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Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(/ˈɛlɪhjuː ˈruːt/; February 15, 1845 – February 7, 1937) was an American lawyer and statesman who served as the Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and as Secretary of War
Secretary of War
under Roosevelt and President William McKinley. He moved frequently between high-level appointed government positions in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and private-sector legal practice in New York City. For that reason, he is sometimes considered to be the prototype of the 20th century political "wise man," advising presidents on a range of foreign and domestic issues. He was elected by the state legislature as a U.S. Senator from New York
U.S. Senator from New York
and served one term, 1909–1915. Root was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1912. Root was a leading lawyer, whose clients included major corporations and such powerful players as Andrew Carnegie. Root served as president or chairman of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. As Secretary of War
Secretary of War
under McKinley and Roosevelt, Root designed American policies for the new colonial possessions, especially the Philippines and Cuba. His role in suppressing a Filipino revolt angered anti-imperialist activists at home. Root favored a paternalistic approach to colonial administration, emphasizing technology, engineering, and disinterested public service, as exemplified by the ethical standards of the Progressive Era. He helped design the Foraker Act of 1900, the Philippine Organic Act (1902), and the Platt Amendment
Platt Amendment
of 1901, which authorized American intervention in Cuba in the future if needed to maintain a stable government. He was a strong advocate of what became the Panama Canal, and he championed the Open Door to expand world trade with China.[1] Root was the leading modernizer in the history of the War Department, transforming the Army from a motley collection of small frontier outposts and coastal defense units into a modern, professionally organized, military machine comparable to the best in Europe. He restructured the National Guard into an effective reserve, and created the Army War College for the advanced study of military doctrine and most important set up a general staff. As Secretary of State under Theodore Roosevelt, Root modernized the consular service by minimizing patronage, promoted friendly relations with Latin America, and resolved frictions with Japan over the immigration of unskilled workers to the West Coast. He negotiated 24 bilateral treaties that committed the United States and other signatories to use arbitration to resolve disputes, which led to the creation of the Permanent Court of International Justice.[2][3] In the United States Senate, Root was part of the conservative Republican support network for President William Howard Taft. He played a central role at the Republican National Convention in 1912 in getting Taft renominated. By 1916–17, he was a leading proponent of preparedness, with the expectation the United States would enter World War I. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
sent him to Russia
Russia
in 1917 in an unsuccessful effort to establish an alliance with the new revolutionary government that had replaced the czar.[4] Root supported Wilson's vision of the League of Nations, but with reservations along the lines proposed by Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Law career 3 U.S Attorney and Secretary of War 4 Secretary of State 5 United States Senator 6 World War 7 Later career 8 Personal 9 Death and legacy 10 Works by Elihu Root 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Early life and education[edit] Elihu Root
Elihu Root
was born in Clinton, New York, to Oren Root and Nancy Whitney Buttrick, both of English descent.[5] His father was professor of mathematics at Hamilton College. After studying at local schools, including Williston Seminary, where he was a classmate of G. Stanley Hall, Elihu enrolled in college at Hamilton. He joined the Sigma Phi Society and was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa Society[6] After graduation, Root was an instructor of physical education for two years at Williston Seminary, and taught for one year at the Rome (N.Y.) Free Academy.[citation needed] Despite his parents' encouragement to become a Presbyterian minister, Root went to New York City
New York City
to attend New York University School of Law,[7] from which he graduated in 1867. His brother Oren then became a minister and followed in their father's footsteps as Mathematics professor at Hamilton.[8] Law career[edit] After admission to the New York bar, Root went into private practice as a lawyer. While mainly focusing on corporate law, Root was a junior defense counsel for William "Boss" Tweed during his corruption trial. Among Root's prominent and wealthy private clients were Jay Gould, Chester A. Arthur, Charles Anderson Dana, William C. Whitney, Thomas Fortune Ryan, and E. H. Harriman. Root was among the friends who were present when Arthur was informed that James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
had died, and that Arthur had succeeded to the presidency.[9] He served as the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York
United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York
from March 12, 1883 to July 6, 1885.[10] Root's law practice, which he began in 1868, evolved into the law firm Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts, a predecessor of today's Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman.[11] On January 19, 1898, at elections for the newly formed North American Trust Company, the elected members of the executive committee included Root.[12] U.S Attorney and Secretary of War[edit]

Crowds listen as Root delivers the opening speech of the 1904 Republican National Convention

Root received his first political appointment from President Chester A. Arthur, when he was named as the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. Under presidents William McKinley
William McKinley
and Theodore Roosevelt, Root served as the United States Secretary of War
United States Secretary of War
1899–1904. He reformed the organization of the War Department. He enlarged West Point and established the U.S. Army War College, as well as the General Staff. He changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He also devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line. Root was concerned about the new territories acquired after the Spanish–American War. He worked out the procedures for turning Cuba over to the Cubans, ensured a charter of government for the Philippines, and eliminated tariffs on goods imported to the United States from Puerto Rico. When the Anti-Imperialist League attacked American policies in the Philippines, Root defended the policies and counterattacked the critics, saying they prolonged the insurgency.[13] During the summer of 1902, Root visited Europe, including France and Germany.[14] Root left the cabinet in 1904 and returned to private practice as a lawyer. Secretary of State[edit]

Root with William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
in 1904.

