Education for the deaf
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Deaf education is the education of students with any degree of hearing loss or deafness. This may involve, but does not always, individually-planned, systematically-monitored teaching methods, adaptive materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to help students achieve a higher level of self-sufficiency and success in the school and community than they would achieve with a typical classroom education. There are different language modalities used in educational setting where students get varied communication methods. A number of countries focus on training teachers to teach deaf students with a variety of approaches and have organizations to aid deaf students.


Identifying deaf students

Children may be identified as candidates for deaf education from their
audiogram An audiogram is a graph that shows the audible threshold for standardized frequencies as measured by an audiometer. The Y axis represents intensity measured in decibels and the X axis represents frequency measured in hertz. The threshold of hea ...
or medical history. Hearing loss is generally described as slight, mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending upon how well a person can hear the intensities of frequencies. Of the children identified as deaf, only 5% are born to deaf parents. This percent of deaf students may have a linguistic advantage when entering the education system due to more extensive exposure to a first language. In cases of congenital hearing loss (hearing loss from birth), parents can start to notice differences in their children's hearing as soon as newborn to three months old. If a child doesn't respond to sudden loud sounds, this could be an indication. As the baby begins to age to around four to eight months, they should turn their head towards where the sound is coming from. Around a year to 16 months, if they don't pronounce words correctly, or don't speak at all, this could also be an indication. All those are indications of congenital hearing loss, which means the child was born this way. A child can also acquire hearing loss at a young age due to a middle ear infection, a serious head injury, exposure to loud noises over a long period, and many other causes. If this occurs, the same symptoms would occur as they do with congenital hearing loss. If this happens when a child is older, around toddler or preschool age, there are more signs to look for. Signs could include a child not replying when their name is called. The child may pronounce words differently than the rest of their peers. If the child turns up the TV incredibly high or sits very close, this could also be an indication. One of the biggest indications that a child may have hearing loss is they intensely focus on the person's lips and facial expressions to understand what they are saying when they are having a conversation with someone. If a child has these signs, getting a screening for hearing loss would be the next step. As recently as the 1990s, many parents in the United States were unaware that their child was deaf until on average 2.5 to 3 years old, according to the U.S. National Institute of Health. Worse yet, many other children were not identified as having any hearing impairment until they reached five or six years of age. In 1993, the National Institutes of Health's Consensus Development Conference on Early Identification of Hearing Loss concluded previous risk-based assessment was not sufficient and that all infants should receive hearing screenings, ideally prior to hospital discharge postpartum. At the time of this decision, only 11 hospitals nationally were performing screening on 90 percent of babies born, according to the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management. Since then, universal hearing screening has greatly improved early identification. Language deprivation is defined as lack of access to language during a child's critical period for language exposure, which begins to taper off precisely around the age of five. Unlike any other population, the vast majority of Deaf and hard of hearing children are at risk of having this type of limited exposure to language in early childhood. Research on language deprivation and early childhood interventions to prevent language deprivation are burgeoning. Language Equality & Acquisition for Deaf Kids ( LEAD-K), for example, is a national campaign that aims to ensure that D/HH children in the United States gain the early language foundation necessary to be kindergarten-ready. For D/HH adolescents and adults who have passed the critical period for language acquisition and have experienced language deprivation, the consequences are far-reaching. Delayed age of acquisition of a first language has deleterious effects on all levels of language processing, ranging from syntactic, to lexical, to phonological difficulties, not to mention cognitive delays, mental health difficulties, lower quality of life, higher trauma, and limited health literacy. Additionally, delayed exposure to a fully accessible language (i.e. a natural sign language) in early life not only affects the ability to acquire such a sign language later in life, but "leads to incomplete acquisition of all subsequently learned languages". The impact of language deprivation is severe and must be considered in efforts toward early identification of deaf and hard of hearing children as well as intervention.


Individual needs

Deaf education programs must be customized to each student's needs, and deaf educators provide a continuum of services to deaf students based on individual needs. For instance, if a student is in a regular class, a note taker or interpreter might be an accommodation provided in their education plan. In the United States, Canada and the UK, education professionals use the acronym IEP when referring to a student's individualized education plan.


Educational philosophies

There are a variety of educational philosophies that differ in their views both regarding language use and goals for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.


