Elbridge Gerry (/ˈɡɛri/; July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) –
November 23, 1814) was an American statesman and diplomat. As a
Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth Vice President of the
United States from March 1813 until his death in November 1814. He is
known best for being the namesake of gerrymandering, a process by
which electoral districts are drawn with the aim of aiding the party
in power, although its initial "g" has recently softened to /dʒ/ from
the hard /ɡ/ of his name.
Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British
colonial policy in the 1760s, and was active in the early stages of
organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected
to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration
of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He was one of three
men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to
United States Constitution
United States Constitution because it did not then include a
Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural
United States Congress, where he was actively involved in drafting and
passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state
Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, and
cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide
between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. He was a member of a
diplomatic delegation to
France that was treated poorly in the XYZ
Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in
negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running
Governor of Massachusetts
Governor of Massachusetts several times before
winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature
approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the
word "gerrymander"; he lost the next election, although the state
senate remained Democratic-Republican. Chosen by Madison as his vice
presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and
a half into his term. He is the only signer of the Declaration of
Independence who is buried in Washington, D.C.
1 Early life
2 Early political career
3 Congress and Revolution
4 Constitutional Convention
4.1 Advocating indirect elections
4.2 Voting against proposed constitution
4.3 State ratification; Bill of Rights
5 United States House of Representatives
6 XYZ Affair
7 Governor of Massachusetts
8 Vice Presidency and death
11 Further reading
12 External links
Elbridge Gerry was born on July 17, 1744, in Marblehead,
Massachusetts. His father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating
ships out of Marblehead, and his mother, Elizabeth (Greenleaf) Gerry,
was the daughter of a successful
Boston merchant. Gerry's first
name came from John Elbridge, one of his mother's ancestors.
Gerry's parents had eleven children in all, although only five
survived to adulthood. Of these, Elbridge was the third. He was
first educated by private tutors, and entered
Harvard College shortly
before turning fourteen. After receiving a B.A. in 1762 and an M.A. in
1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the
Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest
Massachusetts merchants, with
trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, and along the North
American coast. Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England
in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the
Early political career
Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts
to tax the colonies after the
French and Indian War
French and Indian War ended in 1763. In
1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce
importation bans on taxed British goods. He frequently communicated
Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel
Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and others.
In May 1772 he won election to the Great and General Court of the
Massachusetts Bay (its legislative assembly). There he
worked closely with
Samuel Adams to advance colonial opposition to
Parliamentary colonial policies. He was responsible for establishing
Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set
up after that of Boston. However, an incident of mob action
prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and
other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for
performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island; because the means of
transmission of the disease were not known at the time, fears amongst
the local population led to protests which escalated into violence
that wrecked the facilities and threatened the proprietors' other
Gerry reentered politics after the
Boston Port Act closed that city's
port in 1774, and Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies
from other colonies could be delivered. As one of the town's leading
merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the
storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston,
interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He
was elected as a representative to the
First Continental Congress
First Continental Congress in
September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his
Congress and Revolution
Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted
itself as the
Massachusetts Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas
Gage dissolved the body in October 1774. He was assigned to its
committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's
limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army
hands. His actions were partly responsible for the storage of weapons
and ammunition in Concord; these stores were the target of the British
raiding expedition that sparked the start of the American
Revolutionary War with the
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Battles of Lexington and Concord in April
1775. (Gerry was staying at an inn at Menotomy, now Arlington,
when the British marched through on the night of April 18.) During
the Siege of
Boston that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading
role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would
continue to do as the war progressed. He leveraged business
Spain to acquire not just munitions, but
supplies of all types, and was involved in the transfer of financial
Spain to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the
American coast, and dabbled in financing privateering operations.
John Adams (portrait by John Trumbull) held Gerry in high regard.
Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered
from this activity (he spoke out against it, and in favor of price
controls), although his war-related merchant activities notably
increased the family's wealth. His gains were tempered to some
extent by the precipitous decline in the value of paper currencies,
which he held in large quantities and speculated in.
Gerry served in the
Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress from February 1776 to
1780, when matters of the ongoing war occupied the body's attention.
