Edwin Meese III (born December 2, 1931) is an American attorney, law
professor, author and member of the Republican Party who served in
official capacities within the
Ronald Reagan Gubernatorial
Administration (1967–1974), the Reagan Presidential Transition Team
(1980) and the
Reagan White House
Reagan White House (1981–1985), eventually rising to
hold the position of the 75th Attorney General of the United States
He currently holds fellowships and chairmanships with several public
policy councils and think-tanks, including the Constitution Project
and the Heritage Foundation. He is also a Distinguished Visiting
Fellow with the
Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He
currently sits on the National Advisory Board of Center for Urban
Renewal and Education. He is on the board of directors of The
Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies. He has served
on the board of Cornerstone closed end funds.
1 Early life and education
1.1 Military service
1.2 Early career
2 California governor's office
2.1 Berkeley riots
3 Industry and academia
4 Reagan presidency
4.1 Presidential campaign and transition
4.2 Counselor to the President
4.3 Comments on hunger in America
4.4 Attorney General
4.5 Wedtech scandal
4.5.1 Meese Report
4.5.2 Drug control policy
5 Supreme Court views
6 Iraq Study Group
7 Fellowships and honors
8 Books and film
9 See also
11 External links
Early life and education
Meese was born in Oakland, California, the eldest of four sons born to
Leone (née Feldman) and Edwin Meese, Jr. He was raised in a
Lutheran family, of German descent. His father was an
Oakland city government official, president of the Zion Lutheran
Church, and served 24 years in the non-partisan office of Treasurer of
At age 10, Meese published along with his brothers a mimeographed
neighborhood newspaper, the Weekly Herald, and used the proceeds to
buy a War Bond. The young Meese also rode a bicycle on a paper route
and worked in a drugstore. At Oakland High School, Meese was involved
Junior State of America and led his high school debate team to
statewide championships. He was recognized as valedictorian, class of
Two weeks prior to graduation, he was accepted to
Yale University and
granted a scholarship. Meese served as president of the Yale Political
Union, chairman of the Conservative Party, and chairman of the Yale
Debating Association. Meese made the dean's list, and graduated with a
bachelor of arts of political science in 1953.
Meese became a member of ROTC upon enrollment at Yale, and upon
graduation he obtained a commission in the
United States Army as a
Second Lieutenant. He spent 24 months at
Fort Sill near Lawton,
Oklahoma. Meese gained experience in logistics, conducting
installation and operations of the 240 mm howitzer M1. Meese completed
active duty in 1956 and continued in the
United States Army Reserve,
specializing in military intelligence. Meese retired from the Army
Reserve as a
Colonel in 1984.
Meese returned to California, obtaining a law degree from the
University of California, Berkeley, where he was a state Moot Court
champion. He graduated in 1958 and accepted a position with the
district attorney's office of Alameda County as a law clerk. While
there, he worked under District Attorney J. Frank Coakley. He also
worked with future DA D. Lowell Jensen. Jensen was engaged in
developing a case-management software program known as Dalite.
Meese prosecuted felony cases while maintaining a private practice on
nights and weekends, focusing on civil law. During this service, he
first drew the attention of Republican State Senator Donald Grunsky,
who would later recommend him to governor-elect Ronald Reagan.
In 1959 he married high school sweetheart Ursula Herrick, daughter of
California governor's office
Meese joined Ronald Reagan's staff in 1967. He served as legal affairs
secretary from 1967 to 1968 and as executive assistant and chief of
staff to Governor Reagan from 1969 to 1974. Despite his later
well-known fondness for Reagan, Meese was initially reluctant to
accept the appointment because he thought of himself as non-partisan:
"I was not particularly interested."
Meese was known for his "unique ability" to explain complex ideas to
Reagan in a way that often mirrored Reagan's own speaking style and
mannerisms. That made Reagan biographer
Lou Cannon refer to Meese as
After being named Reagan's chief of staff, Meese convinced his
predecessor's deputy, Mike Deaver, to stay on with him, beginning a
partnership that would last more than two decades. For his role in
Reagan's office, Meese earned reluctant praise from across the aisle.