Bilingual-bicultural education

(Variations:
bilingual education In bilingual education, students are taught in two (or more) languages. It is distinct from learning a second language as a subject because both languages are used for instruction in different content areas like math, science, and history. The t ...
, dual language) In this philosophy, deafness is approached as a cultural, not a medical, issue (see
models of deafness The three models of deafness are rooted in either social or biological sciences. These are the ''cultural model, the social model, and the'' ''medical'' (or ''infirmity'') ''model''. The model through which the deaf person is viewed can impact ho ...
). In a bilingual-bicultural program, deaf children learn
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
such as
American Sign Language American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States of America and most of Anglophone Canada. ASL is a complete and organized visual language that is expres ...
(ASL) as a first language, followed by a written or spoken language such as English as a second language. Bilingual-bicultural programs consider spoken or written language and sign language equal languages, helping children develop age-appropriate fluency in both. The bilingual-bicultural philosophy states that since deaf children learn visually, rather than by ear, education should be conducted in a visual language. To promote students' accuracy and fluency in either language, sign language and spoken language are not used simultaneously, because natural sign languages, such as American Sign Language (ASL), possess their own phonological system (with visual phonemes), morphology, and syntactic structure that differs greatly from that of spoken languages. In addition to bilingualism, this philosophy also emphasizes mastery of two cultures, both Deaf culture and hearing culture. Proponents of this philosophy emphasize the need for deaf and hard-of-hearing students to have exposure to a fully accessible language (i.e. a sign language) from a young age for optimal cognitive development. Supporters believe that, due to the widely recognized variability in cochlear implant and hearing aid outcomes, sign language access is critical to ensure that deaf and hard-of-hearing children do not experience language deprivation, which has significant effects on mental health, socioemotional development, language fluency, and educational outcomes, among other factors. Critics of this philosophy believe that without a strong emphasis on spoken communication, this philosophy may lead to students being unable to integrate into the typically-hearing world.


Auditory-oral and auditory-verbal education

In this philosophy, deafness is approached as a medical, not a cultural, issue (see
models of deafness The three models of deafness are rooted in either social or biological sciences. These are the ''cultural model, the social model, and the'' ''medical'' (or ''infirmity'') ''model''. The model through which the deaf person is viewed can impact ho ...
). There are two main educational philosophies for deaf and hard-of-hearing students based on an emphasis on auditory and verbal skills. The names of these philosophies are sometimes used interchangeably, but the methods primarily used in each philosophy are distinct.


Oralism

Oralism Oralism is the Education of the deaf, education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the Articulatory phonetics, mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech.Through Deaf Eyes. Diane Garey, Lawrence ...
is a philosophy that the education of deaf students should be conducted through and should promote the use of spoken language. This philosophy utilizes a variety of approaches, including
lip reading The lips are the visible body part at the mouth of many animals, including humans. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be ...
and speech training. Oralism was popularized in the late 1800s and largely enforced throughout Europe and North America, following the
Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf The Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf was an international Meeting, conference of deaf educators held in Milan, Italy in 1880. It is commonly known as "the Milan Conference or Milan Congress". The first meeting was held in Par ...
in 1880. Oralism was established as an alternative to manual (sign language) education and stands in opposition to the use of sign language in the education of deaf and hard of hearing students.


Total Communication

Total Communication Total communication (TC) is an approach to communicating that aims to make use of a number of modes of communication such as Manual communication, signed, oralism, oral, auditory, written and visual aids, depending on the particular needs and abil ...
is an educational philosophy for deaf and hard of hearing students which encourages the use and combination of a variety of communication means, including listening, lipreading, speech, formal
sign languages Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
, artificial sign systems (or
manually coded language Manually coded languages (MCLs) are a family of gestural communication methods which include fingerspelling, gestural spelling as well as constructed languages which directly interpolate the grammar and syntax of oral languages in a gestural-vis ...
),
gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or ot ...
s,
fingerspelling Fingerspelling (or dactylology) is the representation of the letter (alphabet), letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands. These manual alphabets (also known as finger alphabets or hand alphabets) have often ...
, and body language. The goal of the Total Communication philosophy is to optimize communication skills using a combination of means that are most effective for each individual child, leading to implementations of this philosophy that greatly differ from one to the next. Whereas the Bilingual-Bicultural philosophy emphasizes the separation of spoken and signed languages, the Total Communication philosophy allows simultaneous use of signed and spoken languages. It also allows the use of artificial signed systems, which are based on the grammar and syntax of spoken language and stand in opposition to formal sign languages, which have their own distinct grammar and syntactic rules. Proponents of this philosophy believe that flexibility in communication strategies is critical for the success of deaf and hard of hearing children and that no one approach is effective for the majority of these children. Total Communication emphasizes taking the strengths and needs of individual children into account and believes that mixed communication strategies that cater to these strengths lead to optimal outcomes. Critics of this philosophy argue that using multiple modalities (sign language and/or sign systems alongside spoken language, also known as
simultaneous communication Simultaneous communication, SimCom, or sign supported speech (SSS) is a technique sometimes used by deaf, hard-of-hearing or hearing sign language users in which both a spoken language and a manual variant of that language (such as English language ...
) is problematic, because it reduces the linguistic quality of both languages and therefore does not constitute full language exposure for deaf and hard-of-hearing children.