He was influential in convincing a number of delegates to support
passage of the
United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence in the
debates held during the summer of 1776;
John Adams wrote of him, "If
every Man here was a Gerry, the Liberties of America would be safe
against the Gates of Earth and Hell." He was implicated as a
member of the so-called "Conway Cabal", a group of Congressmen and
military officers who were dissatisfied with the performance of
George Washington during the 1777 military campaign. However,
Gerry took Pennsylvania leader Thomas Mifflin, one of Washington's
critics, to task early in the episode, and specifically denied
knowledge of any sort of conspiracy against Washington in February
Gerry's political philosophy was one of limited central government,
and he regularly advocated for the maintenance of civilian control of
the military. He held these positions fairly consistently throughout
his political career (wavering principally on the need for stronger
central government in the wake of the 1786–87 Shays's Rebellion) and
was well known for his personal integrity. In later years he was
against the idea of political parties, remaining somewhat distant from
the developing Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties until
later in his career. It was not until 1800 that he would formally
associate with the Democratic-Republicans in opposition to what he saw
as attempts by the Federalists to centralize too much power in the
national government. In 1780 he resigned from the Continental
Congress over the issue, and refused offers from the state legislature
to return to the Congress. He also refused appointment to the
state senate, claiming he would be more effective in the state's lower
chamber, and also refused appointment as a county judge, comparing the
offer by Governor
John Hancock to those made by royally appointed
governors to benefit their political allies. He was elected a
Fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1781.
Gerry was convinced to rejoin the
Confederation Congress in 1783, when
the state legislature agreed to support his call for needed
reforms. He served in that body until September 1785, during which
time it met in New York City. The following year he married Ann
Thompson, the daughter of a wealthy New York merchant who was twenty
years his junior; his best man was his good friend James
Monroe. The couple had ten children between 1787 and 1801,
straining Ann's health.
The war made Gerry sufficiently wealthy that when it ended he sold off
his merchant interests, and began investing in land. In 1787 he
purchased the Cambridge,
Massachusetts estate of the last royal
lieutenant governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Oliver, which had been
confiscated by the state. This 100-acre (40 ha) property, known
as Elmwood, became the family home for the rest of Gerry's life.
He continued to own property in Marblehead, and bought a number of
properties in other
Massachusetts communities. He also owned shares in
the Ohio Company, prompting some political opponents to characterize
him as an owner of vast tracts of western lands.
Gerry played a major role in the U.S. Constitutional Convention, held
Philadelphia during the summer of 1787. In its deliberations he
consistently advocated for a strong delineation between state and
federal government powers, with state legislatures shaping the
membership of federal government positions. Gerry's opposition to
popular election of representatives was rooted in part by the events
of Shays's Rebellion, a populist uprising in western
the year preceding the convention. Despite this position, he also
sought to maintain individual liberties by providing checks on
government power that might abuse or limit those freedoms. He
supported the idea that the Senate composition should not be
determined by population; the view that it should instead be composed
of equal numbers of members for each state prevailed in the
Connecticut Compromise. The compromise was adopted on a narrow vote in
Massachusetts delegation was divided, Gerry and Caleb Strong
voting in favor. Gerry further proposed that senators of a state,
rather than casting a single vote on behalf of the state, instead vote
as individuals. Gerry was also vocal in opposing the Three-Fifths
Compromise, which counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purposes
of apportionment in the House of Representatives and gave southern
states a decided advantage.
Gerry's preference for a more highly centralized government throughout
most of the Convention was not motivated by a desire for great social
changes, but was intended rather to restrain such popular excesses as
were evidenced in Shays's Rebellion. ... [H]e defended popular rights
when the people appeared to be threatened by some powerful interest
groups, and he called for restraints on popular influence when the
people seemed to be gaining the upper hand too much.
—George Athan Billias
Advocating indirect elections
Because of his fear of demagoguery and belief the people of the United
States could be easily misled, Gerry also advocated indirect
elections. Although he was unsuccessful in obtaining them for the
lower house of Congress, Gerry did obtain such indirect elections for
the U.S. Senate, whose members were to be elected by the state
legislatures. Gerry also advanced numerous proposals for indirect
elections of the President of the United States, most of them
involving limiting the right to vote to the state governors and
Voting against proposed constitution
Gerry was also unhappy about the lack of expression of any sort of
individual liberties in the proposed constitution, and generally
opposed proposals that strengthened the central government. He was one
of only three delegates who voted against the proposed constitution in
the convention (the others were
George Mason and Edmund Randolph),
citing a concern about the convention's lack of authority to enact
such major changes to the nation's system of government, and to the
constitution's lack of "federal features".