Bob Moretti, a Democrat and former Democratic Speaker of the Assembly,
said, "Were I in the governor's seat, I would want someone like [Ed
Meese] on my side."
Main article: Berkeley riots
As Reagan's chief of staff, Meese was instrumental in the decision to
crack down on student protesters at People's Park in Berkeley,
California, on May 15, 1969. Meese was widely criticized for
escalating the official response to the People's Park protest, during
which law enforcement officers killed one student protestor and
injured hundreds of others, including bystanders. Meese advised Reagan
to declare a state of emergency in Berkeley, contrary to the
recommendation of the Berkeley City Council. That resulted in a
two-week occupation of People's Park by National Guard troops.
The first governor to turn to Meese for advice on riot control was
Democrat Edmund (Pat) Brown, who first telephoned Meese seeking advice
on how to best handle the situation. "I told him," Meese said, "that
the people in that building should be arrested and taken out of there.
I told him that if they were allowed to stay, there would be another
mob scene, even bigger, the next day." Meese and Deputy District
Lowell Jensen later served as co-counsels in the trial of
Berkeley demonstrators. Meese was recognized as one of five
"Outstanding Young Men of California" by the California Junior Chamber
of Commerce for his role in countering the Berkeley demonstrators.
Meese's role in quelling the riots at UC Berkeley have been identified
by critics and supporters as an example of a conservative
law-enforcement philosophy at work.
Industry and academia
From January 1975 to May 1976, Meese served as vice president for
Rohr Industries in Chula Vista, California. He left
Rohr to enter private law practice in San Diego County, California.
After receiving a grant from the Sarah Scaife Foundation, Meese
developed what he called "a plan for a law school center for criminal
justice policy and management." The plan was accepted by The
University of San Diego, a private Catholic school. From the fall
of 1977 to January 1981, Meese served as professor of law at the
university, where he also directed the Center for Criminal Justice
Policy and Management. During the same time, Meese served as vice
chairman of California's Organized Crime Control Commission and
participated in the California Bar Association's criminal law
Presidential campaign and transition
Iowa caucuses, Meese joined the 1980 Reagan presidential
campaign full-time as chief of staff in charge of day-to-day campaign
operations and senior issues adviser. After the 1980 election,
Meese headed Reagan's transition effort.
At the advice of Meese, Reagan secretly allowed his campaign to
establish a transition office to avoid difficulties similar to those
faced by the Nixon administration in its own transition. "Ed had an
uncanny ability to look down the road," said Pen James, Assistant to
the President for Presidential Personnel. Meese's presidential
transition team employed more than 1,000 individuals, with 311 being
paid in federal funds, 331 working for a "token" $1, and the rest
serving as volunteers. When accounting for inflation, the Reagan
transition team spent less money than the Carter transition team,
$1.75 million versus $1.78 million.
Counselor to the President
On November 17, 1980, Meese and
James Baker held a meeting to divide
their list of White House responsibilities, since both saw the
potential for future conflict because of their positions being
somewhat similar in nature. The one-page memorandum listed Meese's
Counselor to the President
Counselor to the President for Policy (with cabinet rank);
member Super Cabinet Executive Committee (in absence of the President
and V-P preside over meetings);
participate as a principal in all meetings of full Cabinet;
coordination and supervision of responsibilities of the Secretary to
the Cabinet; *coordination and supervision of work of the Domestic
Policy Studies and the National Security Council;
with Baker coordination and supervision of work of OMB, CEA, CEQ,
Trade Rep and S&T; *participation as principal in all policy group
attend any meeting which Pres attends – w/his consent."
Meese became Counselor to the President, who appointed him as a member
of both his Cabinet and the National Security Council from 1981 to
1985. On Monday, September 14, 1981, Meese chaired the first White
House discussion of what would become Reagan's Strategic Defense
Initiative (SDI), the missile defense program.