Educational settings


Specialized settings


Signing schools (Variation: Deaf institute, State School for the Deaf, manual school)

Students are taught through
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
, and instruction is designed to allow children to develop age-appropriate fluency in two languages: a signed language and a written language. Many bilingual-bicultural schools have dormitories; students may commute to school or stay in a dormitory as part of a residential program (see boarding school), visiting their families on weekends, holidays, and school vacations. Additional supports include speech-language pathology (SLP) services and
assistive listening device An assistive listening device (ALD) is part of a system used to improve hearing ability for people in a variety of situations where they are unable to distinguish speech in noisy environments. Often, in a noisy or crowded room it is almost impossi ...
s (ALDs) such as
hearing aids A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers su ...
and
Cochlear implant A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person who has moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the inn ...
s. Signing schools often adopt a Bilingual-Bicultural philosophy in which mastery of both a signed and a written language are equally prioritized, with supports provided for students who also wish to gain fluency in spoken language. Some signing schools utilize a Total Communication philosophy. Examples of Bilingual-Bicultural K-12 programs in the United States include
Texas School for the Deaf Texas School for the Deaf (TSD) is a state-operated primary and secondary school for deaf children in Austin, Texas. Opened in 1857 "in an old frame house, three log cabins, and a smokehouse", it is the oldest continually-operated public school in ...
,
California School for the Deaf, Fremont The California School for the Deaf is a school for deaf children in Fremont, California. The school educates deaf children from all over Northern California. Its campus in Fremont is adjacent to the campus of the California School for the Blind ...
and
The Learning Center for the Deaf The Learning Center for the Deaf (TLC) is a Framingham, Massachusetts-based non-profit organization and school serving deaf and hard-of-hearing children and adults. TLC has three campuses. The main Framingham campus, where the Marie Philip and W ...
. Bilingual-bicultural colleges and universities include
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
and
National Technical Institute for the Deaf The National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) is the first and largest technological college in the world for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. As one of nine colleges within the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in Rochester ...
(NTID).


Oral schools

Students are taught through spoken language and instruction is designed to allow children to develop age-appropriate written and spoken fluency in the spoken language of their country. Deaf and hard-of-hearing students in such settings are taught to listen and talk through the use of
assistive listening device An assistive listening device (ALD) is part of a system used to improve hearing ability for people in a variety of situations where they are unable to distinguish speech in noisy environments. Often, in a noisy or crowded room it is almost impossi ...
s (ALDs) such as
hearing aid A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers su ...
s,
cochlear implant A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person who has moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the inn ...
s, or
frequency modulation Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. The technology is used in telecommunications, radio broadcasting, signal processing, and computing Computin ...
(FM) systems. Additional supports include lipreading and speech therapy. Oral schools adhere to an auditory/verbal philosophy (either
oralism Oralism is the Education of the deaf, education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the Articulatory phonetics, mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech.Through Deaf Eyes. Diane Garey, Lawrence ...
or listening and spoken language) in which mastery of spoken language is prioritized. Examples of auditory/verbal K-12 programs in the United States include
Central Institute for the Deaf Central Institute for the Deaf (CID) is a school for the deaf that teaches students using listening and spoken language, also known as the auditory-oral approach. The school is located in St. Louis, Missouri. CID is affiliated with Washington Un ...
, Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech, Northern Voices, and Memphis Oral School for the Deaf.


Mainstream settings


General education schools

Students are taught through spoken language in a public or private school where they join a class of predominantly (if not exclusively) typically-hearing peers. In this setting, deaf students can utilize a variety of supports including, but not limited to, sign language interpreters, amplification, assistive hearing technology (e.g.,
hearing aid A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers su ...
s,
Cochlear implant A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person who has moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the inn ...
s), speech-to-text
closed captioning Closed captioning (CC) and Subtitle (captioning), subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information. Both are typically used as a transcri ...
, and note-taking services.