State ratification; Bill of Rights
During the ratification debates that took place in the states
following the convention, Gerry continued his opposition, publishing a
widely circulated letter documenting his objections to the proposed
constitution. In this document he cited the lack of a Bill of
Rights as his primary objection, but also expressed qualified approval
of the constitution, indicating that he would accept it with some
amendment. Strong pro-Constitution forces attacked him in the
press, comparing him unfavorably to the Shaysites. Henry Jackson was
particularly vicious: "[Gerry has] done more injury to this country by
that infamous Letter than he will be able to make atonement in his
whole life", and Oliver Ellsworth, a convention delegate from
Connecticut, charged him with deliberately courting the Shays
faction. One consequence of the furor over his letter was that he
was not selected as a delegate to the
convention, although he was later invited to attend by the
convention's leadership. The convention leadership was dominated by
Federalists, and Gerry was not given any formal opportunity to speak;
he left the convention after a shouting match with convention chair
Francis Dana. The state ratified the constitution by a vote of 187
to 168. The debate had the result of estranging Gerry from a
number of previously friendly politicians, including chairman Dana and
United States House of Representatives
Anti-Federalist forces nominated Gerry for governor in 1788, but he
was predictably defeated by the popular incumbent John Hancock.
Following ratification, Gerry recanted his opposition to the
Constitution, noting that a number of state ratifying conventions had
called for amendments that he supported. He was nominated by
friends (over his own opposition to the idea) for a seat in the
inaugural House of Representatives, where he then served two
Gerry supported the economic policies of Federalist Alexander Hamilton
(portrait by Ezra Ames).
In June 1789 Gerry proposed that Congress consider all of the proposed
constitutional amendments that various state ratifying conventions had
called for (notably those of
Rhode Island and North Carolina, which
had at the time still not ratified the constitution). In the
debate that followed, he led opposition to some of the proposals,
arguing that they did not go far enough in ensuring individual
liberties. He successfully lobbied for inclusion of freedom of
assembly in the First Amendment, and was a leading architect of the
Fourth Amendment protections against search and seizure. He sought
unsuccessfully to insert the word "expressly" into the Tenth
Amendment, which might have more significantly limited the federal
government's power. He was successful in efforts to severely limit
the federal government's ability to control state militias. In
tandem, with this protection, he had once argued against the idea of
the federal government controlling a large standing army, comparing it
– most memorably and mischievously – to a standing penis: "An
excellent assurance of domestic tranquility, but a dangerous
temptation to foreign adventure."
Gerry vigorously supported Alexander Hamilton's reports on public
credit, including the assumption at full value of state debts, and
supported Hamilton's new Bank of the United States, positions
consistent with earlier calls he had made for economic
centralization. Although he speculated in depreciated Continental
bills of credit (the IOUs at issue), there is no evidence he
participated in large-scale speculation that attended the debate when
it took place in 1790, and he became a major investor in the new
bank. He used the floor of the House to speak out against
aristocratic and monarchical tendencies he saw as threats to
republican ideals, and generally opposed laws and their provisions
that he perceived as limiting individual and state liberties. He
opposed any attempt to give officers of the executive significant
powers, specifically opposing establishment of the Treasury Department
because its head might gain more power than the President. He
opposed measures that strengthened the Presidency (such as the ability
to fire cabinet officers), seeking instead to give the legislature
more power over appointments.
Gerry did not stand for re-election in 1792, returning home to raise
his children and care for his sickly wife. He agreed to serve as a
presidential elector for
John Adams in the 1796 election. During
Adams' term in office, Gerry maintained good relations with both Adams
and Vice President Thomas Jefferson, hoping that the divided executive
might lead to less friction. His hopes were not realized: the split
between Federalists (Adams) and Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson)
Main article: XYZ Affair
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (portrait by François Gérard) insisted
Gerry remain in Paris after negotiations failed.