Meese served as a liaison to the conservative evangelical community,
arranging for meetings between social-conservative leaders and the
president. Meese was lauded by social conservatives for his address to
the Congress on the Bible in March 1982, when he said, "Someone has
estimated that throughout the course of history man has adopted over
four billion laws. It seems to me, with all that effort, we haven't
improved one iota on the Ten Commandments."
Near the end of Reagan's presidency, Meese's involvement in the
Iran-Contra affair as a "counselor" and "friend" to Reagan was
scrutinized by the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters, which
stated in its official report that Meese's knowledge of the 1985 HAWK
transaction "raised serious legal questions."
Meese was considered a powerful and influential figure inside the
White House. Former Reagan advisor and journalist
David Gergen said,
"He's a tremendously influential and highly valued adviser to the
President who advises on issues all across the board. He's one of the
men who has known [the President] so long and so well he's become
almost an alter ego of Ronald Reagan."
Comments on hunger in America
Meese created a "storm of controversy" in December 1983 after his
responses to questions about hunger in America. In response to a
question about balancing spending cuts against the need to feed hungry
children, he said that he had seen no "authoritative" evidence that
children in America were going hungry and that some of the allegations
"are purely political." When asked about soup kitchens, he said that
"some people are going to soup kitchens voluntarily.... I know we've
had considerable information that people go to soup kitchens because
the food is free and that that's easier than paying for it."
Democratic leaders and social welfare activists called his comments
"disgraceful," "an outrage," "unkind," "mean-spirited," and
"absolutely ridiculous." Tip O'Neill, the Speaker of the House of
Representatives, compared Meese to Ebenezer Scrooge. Shortly
after, Meese offered a tongue-in-cheek defense of Scrooge, saying that
he "had his faults, but he wasn't unfair to anyone" and that he
suffered from "a bad press."
Reagan nominated Meese to be William French Smith's successor as
Attorney General on January 23, 1984. For more than a year,
Democrats repeatedly charged Meese with unethical conduct to bar his
confirmation as attorney general, including a report by Archibald Cox
to the Senate on Meese's "lack of ethical sensitivity" and "blindness
to abuse of position."
However, he was finally confirmed by a vote of 63-31, with more
opposition than any other Attorney General nominee had received since
the 1920s. Meese became Attorney General in February 1985.
In 1985, Meese received Government Executive magazine's annual award
for excellence in management for his service in this role.
In the mid-1980s, there was a federal investigation into Meese's
connections and alleged financial improprieties related to his efforts
to help the
Bechtel Corporation build an Iraqi pipeline. The pipeline
was to extend from Iraq to Jordan and was negotiated by Meese, Shimon
Peres, Bruce Rappaport, Robert C. McFarlane, and others. The report of
special prosecutor James C. McKay cleared Meese of criminal wrongdoing
but criticized him for ethical lapses, especially regarding bribes to
Israel not to attack an Iraqi oil pipeline that benefited associates
of the Attorney General.
In February 1987, James C. McKay was named independent counsel in the
Wedtech case. The investigation centered on actions Meese took that
benefited him and his longtime friend and former lawyer, E. Robert
Wallach. McKay looked into Meese's involvement, while Attorney
General, in negotiations involving the company Wedtech. (E. Robert
Wallach worked as a lobbyist for the company and sought help from
Meese on Wedtech contract matters.) 
McKay never prosecuted or sought indictment of Meese, but in his
official report, which is still confidential, he was highly critical
of Meese's ethics and urged further investigation of Meese's role in
that scandal and others such as Meese's efforts to help Bechtel
Corporation. Meese described it as a "full vindication." While Meese
was never convicted of any wrongdoing, he resigned in 1988 when the
independent counsel delivered the report on Wedtech.
Prior to his departure, several top Justice Department officials
resigned in protest of what they and others viewed as improper acts by
the Attorney General.
Reagan publicly voiced support for Meese in his role as Attorney
General, during a press conference: "If Ed Meese is not a good man,
there are no good men." That was in response to questions about his
actions at the Justice Department.