In 1905, President Roosevelt named Root as the United States Secretary of State after the death of John Hay. As secretary, Root placed the consular service under the civil service. He maintained the Open Door Policy in the Far East. On a tour to Latin America in 1906, Root persuaded those governments to participate in the Hague Peace Conference. He worked with Japan to limit emigration to the United States and on dealings with China. He established the Root–Takahira Agreement, which limited Japanese and American naval fortifications in the Pacific. He worked with Great Britain in arbitration of issues between the United States and Canada on the Alaska boundary dispute, and competition in the North Atlantic fisheries. He supported arbitration in resolving international disputes. United States Senator[edit] In January 1909, Root was elected by the legislature as a U.S. Senator from New York, serving from March 4, 1909 to March 3, 1915. He was a member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. He chose not to seek re-election in 1914. During and after his Senate service, Root served as president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, from 1910 to 1925. In a 1910 letter published by The New York Times, Root supported the proposed income tax amendment, which was ratified as the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution:

It is said that a very large part of any income tax under the amendment would be paid by citizens of New York....

The reason why the citizens of New York will pay so large a part of the tax is New York City
New York City
is the chief financial and commercial centre of a great country with vast resources and industrial activity. For many years Americans engaged in developing the wealth of all parts of the country have been going to New York to secure capital and market their securities and to buy their supplies. Thousands of men who have amassed fortunes in all sorts of enterprises in other states have gone to New York to live because they like the life of the city or because their distant enterprises require representation at the financial centre. The incomes of New York are in a great measure derived from the country at large. A continual stream of wealth sets toward the great city from the mines and manufactories and railroads outside of New York.[15]

Professor Alfred McCoy argues that Root was the first "foreign policy grandmaster" in American history, and that Root more than any other figure is responsible for transforming America into a world power. According to McCoy, Root devoted his time as Secretary of State and as a Senator to ensuring that the United States would have a consistent presence in world affairs, and Root helped to establish the Special Relationship between the United States and Great Britain. Root helped to ensure that powerful business interests and the intellectual elite supported an interventionist foreign policy.[16] World War[edit] In 1912, as a result of his work to bring nations together through arbitration and cooperation, Root received the Nobel Peace Prize.

Portrait of Elihu Root

At the outbreak of World War I, Root opposed President Woodrow Wilson's policy of neutrality. Root promoted the Preparedness Movement to get the United States ready for actual participation in the war. He was a leading advocate of American entry into the war on the side of the British and French, because he feared the militarism of Germany would be bad for the world and bad for the United States. See also: American entry into World War I He supported Wilson once the United States entered the war. In June 1916, he scotched talk that he might contend for the Republican presidential nomination, stating that he was too old to bear the burden of the Presidency.[17] At the Republican National Convention, Root reached his peak strength of 103 votes on the first ballot. The Republican presidential nomination went to Charles Evans Hughes, who lost the election to the Democrat Woodrow Wilson. In June 1917, at age 72, Root went to Russia, which had just overthrown the czar. He headed a mission sent by President Wilson, the Root Commission, to arrange American co-operation with the new revolutionary government. Root remained in Petrograd for close to a month, and was not much impressed by what he saw. American financial aid to the new regime was possible only if the Russians would fight on the Allied side. The Russians, he said, "are sincerely, kindly, good people but confused and dazed." He summed up the Provisional Government very trenchantly: "No fight, no loans.".[18] This caused the Provisional government to initiate offensives against Austrian forces in July 1917 that ended in failure and retreat of Russian forces. The resulting steep decline in popularity of the Provisional government opened the door for the Bolshevik party.[19] Root was the founding chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, established in 1918 in New York. Later career[edit] In the Senate fight in 1919 over American membership in the League of Nations, Root supported Lodge's proposal of membership with certain reservations that allowed the United States government to decide whether or not it would go to war. The US never joined, but Root supported the League of Nations
League of Nations
and served on the commission of jurists, which created the Permanent Court of International Justice. In 1922, when Root was 77, President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
appointed him as a delegate of an American team headed by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. They participated in the Washington Naval Conference (International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments).[20]

Root's former home in Washington, D.C.

