swings Gently with Nelson Ella Sings Broadway Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Jerome Kern Song Book Ella and Basie! These Are the Blues Hello, Dolly! Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Sings the Johnny Mercer Song Book Ella at Duke's Place Whisper Not Brighten the Corner Ella Fitzgerald's Christmas 30 by Ella Misty Blue Ella Things Ain't What They Used to Be (And You Better Believe It) Ella Loves Cole Take Love Easy Fine and Mellow Ella and Oscar Fitzgerald and Pass... Again Lady Time Dream Dancing A Classy Pair Ella Abraça Jobim The Best Is Yet to Come Speak Love Nice Work If You Can Get It Easy Living All That Jazz

Live albums

At the Opera House Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
and Billie Holiday
Billie Holiday
at Newport Ella in Rome: The Birthday Concert Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Live at Mister Kelly's Ella in Berlin: Mack the Knife Ella in Hollywood Ella Returns to Berlin Twelve Nights in Hollywood Ella at Juan-Les-Pins Ella in Hamburg Ella and Duke at the Cote D'Azur Sunshine of Your Love Newport Jazz
Jazz
Festival: Live at Carnegie Hall The Stockholm Concert, 1966 Ella in Budapest Ella à Nice Jazz
Jazz
at Santa Monica Civic '72 Ella in London Montreux '75 Montreux '77 Digital III at Montreux A Perfect Match Sophisticated Lady

Other albums

Songs from Pete Kelly's Blues One O'Clock Jump Back on the Block The Complete Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
Song Books Pure Ella The Complete Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
& Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
on Verve Jukebox Ella: The Complete Verve Singles, Vol. 1 Gold

Tribute albums

Dear Ella To Ella We All Love Ella: Celebrating the First Lady of Song

Filmography

Ride 'Em Cowboy Pete Kelly's Blues St. Louis Blues

Related topics

Discography Awards Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
collaborations A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim

Book Category

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1970s)

1978

Marian Anderson Fred Astaire George Balanchine Richard Rodgers Arthur Rubinstein

1979

Aaron Copland Ella Fitzgerald Henry Fonda Martha Graham Tennessee Williams

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

v t e

Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame

1970–1979

1973

Jane Addams Marian Anderson Susan B. Anthony Clara Barton Mary McLeod Bethune Elizabeth Blackwell Pearl S. Buck Rachel Carson Mary Cassatt Emily Dickinson Amelia Earhart Alice Hamilton Helen Hayes Helen Keller Eleanor Roosevelt Florence Sabin Margaret Chase Smith Elizabeth Cady Stanton Helen Brooke Taussig Harriet Tubman

1976

Abigail Adams Margaret Mead Mildred "Babe" Didrikson Zaharias

1979

Dorothea Dix Juliette Gordon Low Alice Paul Elizabeth Bayley Seton

1980–1989

1981

Margaret Sanger Sojourner Truth

1982

Carrie Chapman Catt Frances Perkins

1983

Belva Lockwood Lucretia Mott

1984

Mary "Mother" Harris Jones Bessie Smith

1986

Barbara McClintock Lucy Stone Harriet Beecher Stowe

1988

Gwendolyn Brooks Willa Cather Sally Ride Ida B. Wells-Barnett

1990–1999

1990

Margaret Bourke-White Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Florence B. Seibert

1991

Gertrude Belle Elion

1993

Ethel Percy Andrus Antoinette Blackwell Emily Blackwell Shirley Chisholm Jacqueline Cochran Ruth Colvin Marian Wright Edelman Alice Evans Betty Friedan Ella Grasso Martha Wright Griffiths Fannie Lou Hamer Dorothy Height Dolores Huerta Mary Jacobi Mae Jemison Mary Lyon Mary Mahoney Wilma Mankiller Constance Baker Motley Georgia O'Keeffe Annie Oakley Rosa Parks Esther Peterson Jeannette Rankin Ellen Swallow Richards Elaine Roulet Katherine Siva Saubel Gloria Steinem Helen Stephens Lillian Wald Madam C. J. Walker Faye Wattleton Rosalyn S. Yalow Gloria Yerkovich