President Adams appointed Gerry to be a member of a special diplomatic
commission sent to Republican
France in 1797. Tensions had risen
between the two nations after the 1796 ratification of the Jay Treaty,
made between the US and Great Britain. It was seen by French leaders
as signs of an Anglo-American alliance, and
France had consequently
stepped up seizures of American ships. Adams chose Gerry, over his
cabinet's opposition (on political grounds that Gerry was
insufficiently Federalist), because of their long-standing
relationship; Adams described Gerry as one of the "two most impartial
men in America" (Adams himself being the other).
Gerry joined co-commissioners
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and John
France in October 1797 and met briefly with Foreign
Minister Talleyrand. Some days after that meeting, the delegation
was approached by three French agents (at first identified as "X",
"Y", and "Z" in published papers, leading the controversy to be called
the "XYZ Affair") who demanded substantial bribes from the
commissioners before negotiations could continue. The
commissioners refused, and sought unsuccessfully to engage Talleyrand
in formal negotiations. Believing Gerry to be the most
approachable of the commissioners, Talleyrand successively froze first
Pinckney and then Marshall out of the informal negotiations, and they
France in April 1798. Gerry, who sought to leave with them,
stayed behind because Talleyrand threatened war if he left. Gerry
refused to make any significant negotiations afterward and left Paris
in August. By then dispatches describing the commission's
reception had been published in the United States, raising calls for
war. The undeclared naval
Quasi-War (1798–1800) followed.
Federalists, notably Secretary of State Timothy Pickering, accused
Gerry of supporting the French and abetting the breakdown of the
talks, while Adams and Republicans such as
Thomas Jefferson supported
him. The negative press damaged Gerry's reputation, and he was
burned in effigy by protestors in front of his home. He was only later
vindicated, when his correspondence with Talleyrand was published.
In response to the Federalist attacks on him, and because of his
perception that the Federalist-led military buildup threatened
republican values, Gerry formally joined the Democratic-Republican
Party in early 1800, standing for election as Governor of
Governor of Massachusetts
For four years Gerry unsuccessfully sought the governorship of
Massachusetts. His opponent in these races, Caleb Strong, was a
popular moderate Federalist, whose party dominated the state's
politics despite a national shift toward the Republicans. In 1803
Republicans in the state were divided, and Gerry only had regional
support of the party. He decided not to run in 1804, returning to
semi-retirement and to deal with a personal financial crisis. His
brother Samuel Russell had mismanaged his own business affairs, and
Gerry had propped him up by guaranteeing a loan that was due. The
matter ultimately ruined Gerry's finances for his remaining years.
Republican James Sullivan won the governor's seat from Strong in 1807,
but his successor was unable to hold the seat in the 1809 election,
which went to Federalist Christopher Gore. Gerry stood for
election again in 1810 against Gore, and won a narrow victory.
Republicans cast Gore as an ostentatious British-loving Tory who
wanted to restore the monarchy (his parents had remained Loyal during
the Revolution), and Gerry as a patriotic American, while Federalists
described Gerry as a "French partizan" and Gore as an honest man
devoted to ridding the government of foreign influence. A
temporary lessening in the threat of war with Britain aided Gerry.
The two battled again in 1811, with Gerry once again victorious in a
highly acrimonious campaign.
The word gerrymander (originally written Gerry-mander) was used for
the first time in the
Boston Gazette newspaper on March 26, 1812.
Appearing with the term, and helping spread and sustain its
popularity, was this political cartoon, which depicts a state senate
district in Essex County as a strange animal with claws, wings and a
dragon-type head, satirizing the district's odd shape.
Gerry's first year as governor was less controversial than his second,
because the Federalists controlled the state senate. He preached
moderation in the political discourse, noting that it was important
that the nation present a unified front in its dealings with foreign
powers. In his second term, with full Republican control of the
legislature, he became notably more partisan, purging much of the
state government of Federalist appointees. The legislature also
enacted "reforms" of the court system that resulted in an increase in
the number of judicial appointments, which Gerry filled with
Republican partisans. Infighting within the party and a shortage of
qualified candidates, however, played against Gerry, and the
Federalists scored points by complaining vocally about the partisan
nature of the reforms.
Other legislation passed during Gerry's second year included a bill
broadening the membership of Harvard's Board of Overseers to diversify
its religious membership, and another that liberalized religious
taxes. The Harvard bill had significant political slant because the
recent split between orthodox Congregationalists and Unitarians also
divided the state to some extent along party lines, and Federalist
Unitarians had recently gained control over the Harvard board.
