Edward M. Gallaudet
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Edward Miner Gallaudet (February 5, 1837 – September 26, 1917), son of
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (December 10, 1787 – September 10, 1851) was an American educator. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Fitch Cogswell, Mason Cogswell, he co-founded the first permanent institution for the Education of the Deaf, educatio ...
and
Sophia Fowler Gallaudet Sophia Fowler Gallaudet (March 20, 1798 – May 13, 1877) was the wife of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (December 10, 1787 – September 10, 1851) was an American educator. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Fitch Cogswe ...
, was the first president of
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
(then known as the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind from 1864 until 1894 and then Gallaudet College from 1894 to 1986) from 1864 to 1910.


Biography

As a youth, he enjoyed working with tools and also built an electrical machine. He kept birds, fowl, and rabbits, spending most of his time in the city, but occasionally venturing into the country. He had a fond memory of climbing a hill with his father, and another fond memory of his father introducing the subject of geometry to him. His father died when he was 14, just after he graduated from Hartford High School in
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the List of capitals in the United States, capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County, Connecticut, Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded County (United States), county government in 19 ...
. Gallaudet then went to work at a bank for three years. However, he disliked the "narrowing effect" of the mental monotony of the work, and quit to go to work as a teacher at the school his father founded. He worked there two years, from 1855 to 1857. While he was teaching, he continued his education at
Trinity College Trinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-w ...
in Hartford, completing his studies for a Bachelor of Science degree two years later. In 1857,
Amos Kendall Amos Kendall (August 16, 1789 – November 12, 1869) was an American lawyer, journalist and politician. He rose to prominence as editor-in-chief of the ''Argus of Western America'', an influential newspaper in Frankfort, Kentucky, Frankfort, the ...
donated of land for the establishment of a school for the deaf and blind in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
, and asked Gallaudet to come to Washington to help lead this school. Edward agreed and became the first principal of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf. In 1864, Gallaudet sought college status for the Columbia Institution and got it when President
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln ( ; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American lawyer, politician, and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. Lincoln led the nation throu ...
signed a bill into law which authorized the Columbia Institution to confer college degrees—a law which was not strictly necessary, but which Gallaudet desired. This first college of the deaf eventually became
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
. Gallaudet was the president of Gallaudet College/Columbia for 46 years (1864–1910), was the head administrator for 53 years (1857–1910), and was the president of the board of directors for 47 years (1864–1911). He was a staunch advocate of
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
. He recognized the value of speech training, but also recognized that speech training was not for everyone. Although he initially preferred
manualism Manualism is a method of Education of the deaf, education of deaf students using sign language within the classroom. Manualism arose in the late 18th century with the advent of free public schools for the deaf in Europe. These teaching methods we ...
, stating that sign language was the "natural language of deaf people", throughout his life he came to believe that students should be educated using whichever method fit their specific needs—which could include speech training. He concluded, "no one method is suited to the conditions of all the deaf". Still, he sometimes referred to
oralism Oralism is the Education of the deaf, education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the Articulatory phonetics, mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech.Through Deaf Eyes. Diane Garey, Lawrence ...
as the "artificial method" and deemed that it was only a "partial success". Gallaudet was awarded honorary degrees by
Trinity College Trinity College may refer to: Australia * Trinity Anglican College, an Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican coeducational primary and secondary school in , New South Wales * Trinity Catholic College, Auburn, a coeducational school in the inner-w ...
in 1859 (M.A.) and 1869 (LL.D.), the Columbian University (later
George Washington University The George Washington University (GW or GWU) is a Private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. Chartered in 1821 by the United States Congress, GWU is the largest Higher educat ...
) also in 1869 (Ph.D.), and
Yale University Yale University is a Private university, private research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Established in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the List of Colonial Colleges, third-oldest institution of higher education in the United Sta ...
in 1895 (LL.D.). Gallaudet was a member of the District of Columbia Society of the
Sons of the American Revolution The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR or NSSAR) is an American congressionally chartered organization, founded in 1889 and headquartered in Louisville Louisville ( , , ) is the List of cities in Kentucky, la ...
and served as the District Society's president from 1897 to 1899. After retiring as president of Gallaudet College, Gallaudet returned to Hartford. A statue commemorating Gallaudet's life and works resides on the campus of Gallaudet University, which was sculpted by Pietro Lazzari. He is buried in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford.
Edson Fessenden Gallaudet Edson Fessenden Gallaudet (April 21, 1871 in Washington, D.C. – July 1, 1945 in Pine Orchard, Connecticut) was a pioneer in the field of aviation. He was best known for his development of practical airfoils An airfoil (American Eng ...
, who was Gallaudet's fifth child (and second child with his second wife Susan) was an early pioneer in the field of aviation, being the first to experiment with wing warping, and the founder of the first aircraft factory in America.