1994

Bella Abzug Ella Baker Myra Bradwell Annie Jump Cannon Jane Cunningham Croly Catherine East Geraldine Ferraro Charlotte Perkins Gilman Grace Hopper Helen LaKelly Hunt Zora Neale Hurston Anne Hutchinson Frances Wisebart Jacobs Susette La Flesche Louise McManus Maria Mitchell Antonia Novello Linda Richards Wilma Rudolph Betty Bone Schiess Muriel Siebert Nettie Stevens Oprah Winfrey Sarah Winnemucca Fanny Wright

1995

Virginia Apgar Ann Bancroft Amelia Bloomer Mary Breckinridge Eileen Collins Elizabeth Hanford Dole Anne Dallas Dudley Mary Baker Eddy Ella Fitzgerald Margaret Fuller Matilda Joslyn Gage Lillian Moller Gilbreth Nannerl O. Keohane Maggie Kuhn Sandra Day O'Connor Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin Pat Schroeder Hannah Greenebaum Solomon

1996

Louisa May Alcott Charlotte Anne Bunch Frances Xavier Cabrini Mary A. Hallaren Oveta Culp Hobby Wilhelmina Cole Holladay Anne Morrow Lindbergh Maria Goeppert-Mayer Ernestine Louise Potowski Rose Maria Tallchief Edith Wharton

1998

Madeleine Albright Maya Angelou Nellie Bly Lydia Moss Bradley Mary Steichen Calderone Mary Ann Shadd
Mary Ann Shadd
Cary Joan Ganz Cooney Gerty Cori Sarah Grimké Julia Ward Howe Shirley Ann Jackson Shannon Lucid Katharine Dexter McCormick Rozanne L. Ridgway Edith Nourse Rogers Felice Schwartz Eunice Kennedy Shriver Beverly Sills Florence Wald Angelina Grimké
Angelina Grimké
Weld Chien-Shiung Wu

2000–2009

2000

Faye Glenn Abdellah Emma Smith DeVoe Marjory Stoneman Douglas Mary Dyer Sylvia A. Earle Crystal Eastman Jeanne Holm Leontine T. Kelly Frances Oldham Kelsey Kate Mullany Janet Reno Anna Howard Shaw Sophia Smith Ida Tarbell Wilma L. Vaught Mary Edwards Walker Annie Dodge Wauneka Eudora Welty Frances E. Willard

2001

Dorothy H. Andersen Lucille Ball Rosalynn Carter Lydia Maria Child Bessie Coleman Dorothy Day Marian de Forest Althea Gibson Beatrice A. Hicks Barbara Holdridge Harriet Williams Russell Strong Emily Howell Warner Victoria Woodhull

2002

Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis Ruth Bader Ginsburg Katharine Graham Bertha Holt Mary Engle Pennington Mercy Otis Warren

2003

Linda G. Alvarado Donna de Varona Gertrude Ederle Martha Matilda Harper Patricia Roberts Harris Stephanie L. Kwolek Dorothea Lange Mildred Robbins Leet Patsy Takemoto Mink Sacagawea Anne Sullivan Sheila E. Widnall

2005

Florence Ellinwood Allen Ruth Fulton Benedict Betty Bumpers Hillary Clinton Rita Rossi Colwell Mother Marianne Cope Maya Y. Lin Patricia A. Locke Blanche Stuart Scott Mary Burnett Talbert

2007

Eleanor K. Baum Julia Child Martha Coffin Pelham Wright Swanee Hunt Winona LaDuke Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Judith L. Pipher Catherine Filene Shouse Henrietta Szold

2009

Louise Bourgeois Mildred Cohn Karen DeCrow Susan Kelly-Dreiss Allie B. Latimer Emma Lazarus Ruth Patrick Rebecca Talbot Perkins Susan Solomon Kate Stoneman