In 1812 the state adopted new constitutionally mandated electoral
district boundaries. The Republican-controlled legislature had created
district boundaries designed to enhance their party's control over
state and national offices, leading to some oddly shaped legislative
districts. Although Gerry was unhappy about the highly partisan
districting (according to his son-in-law, he thought it "highly
disagreeable"), he signed the legislation. The shape of one of the
state senate districts in Essex County was compared to a salamander by
a local Federalist newspaper in a political cartoon, calling it a
"Gerry-mander". Ever since, the creation of such districts has
been called gerrymandering. Gerry also engaged in partisan
investigations of potential libel against him by elements of the
Federalist press, further damaging his popularity with moderates. The
redistricting controversy, along with the libel investigation and the
impending War of 1812, contributed to Gerry's defeat in 1812 (once
again at the hands of Caleb Strong, whom the Federalists had brought
out of retirement). The gerrymandering of the state senate was
a notable success in the 1812 election: the body was thoroughly
dominated by Republicans, even though the house and the governor's
seat went to Federalists by substantial margins.
Vice Presidency and death
Gerry's financial difficulties prompted him to ask President James
Madison for a federal position after his loss in the 1812 election
(which was held early in the year). He was chosen by the
Democratic-Republican party congress to be Madison's vice presidential
running mate in the 1812 presidential election, although the
nomination was first offered to John Langdon. He was viewed as a
relatively safe choice who would attract Northern votes but not pose a
threat to James Monroe, who was thought likely to succeed Madison.
Madison easily won reelection, and Gerry took the oath of office at
Elmwood in March 1813. At that time the office of vice president
was largely a sinecure; Gerry's duties included advancing the
administration's agenda in Congress and dispensing patronage positions
in New England. Gerry's actions in support of the
War of 1812
War of 1812 had
a partisan edge: he expressed concerns over a possible Federalist
seizure of Fort Adams (as Boston's Fort Independence was then known)
as a prelude to Anglo-Federalist cooperation, and sought the arrest of
printers of Federalist newspapers.
On November 23, 1814, he fell seriously ill while visiting Joseph
Nourse of the Treasury Department, and died not long after
returning to his home in the Seven Buildings. He is buried in the
Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C., with a memorial by
John Frazee. He is the only signer of the Declaration buried in
the nation's capital. The estate he left his wife and children was
rich in land and poor in cash; he had managed to repay his brother's
debts with his pay as vice president. Aged 68 at the start of his
Vice Presidency, he would be the oldest person to become VP until
Charles Curtis in 1929.
Elbridge Gerry House
Elbridge Gerry House in Marblehead
Gerry is generally remembered for the use of his name in the word
gerrymander, for his refusal to sign the United States Constitution,
and for his role in the XYZ Affair. His path through the politics of
the age has been difficult to characterize; early biographers,
including his son-in-law
James T. Austin and Samuel Eliot Morison,
struggled to explain his apparent changes in position. Biographer
George Athan Billias posits that Gerry was a consistent advocate and
practitioner of republicanism as it was originally envisioned, and
that his role in the Constitutional Convention had a significant
impact on the document it eventually produced.
Gerry had ten children, of which seven survived into adulthood:
Gerry's son, James Thompson Gerry, commanded the USS Albany, a United
States Navy war sloop that went down with all hands in 1854.
Catharine Gerry (1787–1850)
Eliza Gerry (1791–1882)
Ann Gerry (1791–1883)
Elbridge Gerry, Jr. (1793–1867)
Thomas Russell Gerry
Thomas Russell Gerry (1794–1848), who married Hannah Green Goelet
Helen Maria Gerry (1796–1864)
James Thompson Gerry (1797–1854), who left
West Point upon his
father's death and was Commander of the war-sloop USS Albany (1846);
the sloop disappeared with all hands 28 or 29 September 1854 near the
Elbridge Thomas Gerry became a distinguished lawyer
and philanthropist in New York. His great-grandson, Peter G. Gerry
(1879–1957), was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives and a
United States Senator from Rhode Island.