Root also worked with Andrew Carnegie
Andrew Carnegie
in programs for international peace and the advancement of science, becoming the first president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Root was also among the founders of the American Law Institute[21] in 1923, and also helped create the Hague Academy of International Law
Hague Academy of International Law
in the Netherlands. Root served as vice president of the American Peace Society, which publishes World Affairs, the oldest U.S. journal on international relations. In addition to receiving the Nobel Prize, Root was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (from Belgium) and the Grand Commander of the Order of George I (from Greece). Root joined the Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
Sons of the American Revolution
in 1895, based on his descent from Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(1772–1843), and was the second cousin twice removed of publisher Henry Luce. Root was the last surviving member of the McKinley Cabinet. Personal[edit] After getting established, in 1878 at the age of 33, Root married Clara Frances Wales (died in 1928). She was the daughter of Salem Wales, the managing editor of Scientific American. They had three children: Edith (who married Ulysses S. Grant III), Elihu, Jr. (who became a lawyer), and Edward Wales Root (who became Professor of Art at Hamilton College). Root was a member of the Union League Club of New York
Union League Club of New York
and twice served as its president, 1898–99, and again from 1915–16. He also served as president of the New York City
New York City
Bar Association from 1904–1905. Death and legacy[edit] Root died in 1937 in New York City, with his family by his side. His son, Elihu Root, Jr., like his father graduated from Hamilton College and became an attorney (as well as married the daughter of Hamilton's president, M. Woolsey Stryker).[22] His daughter Edith married Ulysses S. Grant III. A simple service was held in Clinton, led by Episcopal bishop E.H. Coley of the Episcopal Diocese of Central New York.[23] Root is buried along with his wife Clara (who died in 1928) at the Hamilton College Cemetery. During World War II the Liberty ship
Liberty ship
SS  Elihu Root
Elihu Root
was built in Panama City, Florida, and named in his honor.[24] Root's home in Clinton, which he purchased in 1893, became known as the Elihu Root
Elihu Root
House, and was declared a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
in 1972. The United States Army Reserve Base in New York Mills, New York bears his name.

Elihu Root
Elihu Root
Gold Medal

The Elihu Root
Elihu Root
Gold Medal is awarded to the six highest scoring civilian competitors in the National Trophy Rifle Team Match and are subsequently named as team members. The captain and coach of the highest-scoring civilian team are named as the coach and captain of the team. All eight members receive Elihu Root
Elihu Root
gold medals. Works by Elihu Root[edit]

Citizen's Part in Government. Yale University Press, 1911. Experiments in Government and the Essentials of the Constitution. Princeton University Press, 1913. Addresses on International Subjects. Harvard University Press, 1916. Military and Colonial Policy of the United States. Harvard University Press, 1916. Miscellaneous Addresses. Harvard University Press, 1917. Men and Policies: Addresses by Elihu Root. Harvard University Press, 1925.

See also[edit]

List of people on the cover of Time magazine (1920s): 18 October 1926

Notes[edit]

^ Robert Muccigrosso, ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 3:1329–33 ^ Cross, Graham (2012). The Diplomatic Education of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1882-1933. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-137-01453-5.  ^ Muccigrosso, ed., Research Guide to American Historical Biography (1988) 3:1330 ^ "Tells How Allies Failed in Russia: Col. Robins Says Boastful American Propaganda Led Russian Army to Quit; Root Mission Knifed Here". New York Times. March 7, 1919. p. 18.  ^ The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography: Being the History of the United States as Illustrated in the Lives of the Founders, Builders, and Defenders of the Republic, and of the Men and Women who are Doing the Work and Moulding the Thought of the Present Time, Volume 11 page 15 ^ History of the Society Archived 2009-07-09 at the Wayback Machine., Rutgers.edu, accessed Oct 9, 2009 ^ http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/constitutional-conservatives-in-the-progressive-era-elihu-root-william-howard-taft-and-henry-cabot-lodge-sr ^ http://threerivershms.com/rcautica.htm ^ "Chester A. Arthur, Theta '48, Second to take Oath in New York as President". The Diamond of Psi Upsilon. Chicago, IL: Psi Upsilon Fraternity. January 1, 1930. p. 106.  ^ Hartford, William J. (January 1, 1900). "Hon Elihu Root, Secretary of War". The Successful American. New York, NY: Press Biographical Company. p. 26.  ^ "Pillsbury. At-a-Glance" (PDF). Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman. Retrieved 16 November 2017.  ^ "A Place for Colonel Trenholm; Head of North American Trust Company -- W.S. Johnston Succeeds Him in American Surety." The New York Times. New York City, United States. January 20, 1898. Retrieved July 16, 2017.  ^ James R. Arnold (2011). The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902–1913. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 171–72.  ^ "The United States and France". The Times (36835). London. 1 August 1902. p. 3.  ^ "Root For Adoption of Tax Amendment," New York Times, March 1, 1910 ^ McCoy, Alfred (15 September 2015). " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Is a Foreign Policy Grandmaster". The Nation. Retrieved 14 November 2015.  ^ Stefan Lorant, The Glorious Burden (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), page 540. ^ David Mayers (1997). The Ambassadors and America's Soviet Policy. Oxford University Press. p. 77.  ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1984/11/07/opinion/us-aid-to-the-bolsheviks.html ^ u-s-history.com Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference
– Retrieved 2011-12-18 ^ American Law Institute
American Law Institute
- Certification of Incorporation - Feb 23, 1923 ^ Exhibition by Elihu Root, Jr. at Hamilton College (https://www.hamilton.edu/gallery/exhibitions/history-of-exhibitions/elihu-root-jr-class-of-1903-lawyer-painter) ^ http://cdsun.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/cornell?a=d&d=CDS19370210.2.33&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN------# ^ Williams, Greg H. (25 July 2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O’Brien. McFarland. ISBN 1476617546. Retrieved 7 December 2017. 