2010–2019

2011

St. Katharine Drexel Dorothy Harrison Eustis Loretta C. Ford Abby Kelley
Abby Kelley
Foster Helen Murray Free Billie Holiday Coretta Scott King Lilly Ledbetter Barbara A. Mikulski Donna E. Shalala Kathrine Switzer

2013

Betty Ford Ina May Gaskin Julie Krone Kate Millett Nancy Pelosi Mary Joseph Rogers Bernice Sandler Anna Schwartz Emma Willard

2015

Tenley Albright Nancy Brinker Martha Graham Marcia Greenberger Barbara Iglewski Jean Kilbourne Carlotta Walls LaNier Philippa Marrack Mary Harriman Rumsey Eleanor Smeal

2017

Matilda Cuomo Temple Grandin Lorraine Hansberry Victoria Jackson Sherry Lansing Clare Boothe Luce Aimee Mullins Carol Mutter Janet Rowley Alice Waters

v t e

Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year

1951–1975

Gertrude Lawrence
Gertrude Lawrence
(1951) Barbara Bel Geddes
Barbara Bel Geddes
(1952) Mamie Eisenhower
Mamie Eisenhower
(1953) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1954) Debbie Reynolds
Debbie Reynolds
(1955) Peggy Ann Garner
Peggy Ann Garner
(1956) Carroll Baker
Carroll Baker
(1957) Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
(1958) Joanne Woodward
Joanne Woodward
(1959) Carol Lawrence
Carol Lawrence
(1960) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(1961) Piper Laurie
Piper Laurie
(1962) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(1963) Rosalind Russell
Rosalind Russell
(1964) Lee Remick
Lee Remick
(1965) Ethel Merman
Ethel Merman
(1966) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1967) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
(1968) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
(1969) Dionne Warwick
Dionne Warwick
(1970) Carol Channing
Carol Channing
(1971) Ruby Keeler
Ruby Keeler
(1972) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1973) Faye Dunaway
Faye Dunaway
(1974) Valerie Harper
Valerie Harper
(1975)

1976–2000

Bette Midler
Bette Midler
(1976) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1977) Beverly Sills
Beverly Sills
(1978) Candice Bergen
Candice Bergen
(1979) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(1980) Mary Tyler Moore
Mary Tyler Moore
(1981) Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald
(1982) Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
(1983) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
(1984) Cher
Cher
(1985) Sally Field
Sally Field
(1986) Bernadette Peters
Bernadette Peters
(1987) Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
(1988) Kathleen Turner
Kathleen Turner
(1989) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1990) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(1991) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(1992) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1993) Meg Ryan
Meg Ryan
(1994) Michelle Pfeiffer
Michelle Pfeiffer
(1995) Susan Sarandon
Susan Sarandon
(1996) Julia Roberts
Julia Roberts
(1997) Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver
(1998) Goldie Hawn
Goldie Hawn
(1999) Jamie Lee Curtis
Jamie Lee Curtis
(2000)

2001–present

Drew Barrymore
Drew Barrymore
(2001) Sarah Jessica Parker
Sarah Jessica Parker
(2002) Anjelica Huston
Anjelica Huston
(2003) Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
(2004) Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones
(2005) Halle Berry
Halle Berry
(2006) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2007) Charlize Theron
Charlize Theron
(2008) Renée Zellweger
Renée Zellweger
(2009) Anne Hathaway
Anne Hathaway
(2010) Julianne Moore
Julianne Moore
(2011) Claire Danes
Claire Danes
(2012) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Amy Poehler
Amy Poehler
(2015) Kerry Washington
Kerry Washington
(2016) Octavia Spencer
Octavia Spencer
(2017) Mila Kunis
Mila Kunis
(2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6148211 LCCN: n83021406 ISNI: 0000 0001 0854 8546 GND: 118691554 SELIBR: 186972 SUDOC: 02945333X BNF: cb13893960w (data) BIBSYS: 99041459 ULAN: 500355437 MusicBrainz: 54799c0e-eb45-4eea-996d-c4d71a63c499 NDL: 00620660 NKC: jn20000700537 ICCU: ITICCUTO0V268247 BNE: XX852316 SN

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