George Washington Resigning His Commission, by John Trumbull,
shows Gerry standing on the left
Gerry is depicted in two of John Trumbull's paintings, the Declaration
of Independence and General
George Washington Resigning His
Commission. Both are on view in the rotunda of the United States
The upstate New York town of Elbridge is believed to have been named
in his honor, as is the western New York town of Gerry, in Chautauqua
County. The town of Phillipston,
originally incorporated in 1786 under the name Gerry in his honor, but
was changed to its present name after the town submitted a petition in
1812, citing Democratic-Republican support for the War of 1812.
Gerry's Landing Road in Cambridge,
Massachusetts is located near the
Eliot Bridge not far from Elmwood. During the 19th century, the area
was known as Gerry's Landing (formerly known as Sir Richard's
Landing), and was used by a Gerry relative for a short time as a
landing and storehouse. The supposed house of his birth, the
Elbridge Gerry House
Elbridge Gerry House (it is uncertain whether he was born in the house
currently standing on the site or an earlier structure) stands in
Marblehead, and that town's
Elbridge Gerry School is named in his
^ Austin, James Trecothick (1829). The Life of Elbridge Gerry: With
Contemporary Letters. To the Close of the American Revolution. Wells
and Lilly. pp. 308–. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
^ Elster, p. 224
^ a b c Purcell, p. 46
^ Greenleaf, p. 77
^ Billias, p. 5
^ Billias, p. 4
^ Billias, p. 3
^ Austin, pp. 6–27
^ Gilje, pp. 44–45
^ Billias, pp. 42–44
^ Billias, p. 46
^ Billias, p. 49
^ Billias, p. 52
^ Billias, pp. 55–56
^ Billias, pp. 124–30
^ Billias, pp. 56, 123
^ Billias, pp. 134–35
^ a b c Hatfield, Mark. "Vice Presidents of the United States:
Elbridge Gerry (1813–1814)" (PDF). Senate Historical Office.
^ Billias, pp. 76–77
^ Billias, pp. 140, 152, 192
^ Billias, p. 105
^ Billias, p. 101
^ Billias, p. 102
^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter G" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
^ Billias, p. 103
^ Ammon, p. 61
^ "National Register Nomination for Elmwood" (PDF). National Park
Service. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
^ Billias, p. 137
^ Billias, p. 158
^ Billias, pp. 153–54
^ Billias, p. 178
^ Billias, p. 182
^ Billias, p. 168
^ Billias, p. 203
"A Founding Father in Dissent
Elbridge Gerry Helped Inspire Bill of
Rights in His Opposition to the Constitution". National Archives.
^ Billias, p. 159, 200
^ a b Billias, p. 209
^ Billias, pp. 207–08
^ Billias, p. 212
^ Billias, p. 211
^ Billias, p. 213
^ Billias, p. 214
^ Billias, pp. 207–08, 213
^ Billias, p. 215
^ Billias, p. 207
^ Billias, pp. 216, 243
^ Billias, p. 229
^ Billias, p. 231
^ Billias, pp. 233–34
^ Billias, p. 232
^ Isaacson, Walter (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. New
York, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 456.
^ Billias, pp. 223, 237
^ Billias, pp. 240, 242
^ Billias, p. 225
^ Billias, p. 226
^ Billias, p. 243
^ Billias, p. 245
^ a b Purcell, pp. 51–52
^ a b Ferling, p. 345
^ Elkins and McKitrick, pp. 537–38
^ Stinchcombe, pp. 596–97
^ Billias, pp. 268–69
^ Billias, pp. 272–75
^ Stinchcombe, pp. 598–613
^ Billias, p. 280
^ Billias, p. 283
^ Ferling, pp. 354–57
^ Smith, p. 130
^ Billias, pp. 289–93
^ Billias, pp. 289, 301
^ Buel, pp. 39–44
^ Billias, pp. 304–305
^ Billias, pp. 305–06
^ Buel, pp. 73–82, 103–04
^ Billias, p. 313
^ Buel, pp. 104–07
^ Buel, pp. 116–17
^ Formisano, p. 74
^ a b Griffith, pp. 72–73
^ Buel, pp. 107–08
^ Buel, pp. 144–47
^ Formisano, p. 76
^ a b Hart, p. 3:458
^ Billias, p. 317
^ Buel, pp. 148–49
^ a b Billias, p. 323
^ Billias, p. 324
^ Billias, p. 327
^ Morison, p. 2:57
John Adams from Rufus King, 23 November 1814". archive.gov.