Self-contained classrooms

Students are taught in a self-contained classroom within a public or private general education school. Educational philosophies and languages of instruction vary by individual school and district. In self-contained classrooms, deaf and hard-of-hearing students may be placed exclusively with other deaf and hard-of-hearing peers or with other special education students. Some deaf children exclusively attend a mainstream program; others join select mainstream classes for part of their day. Students may receive accommodations, such as itinerant teachers,
interpreters Interpreting is a translational activity in which one produces a first and final target-language output on the basis of a one-time exposure to an expression in a source language. The most common two modes of interpreting are simultaneous inter ...
,
assistive technology Assistive technology (AT) is a term for assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for Disability, people with disabilities and the elderly. Disabled people often have difficulty performing activities of daily living (ADLs) independently, ...
, note-takers and aides.


Pros and cons of different education settings

Residential schools for the Deaf provide more opportunities for socialization and identification with the Deaf community and better access to school curriculum. Mainstreaming in general education settings provides students with the opportunity to socialize with their hearing peers and learn skills to adapt to environments dominated by hearing people. Deaf advocate Ahmed Khalifa has shared how many people believe that general education settings better prepare Deaf students for the "real" or hearing world. Khalifa has expressed concerns about the standardization of curriculum in certain residential schools for the Deaf. Deaf students often report learning more difficult material in general education settings than in residential schools for the Deaf, and they report better post-secondary educational and vocational opportunities. There is an increasing demand for Deaf students to be included in general education settings. However, in general education settings, Deaf students tend to perform worse than their hearing peers academically due to miscommunications that occur through third-person
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
interpreting. In addition to increasing miscommunication, third-person sign language interpreting in general education settings is economically inefficient and in some cases, is not possible due to a lack of school resources. Deaf schools eliminate the need for third-person interpreting, and thus, reduce the probability of miscommunication between teachers and Deaf students. Deaf schools also provide the opportunity for Deaf students to learn sign language, which can improve their scholastic and social-emotional capability. Identification with the Deaf community and the ability to communicate with both hearing peers and Deaf peers positively predict
self-esteem Self-esteem is confidence in one's own worth or abilities. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself (for example, "I am loved", "I am worthy") as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame. Smith and Mackie (2007) d ...
outcomes in Deaf students.


History


France

Charles-Michel de l'Épée Charles-Michel de l'Épée (; 24 November 1712 – 23 December 1789) was a philanthropy, philanthropic educator of 18th-century France who has become known as the "Father of the Deaf". Overview Charles-Michel de l'Épée was born to a wealthy fam ...
pioneered deaf education in France. He did charitable work for the poor, and on one trip into the Paris slums saw two young, deaf sisters who communicated with a
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
. Épée then decided to dedicate himself to the education of the deaf, and founded a school in 1760. In line with the philosophy of the time (see
French Enlightenment French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, which originated in France, and its various dialects and accents ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with France ...
), Épée believed that deaf people were capable of language and developed a system of teaching French and religion. During the early 1760s his shelter became the Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris, the world's first public school for deaf children.