Quotations

"The same arguments which go to show that knowledge is power, that the condition of a people is improved in proportion as the masses are educated, have their application with equal weight to the deaf..."—Edward Miner Gallaudet, 1864. "Deafness, though it be total and congenital, imposes no limits on the intellectual development of its subjects, save in the single direction of the appreciation of acoustic phenomena."—Edward Miner Gallaudet, 1869. "As eternity is longer than time, as mind is stronger than matter, as thought is swifter than the wind, as genius is more potent than gold, so will the results of well-directed labors toward the development of man's higher faculties ever outweigh a thousand fold any estimate in the currency of commerce, which man can put upon such efforts."—Edward Miner Gallaudet, 1870.http://saveourdeafschools.org/columbia_institution_for_the_deaf_annual_report_1870.pdf


See also

*
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
* Bilingual-bicultural education * Peter Wallace Gallaudet


References


Further reading

*Crouch, Barry A. "Gallaudet, Bell & The Sign Language Controversy." ''Sign Language Studies'', vol. 62, 1989, pp. 71–80. ''JSTOR'', doi:10.1353/sls.1989.0008. *Fay, Edward F. , American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 62, Number 5, November 1917, pages 399–403. *Fay, Edward F. , American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 55, Number 4, September 1910, pages 301–307. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, Gallaudet Inaugural Address, 1864. (Note: The footnote refers t
Peet (1850)
an
Peet (1858)
*Gallaudet, Edward Miner, ''History of the College for the Deaf, 1857—1888, 1888—1906-7''. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner (1983) '' History of the College for the Deaf, 1857-1907'', Washington, DC: Gallaudet College Press. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, Opening Address at the First Commencement of Gallaudet, 1869. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, Address at Dedication of the Main Central Building (now "College Hall"), 1871. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 1879,
A Manual of International Law
', New York: A.S. Barnes & Co. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 1881, "The Milan Convention," in ''American Annals of the Deaf'', Vol. XXVI., No. 1., January 1881, pp. 1–16. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 1881
Remarks on the Combined System
''American Annals of the Deaf'', Vol. XXVI., No. 1., January 1881, pp. 56–59. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 1891
The Combined System of Educating the Deaf, An Address Delivered Upon Invitation Before the Second Congress Held Under the Auspices of the British Deaf And Dumb Association, In the Mission Hall of Glasgow Deaf And Dumb Mission
August 5–7, 1891 *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, 1895, "Some Incidents in the Progress of Deaf-Mute Education in America--1890-1895," paper presented at the Fourteenth Convention of the American Instructors of the Deaf at Flint, Michigan. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, "What is Speech Worth to the Deaf?" Address given in Paris in 1900. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, History of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf, 1911. *Gallaudet, Edward Miner, Address given on Presentation Day, 1914. *Boatner, Maxine Tull, 1959, ''Voice of the deaf; a biography of Edward Miner Gallaudet''. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.


External links


Historic film of Edward Miner Gallaudet, 1910

Articles by Edward Miner Gallaudet in the Silent Worker
{{DEFAULTSORT:Gallaudet, Edward Miner 1837 births 1917 deaths 19th-century American educators Burials at Cedar Hill Cemetery (Hartford, Connecticut) Deaf culture in the United States Educators from Hartford, Connecticut Presidents of Gallaudet University Trinity College (Connecticut) alumni Educators of the deaf