On May 21, 1984, Reagan announced his intention to appoint the
Attorney General to study the effect of pornography on society.
The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, often called the
Meese report, convened in the spring of 1985 and published its
findings in July 1986. The Meese Report advised that pornography was
in varying degrees harmful.
Drug control policy
As Attorney General, Meese chaired the National Drug Policy Board,
which coordinated with Nancy Reagan's "Just Say No," national
anti-drug educational campaign. One of Meese's innovations was to seek
the cooperation of drug-producing countries.
"One of our most effective weapons against drug traffickers," Meese
wrote in his autobiography, "was to confiscate the assets of their
criminal activity, such as expensive autos, yachts, businesses and
homes.... To make this technique even more effective, we shared the
proceeds with cooperating local law enforcement agencies to enhance
their drug-fighting activities."
Supreme Court views
In 1985 Meese delivered a speech calling for a "jurisprudence of
original intent" and criticizing the Supreme Court for straying from
the original intention of the U.S. Constitution. Justices William J.
John Paul Stevens
John Paul Stevens disagreed with Meese publicly later that
year. The dispute foreshadowed the contentious
Robert Bork hearings of
Meese was well known for his opposition to the
Miranda Warning ruling
by the Supreme Court requiring a suspect's rights to be read to him
before he is questioned by authorities.
U.S News & World Report: You criticize the Miranda ruling, which
gives suspects the right to have a lawyer present before police
questioning. Shouldn't people, who may be innocent, have such
Meese: Suspects who are innocent of a crime should. But the thing is,
you don't have many suspects who are innocent of a crime. That's
contradictory. If a person is innocent of a crime, then he is not a
Iraq Study Group
In May 2006 Meese was named a member of the bipartisan Iraq Study
Group by group co-chairmen
James Baker III and Lee H. Hamilton,
commissioned to assess and report on the contemporary status of the
Iraq War. Meese co-authored the group's final December 2006
Fellowships and honors
Meese serves on the boards of several institutions. Meese has held the
Ronald Reagan Chair in Public Policy at the Heritage Foundation since
1988, when he joined the think tank. It is the only policy chair in
United States officially named for the 40th president. He
is also chairman of Heritage's Center for Legal and Judicial Studies,
founded in 2001 to advance conservative views about the Constitution,
legal principles and their impact on public policy.
Meese serves as an Adjunct Fellow at the
Discovery Institute and
serves on the Board of Directors of the Junior State of America
Meese is also on the Board of Directors for the Capital Research
Center, a conservative think tank devoted to the research of
Meese served on the Executive Committee (1994) and as president (1996)
Council for National Policy (CNP), and he served as co-chairman
of the Constitution Project's bipartisan Sentencing Committee.
Meese served two terms as a member of the Board of Visitors of George
Mason University from 1996 to 2004. From 1998 to 2004, he served as
rector (chairman) of the board.
For his lifetime of service and leadership, Meese was named the
first-ever Honorary Reagan Fellow of
Eureka College (Eureka, Illinois)
at a ceremony in Washington, D.C. in 2008. Recognizing Meese as a
model for young people, the honor was given on behalf of the Reagan
Fellows program President
Ronald Reagan established at his own alma
mater in 1982. Meese is a charter member of the Ronald W. Reagan
Eureka College and a featured speaker at the "Reagan and
the Midwest" academic conference held on campus to launch the Reagan
Centennial in 2011.
In 2017 Meese became a Veteran Companion of the Military Order of
Meese serves as a member of the Board of Directors of the Mercatus
Center at George Mason University, a non-profit market-oriented
research, education, and outreach think tank located on George Mason
University's Arlington campus.