References[edit]

Hewes, James E., Jr. From Root to McNamara: Army Organization and Administration, 1900–1963 (1975) Jessup, Phillip C. Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(1938), the standard biography Leopold, Richard W. Elihu Root
Elihu Root
and the Conservative Tradition (1954) Zimmermann, Warren. First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power (2004) excerpt and text search The National Cyclopædia of American Biography. (1939) Vol. XXVI. New York: James T. White & Co. pp. 1–5. Needham, Henry Beach (November 1905). "Mr. Root and the State Department". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XI: 6835–6840. Retrieved 2009-07-10.  Ten Eyck, Andrew (October 19, 1921). " Elihu Root
Elihu Root
- A Study Of The Man And His Ways". The Outlook. 129: 429–430. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 

Ferraioli, GianPaolo, L'Italia e l'ascesa degli Stati Uniti al rango di potenza mondiale (1896-1909). Diplomazia, dibattito pubblico, emigrazione durante le amministrazioni di William McKinley
William McKinley
e Theodore Roosevelt, Napoli, Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, 2013.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elihu Root.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Elihu Root

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Elihu Root.

United States Congress. " Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(id: R000430)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Nobel Biography Elihu Root About Elihu Root State Department Biography Works by Elihu Root
Elihu Root
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Elihu Root
Elihu Root
at Internet Archive Cathedral Building: An Index of National Character, by Elihu Root
Elihu Root
1922 CFR Website - Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 History of the Council by Peter Grose, a Council member.

Political offices

Preceded by Russell A. Alger U.S. Secretary of War Served under: William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt August 1, 1899 – January 31, 1904 Succeeded by William Howard Taft

Preceded by John Hay U.S. Secretary of State Served under: Theodore Roosevelt July 19, 1905 – January 27, 1909 Succeeded by Robert Bacon

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Thomas C. Platt U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New York March 4, 1909 – March 3, 1915 Served alongside: Chauncey Depew, James O'Gorman Succeeded by James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr.

Honorary titles

Preceded by Adelbert Ames Oldest living U.S. Senator April 12, 1933 – February 7, 1937 Succeeded by Newell Sanders

v t e

United States Secretaries of War and the Army

Department of War (1789–1947)

Secretaries of War

B. Lincoln Knox Pickering McHenry Dexter Dearborn Eustis Armstrong Monroe W. Crawford Calhoun Barbour P. Porter Eaton Cass Poinsett Bell Spencer J. Porter Wilkins Marcy G. Crawford Conrad J. Davis Floyd Holt S. Cameron Stanton Schofield Rawlins Belknap A. Taft J. Cameron McCrary Ramsey R. Lincoln Endicott Proctor Elkins Lamont Alger Root W. Taft Wright Dickinson Stimson Garrison Baker Weeks D. Davis Good Hurley Dern Woodring Stimson Patterson Royall

Assistant Secretaries of War

Scott Watson Tucker Wolcott Dana Eckert Grant Doe Meiklejohn Sanger Oliver Breckinridge Ingraham Crowell Williams Wainwright D. Davis MacNider Robbins Hurley Payne Woodring L. Johnson Patterson McCloy Petersen