Retrieved 12 May 2015.
^ a b Billias, p. 329
^ Purcell, p. 53
^ "Search results for: Frazee John, page 2 - Collections Search
Center, Smithsonian Institution". collections.si.edu.
^ Roberts and Schmidt, p. 47
^ Billias, p. 2
^ Billias, p. 204
^ Adams Family, Adams Family Correspondence, Volume 12, Harvard
University Press, 2015, editor's note p. 20.
^ "DIED". May 21, 1867. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
^ Kestenbaum, Lawrence. "The Political Graveyard: Gerry family".
politicalgraveyard.com. The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 14
^ See U.S. Military and Naval Academies, Cadet Records and
Applications, 1805–1908, National Archives and Records
Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; U.S. Military Academy Cadet
Application Papers, 1805–1866; Microfilm Serial: M688; Microfilm
File #1–108 and Unnumbered; 1814: James T. Gerry, 1814.
Accessed 4 November 2015. (subscription required). See also Charles R.
Hale Collection. Hale Collection of
Connecticut Cemetery Inscriptions.
Connecticut State Library. Connecticut
Headstone Inscriptions Vol 32, Transcription here. Accessed 4 November
^ "Biographical Abstract of Peter G. Gerry". United States Congress.
^ a b "General
George Washington Resigning His Commission". Architect
of the Capitol.
^ Weir, pp. 66–67
^ Beauchamp, p. 361
^ Downs and Hedley, p. 187
^ Marvin, pp. 220–21
^ Publications of the Cambridge Historical Society, p. 85
^ Bethell et al, p. 62
^ "MACRIS Inventory:
Elbridge Gerry House". Commonwealth of
Massachusetts. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
^ "MACRIS Inventory: Eldridge[sic] Gerry School". Commonwealth of
Massachusetts. Retrieved 2012-12-08.
Ammon, Harry (1990) . James Monroe: The Quest for National
Identity. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
ISBN 9780813912660. OCLC 20294950.
Austin, James (1828–29). Life of Elbridge Gerry. Boston: Wells and
Lily. OCLC 3672336. Volume 2 Austin was Gerry's son-in-law.
Bethell, John; Hunt, Richard; Shenton, Robert (2004). Harvard A to Z.
Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674012882.
Beauchamp, William (1908). Past and Present of Syracuse and Onondaga
County, Volume 1. New York: S. J. Clark. OCLC 3151469.
Billias, George (1976). Elbridge Gerry, Founding Father and Republican
Statesman. McGraw-Hill Publishers. ISBN 0-07-005269-7.
Buel, Richard (2005). America on the Brink. New York: Palgrave
Macmillan. ISBN 9781403962386. OCLC 55510543.
Downs, John Phillips; Hedley, Frederick (1921). History of Chautauqua
County and its People, Volume 1. Boston: American Historical Society.
Elkins, Stanley; McKitrick, Eric (1993). The Age of Federalism. New
York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195068900.
Elster, Charles (2005). The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780618423156.
Ferling, John (1992). John Adams: A Life. Knoxville, TN: University of
Tennessee Press. ISBN 0870497308.
Formisano, Ronald (1983). The Transformation of Political Culture:
Massachusetts Parties, 1790s–1840s. New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780195035094. OCLC 18429354.
Gilje, Paul (1999). Rioting in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
University Press. ISBN 9780253212627. OCLC 185656124.
Greenleaf, James (1910). Genealogy of the Greenleaf Family. Boston: F.
Wood. OCLC 4652345.
Griffith, Elmer (1907). The Rise and Development of the Gerrymander.
Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co. OCLC 45790508.
Hart, Albert Bushnell (ed) (1927). Commonwealth History of
Massachusetts. New York: The States History Company.
OCLC 1543273. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
(five volume history of
Massachusetts until the early 20th century)
Marvin, Abijah (1879). History of Worcester County, Volume 2. Boston:
C. F. Jewett. OCLC 1804192.
Morison, Samuel Eliot (2006) . The Life and Letters of Harrison
Gray Otis. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 9781428606494.
Purcell, L. Edward (2010). Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary.
New York: Facts on File. ISBN 9781438130712.
Roberts, Rebecca Boggs; Schmidt, Sandra K (2012). Historic
Congressional Cemetery. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing.