Books and film
Edwin Meese has authored or co-authored a number of books on
government, judiciary and civics, including:
A Familiar Exposition of the Constitution of the United States,
Bicentennial Edition (1986)
The Great Debate: Interpreting Our Written Constitution (1986)
With Reagan: The Inside Story (1992) Regnery Gateway, 0-89526-522-2
Making America Safer: What Citizens and Their State and Local
Officials Can Do to Combat Crime (2000)
Defending the American Homeland (2002)
Leadership, Ethics and Policing: Challenges for the 21st Century
The Heritage Guide to the Constitution (2005) ISBN 1-59698-001-X
Judicial Tyranny: The New Kings of America? – contributing author
(Amerisearch, 2005) ISBN 0-9753455-6-7
Edwin Meese has been a subject of many TV documentaries. Documentaries
in which he personally appears include:
In The Face of Evil (2004)
William F. Buckley: Right from the Start (2008)
I Want Your Money
I Want Your Money (2010)
Attorney General's Commission on Pornography
Citizens for the Republic
Garcia-Mir v. Meese
^ Heritage Foundation Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "
Edwin Meese III". Hoover Institution. Archived from the
original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
^ Federalist Society
^ Commerce, Montgomery Junior Chamber of (1965). "Outstanding young
men of America".
^ Bronner, Ethan (July 28, 1987). "Edwin Meese: Images In Contrast".
^ Coleman, Kate (May 4, 1986). "The Roots of Ed Meese : Reagan's
Polemical Attorney General Has Prompted a Major Constitutional Debate,
Surprising Those Who Knew Him in His Pragmatic Early Days, in the
Quiet Hills of Oakland and During the Turbulent '60s". Los Angeles
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Edwards, Lee. To Preserve and Protect, The
Heritage Foundation, 2005, ISBN 0-89195-116-4.
^ Fricker, Richard L. (1993). "The INSLAW Octopus". Wired.
pp. ppg.1–8. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
^ Cannon, Lew (2005). Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power.
PublicAffairs. p. 592. ISBN 978-1-58648-284-8.
^ Heritage Foundation (November 2004). "Interview with Michael K.
^ Schieffer, Bob; Gary Paul Gates (1990). The Acting President. Plume.
p. 45. ISBN 978-0-525-48579-7.
^ Ravitch, Diane (1983), The Troubled Crusade, New York: Basic Books,
p. 191, ISBN 978-0-465-08757-0
^ a b Yost, Pete (14 July 1988). "Meese to Join Heritage Foundation,
Hoover Institution". Washington. The Associated Press.
^ Wirthlin, Dick; Wynton C. Hall (2004). The Greatest Communicator:
Ronald Reagan Taught Me About Politics. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley
& Sons. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-471-73648-6.
^ Schieffer, Bob; Gary Paul Gates (1990). The Acting President. Plume.
p. 83. ISBN 978-0-525-48579-7.
^ Meese, Edwin. "Papers of
Edwin Meese II". Stanford University.
^ "Walsh Iran / Contra Report". Federation of American Scientists.
November 1986. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
^ Robert D. McFadden (December 10, 1983). "COMMENTS BY MEESE ON HUNGER
PRODUCE A STORM OF CONTROVERSY". The New York Times. Retrieved July
^ Lynette Clemetson (August 17, 2005). "Meese's Influence Looms in
Today's Judicial Wars". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24,
^ Francis X. Clines (December 16, 1983). "MEESE ASSAILS 'MYTH' THAT
REAGAN HAS WEAK RECORD ON POOR". The New York Times. Retrieved July
Edwin Meese finds soul-mate in Scrooge". Boca Raton News. December
16, 1983. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
Edwin Meese defends hunger remarks,
Ebenezer Scrooge (1983) on
^ Warner, Leslie Maitland (December 19, 1994). "Common Cause Bids
Senate Vote against Meese". New York Times. p. A19. Retrieved May
^ a b "Speaker Bio: Edwin Meese". The Leadership Institute. Retrieved
14 May 2013.
^ Meese and the Pipeline: The Story So Far New York Times. February
^ Jackson, Robert L.; John J. Goldman (1989-08-09). "Wallach Found
Guilty of Racketeering, Fraud: Meese's Friend, Two Others Convicted in
Wedtech Scandal". Los Angeles Times.