Under Secretaries of War

Patterson Royall Draper

Department of the Army (1947–present)

Secretaries of the Army

Royall Gray Pace Stevens Brucker Stahr Vance Ailes Resor Froehlke Callaway Hoffmann C. Alexander Marsh Stone West Caldera White Harvey Geren McHugh Fanning Esper

Under Secretaries of the Army

Draper Gray Voorhees A. Alexander Bendetsen E. Johnson Slezak Finucane Milton Ailes Ignatius Resor McGiffert Beal BeLieu Staudt Augustine LaBerge Ambrose Stone Shannon Reeder Walker Rostker Dahlberg Brownlee Geren Ford Westphal Carson Murphy McCarthy

v t e

United States Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

United States Senators from New York

Class 1

Schuyler Burr Schuyler Hobart North Watson Morris Bailey Armstrong Mitchill German Sanford Van Buren Dudley Tallmadge Dickinson Fish P. King Morgan Fenton Kernan Platt Miller Hiscock Murphy Depew O'Gorman Calder Copeland Mead Ives Keating Kennedy Goodell Buckley Moynihan H. Clinton Gillibrand

Class 3

R. King Laurance Armstrong D. Clinton Armstrong Smith R. King Sanford Marcy Wright Foster Dix Seward Harris Conkling Lapham Evarts Hill Platt Root Wadsworth Wagner Dulles Lehman Javits D'Amato Schumer

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Cabinet of President William McKinley
William McKinley
(1897–1901)

Secretary of State

John Sherman
John Sherman
(1897–98) William R. Day
William R. Day
(1898) John Milton Hay (1898–1901)

Secretary of the Treasury

Lyman J. Gage
Lyman J. Gage
(1897–1901)

Secretary of War

Russell A. Alger
Russell A. Alger
(1897–99) Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(1899–1901)

Attorney General

Joseph McKenna
Joseph McKenna
(1897–98) John W. Griggs
John W. Griggs
(1898–1901) Philander C. Knox
Philander C. Knox
(1901)

Postmaster General

James A. Gary (1897–98) Charles Emory Smith
Charles Emory Smith
(1898–1901)

Secretary of the Navy

John D. Long (1897–1901)

Secretary of the Interior

Cornelius N. Bliss (1897–99) Ethan A. Hitchcock (1899–1901)

Secretary of Agriculture

James Wilson (1897–1901)

v t e

Cabinet of President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–09)

Secretary of State

John Milton Hay (1901–05) Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(1905–09) Robert Bacon
Robert Bacon
(1909)

Secretary of the Treasury

Lyman J. Gage
Lyman J. Gage
(1901–02) Leslie M. Shaw (1902–07) George B. Cortelyou
George B. Cortelyou
(1907–09)

Secretary of War

Elihu Root
Elihu Root
(1901–04) William H. Taft (1904–08) Luke E. Wright (1908–09)

Attorney General

Philander C. Knox
Philander C. Knox
(1901–04) William H. Moody (1904–06) Charles J. Bonaparte (1906–09)

Postmaster General

Charles Emory Smith
Charles Emory Smith
(1901–02) Henry C. Payne (1902–04) Robert J. Wynne (1904–05) George B. Cortelyou
George B. Cortelyou
(1905–07) George von L. Meyer (1907–09)

Secretary of the Navy

John D. Long (1901–02) William H. Moody (1902–04) Paul Morton
Paul Morton
(1904–05) Charles J. Bonaparte (1905–06) Victor H. Metcalf (1906–08) Truman H. Newberry (1908–09)

Secretary of the Interior

Ethan A. Hitchcock (1901–07) James R. Garfield (1907–09)

Secretary of Agriculture

James Wilson (1901–09)

Secretary of Commerce and Labor

George B. Cortelyou
George B. Cortelyou
(1903–04) Victor H. Metcalf (1904–06) Oscar S. Straus (1906–09)

v t e

(1912 ←) United States presidential election, 1916
United States presidential election, 1916
(→ 1920)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Woodrow Wilson

VP nominee

Thomas R. Marshall

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Charles Evans Hughes

VP nominee

Charles W. Fairbanks

Candidiates:

John W. Weeks Elihu Root Charles W. Fairbanks Albert B. Cummins Theodore E. Burton

Third party and independent candidates

Socialist Party

Nominee

Allan L. Benson

VP nominee

George Ross Kirkpatrick

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Frank Hanly

VP nominee

Ira Landrith

Other 1916 elections: House Senate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32065073 LCCN: n50048409 ISNI: 0000 0000 8111 1300 GND: 119243342 SUDOC: 032008066 BNF: cb12311912w (data) NLA: 35461192 US Congress: R000

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