ISBN 9780738592244. OCLC 769988285.
Smith, Jean Edward (1996). John Marshall: Definer Of A Nation. New
York: Henry, Holt & Company. ISBN 9780805055108.
Stinchcombe, William (October 1977). "The Diplomacy of the WXYZ
Affair". William and Mary Quarterly (34:590–617).
Trees, Andy (2000). "Private Correspondence for the Public Good:
Thomas Jefferson to Elbridge Gerry, 26 January 1799". The Virginia
Magazine of History and Biography. Virginia Historical Society. 108
(3): 217–254. ISSN 0042-6636. JSTOR 4249849. Shows
that Gerry ignored Jefferson's 1799 letter inviting him to switch
Weir, John (1901). John Trumbull: A Brief Sketch of his Life. New
York: Charles Scribner's Sons. OCLC 2103628.
Political Register and Congressional Directory. Boston: Houghton,
Osgood. 1878. OCLC 1466601.
Publications of the Cambridge Historical Society. Cambridge, MA:
Cambridge Historical Society. 1920. OCLC 6177743.
Kramer, Eugene F (1956). "Some New Light on the XYZ Affair: Elbridge
Gerry's Reasons for Opposing War with France". New England Quarterly
(Volume 29, No. 4): 509–13. ISSN 0028-4866.
Billias, George. Elbridge Gerry: Founding Father and Republican
Statesman. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.
Find more aboutElbridge Gerryat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
United States Congress. "
Elbridge Gerry (id: G000139)". Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress.
Elbridge Thomas Gerry at Find a Grave
Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856
A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825
Delegates to the Constitutional Convention:
Biography of Gerry)
Gerry family archive at Hartwick College
U.S. House of Representatives
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district
Peleg Coffin Jr.
Party political offices
New political party
Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1800, 1801, 1802, 1803
Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Massachusetts
1810, 1811, 1812
Joseph B. Varnum
Democratic-Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States
Daniel D. Tompkins
Governor of Massachusetts
Vice President of the United States
Daniel D. Tompkins
Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence
Physical history of the Declaration of Independence, Memorial
Signers of the Articles of Confederation
Vice Presidents of the United States (list)
John Adams (1789–1797)
Thomas Jefferson (1797–1801)
Aaron Burr (1801–1805)
George Clinton (1805–1812)
Elbridge Gerry (1813–1814)
Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins (1817–1825)
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun (1825–1832)
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren (1833–1837)
Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841)
John Tyler (1841)
George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas (1845–1849)
Millard Fillmore (1849–1850)
William R. King
William R. King (1853)
John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge (1857–1861)
Hannibal Hamlin (1861–1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865)
Schuyler Colfax (1869–1873)
Henry Wilson (1873–1875)
William A. Wheeler
William A. Wheeler (1877–1881)
Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur (1881)
Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas A. Hendricks (1885)
Levi P. Morton
Levi P. Morton (1889–1893)
Adlai Stevenson (1893–1897)
Garret Hobart (1897–1899)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901)
Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks (1905–1909)
James S. Sherman
James S. Sherman (1909–1912)
Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas R. Marshall (1913–1921)
Calvin Coolidge (1921–1923)
Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes (1925–1929)
Charles Curtis (1929–1933)
John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner (1933–1941)
Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945)
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (1945)
Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley (1949–1953)
Richard Nixon (1953–1961)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1961–1963)
Hubert Humphrey (1965–1969)
Spiro Agnew (1969–1973)
Gerald Ford (1973–1974)
Nelson Rockefeller (1974–1977)
Walter Mondale (1977–1981)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1981–1989)
Dan Quayle (1989–1993)
Al Gore (1993–2001)
Dick Cheney (2001–2009)
Joe Biden (2009–2017)
Mike Pence (2017–present)
Governors of Massachusetts
Italics indicate acting officeholders
Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts
T. D. Eliot
T. D. Eliot
J. R. Thayer
J. A. Thayer
L. Lincoln Sr.
L. Lincoln Jr.
J. Reed Sr.
J. Reed Jr.
J. M. S. Williams
C. H. Allen
J. Reed Jr.
J. Reed Jr.
T. H. Eliot
H. A. S. Dearborn
J. E. Russell
J. Reed Jr.
J. Reed Jr.
ISNI: 0000 0000 2791 3054
US Congress: G000139