^ "Atty. Gen. Meese Resigns : Says He's Been Cleared and Leaves
With Clean Name : Acts After Prosecutor Files Report". Los
Angeles Times. 1988-07-05. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
^  New York Times. October 2, 2013.[dead link]
^ Remarks on Signing the Child Protection Act of 1984, The American
^ Meese v. Playboy, National Review, September 26, 1986.
^ Meese, Edwin (1992). With Reagan: The Inside Story. Regnery Gateway.
p. 309. ISBN 978-0-89526-522-7.
^ a b "Justice under Reagan: Reagan seeks judges with 'traditional
approach' (interview)". U.S. News & World Report. 99 (1). October
14, 1985. p. 67. ISSN 0041-5537.
^ Larson, Ian; Sucher, Lauren (2006-05-31). "
Edwin Meese Replaces
Rudolph Giuliani on Iraq Study Group".
United States Institute for
Peace. p. 1. Archived from the original on June 1, 2006.
^ a b "Meese, Panel to Weigh Rule of Law at Tucson Event". Targeted
News Service. Targeted News Service. 1 January 2010.
Junior State of America Announces Council of Governors for
2008-2009". Junior State of America. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 24
August 2009. [dead link]
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved
^ Walsch, Daniel (4 March 2004). "Q&A with Edwin Meese, Rector of
the Board of Visitors". The Mason Gazette. George Mason University.
Retrieved 11 August 2011.
^ "Edwin Meese". Mercatus Center. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Edwin Meese
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Edwin Meese.
Appearances on C-SPAN
Attorney General's Commission on Pornography
Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters –
U.S. Court of Appeals
Meese's bio at the Mercatus Center
Edwin Meese on IMDb
Edwin Meese at Goodreads
Title last held by
Counselor to the President
Title next held by
Title last held by
United States Attorney General
Members of the Iraq Study Group
James Baker (Co-chair)
Lee Hamilton (Co-chair)
Vernon Jordan, Jr.
Sandra Day O'Connor
to final report
United States Attorneys General
W. D. Mitchell
T. C. Clark
J. N. Mitchell
Cabinet of President
Ronald Reagan (1981–89)
Secretary of State
Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82)
George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz (1982–89)
Secretary of the Treasury
Donald T. Regan (1981–85)
James A. Baker (1985–88)
Nicholas F. Brady
Nicholas F. Brady (1988–89)
Secretary of Defense
Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87)
Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)
William French Smith
William French Smith (1981–85)
Edwin Meese (1985–88)
Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)
Secretary of the Interior
James G. Watt
James G. Watt (1981–83)
William P. Clark (1983–85)
Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel (1985–89)
Secretary of Agriculture
John R. Block (1981–86)
Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)
Secretary of Commerce
Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87)
C. William Verity (1987–89)
Secretary of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan
Raymond J. Donovan (1981–85)
William E. Brock III (1985–87)
Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83)
Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85)
Otis Bowen (1985–89)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)
Secretary of Transportation
Drew Lewis (1981–83)
Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87)
James H. Burnley IV
James H. Burnley IV (1987–89)
Secretary of Energy
James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards (1981–83)
Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel (1983–85)
John S. Herrington
John S. Herrington (1985–89)
Secretary of Education
Terrel H. Bell (1981–85)
William J. Bennett (1985–88)
Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1981–89)
White House Chief of Staff
James A. Baker (1981–85)
Donald T. Regan (1985–87)
Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88)
Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
David Stockman (1981–85)
James C. Miller III
James C. Miller III (1985–88)
Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83)
William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85)
Lee M. Thomas
Lee M. Thomas (1985–89)
Director of Central Intelligence
William J. Casey
William J. Casey (1981–87)
William H. Webster
William H. Webster (1987–89)
Ambassador to the United Nations
Jeane Kirkpatrick (1981–85)
Vernon A. Walters
Vernon A. Walters (1985–89)
William E. Brock III (1981–85)
Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)
Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers
Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82)
Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84)
Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)
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