Great Britain

John Bulwer John Bulwer (baptised 16 May 1606 – buried 16 October 1656 ) was an English people, English physician and early Baconian method, Baconian natural philosopher who wrote five works exploring the Body and human communication, particularly by ge ...
(1606–1656), an English physician, wrote five works on bodily communication (particularly gestures). He was the first person in England to propose educating deaf people, outlining plans for an academy in ''Philocophus'' and ''The Dumbe mans academie''. The grandson of Sir John Popham, Alexander, was born in 1650. He was either deaf at birth, or became so before acquiring speech. Two eminent men came to his home at Littlecote House to teach him to talk:
John Wallis John Wallis (; la, Wallisius; ) was an English clergyman and mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus. Between 1643 and 1689 he served as chief cryptographer for Parliament of the United Kingdom, ...
, mathematician and cryptographer, and
William Holder William Holder Royal Society, FRS (1616 – 24 January 1698) was an English clergyman and music theorist of the 17th century. His most notable work was his widely known 1694 publication ''A Treatise on the Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmon ...
, music theorist. The first British school for teaching the deaf to speak and read was
Thomas Braidwood Thomas Braidwood (1715–1806) was a Scottish educator, significant in the history of deaf education. He was the founder of Britain's first school for the deaf. Early life The fourth child of Thomas Braidwood and Agnes Meek, Braidwood was born in ...
's Academy for the Deaf and Dumb in Edinburgh, established during the 1760s, the time of the
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in History of Scotland#18th century, 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplis ...
. The school moved to London in 1783. Braidwood used an early form of sign language: the combined system, forerunner of
British Sign Language British Sign Language (BSL) is a sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language among the Deaf culture, Deaf community in the UK. Based on the percentage of people who reported 'using British Sign Languag ...
. Under the management of Braidwood's nephew the school expanded, encouraging the establishment of an Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb in Edgbaston in 1814 and others in Liverpool, Doncaster. Edinburgh, Exeter, and Manchester ( now the Seashell Trust). Britain's first free school for deaf pupils, the London Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb, was set up in 1792 by three men: Henry Thornton, MP, abolitionist, and reformer; Rev John Townsend, educator and Independent minister; and Henry Cox Mason, rector of Bermondsey. Braidwood's nephew Joseph Watson offered himself as tutor, and eventually became headmaster; he wrote ''On the Education of the Deaf and Dumb'' (1809). The institute's name and location changed more than once, and for most of the nineteenth century it occupied a purpose-built
boarding school A boarding school is a school where pupils live within premises while being given formal instruction. The word "boarding" is used in the sense of "room and board", i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, and now exten ...
on the
Old Kent Road Old Kent Road is a major thoroughfare in South East London, England, passing through the London Borough of Southwark The London Borough of Southwark ( ) in South London forms part of Inner London and is connected by bridges across the Riv ...
,
Southwark Southwark ( ) is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed d ...
in
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the interior part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. With its origins in the bills of mortality, it became fixed as an area for statistics in 1847 and was used ...
; it moved to the seaside at
Margate Margate is a seaside resort, seaside town on the north coast of Kent in south-east England. The town is estimated to be 1.5 miles long, north-east of Canterbury and includes Cliftonville, Garlinge, Palm Bay, UK, Palm Bay and Westbrook, Kent, ...
, where it was known as The Royal School for Deaf Children Margate, finally closing in 2015. The Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act of 1893 set the compulsory age for the admission of deaf children in boarding schools at seven years, and the leaving age at sixteen. This was at odds with the compulsory age of admission for both hearing and blind children at five years old, and a school leaving age of fourteen for hearing children. In 1937, a new law lowered the age of admission of children attending schools for the deaf from seven years to five years. In the mid-1960s the
Inner London Education Authority The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was an ad hoc local education authority for the City of London and the 12 Inner London boroughs from 1965 until its abolition in 1990. The authority was reconstituted as a directly elected body corpor ...
set up two primary schools for deaf children, Frank Barnes School in North London and
Grove House School Grove House School was a Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian set of Christian denomination, denominations known formally as the Religious Society of Friends. Members of these movements ("theFriend ...
in South London. They also opened Oak Lodge Secondary School in Wandsworth, South London, which was one of a few state boarding schools.
British Sign Language British Sign Language (BSL) is a sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language among the Deaf culture, Deaf community in the UK. Based on the percentage of people who reported 'using British Sign Languag ...
was recognised in 2003.


Australia

In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of , Australia is the largest country by ...
, about one in six citizens have hearing loss. Unlike deaf education in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, over half of Australian deaf students are taught in hearing schools. Most of these students will be taught primarily in English; however, there are also bilingual programs. It is frequent that deaf students in hearing schools are taught sign language one-on-one, meaning they lack social interaction with their peers. Being taken out of classes and recess for these lessons decreases their time with other students. There are also fewer interpreters available than needed, meaning students immersed in hearing schools sometimes have to rely on their own knowledge to make it through a class. The most common language taught by teachers of the deaf in signing schools is Australasian Signed English. Most deaf children will be taught standardized English in hearing schools. Schools that teach
Auslan Auslan () is the majority sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation ...
, or Australian Sign Language, are usually only specialized schools for the deaf, which are rare. Auslan can also be difficult to learn and reproduce with others since it is common that teachers of Auslan will pass on an outdated version of the language. This includes signs that may no longer be used or signs that have been redeveloped. A group known as Deaf Australia is attempting to address the complex issues of deaf education and representation in their country. They believe in the idea that deaf children need to be taught both Auslan and English, and not just have access to one or the other. Their statistics state that deaf students are usually "two standard deviations outside of the average" in terms of educational performance, and their goal as an organization is to change this. The Gonski report, led by
David Gonski David Michael Gonski (born 7 October 1953) is an Australian public figure and businessman. In 2008, ''The Sydney Morning Herald ''The Sydney Morning Herald'' (''SMH'') is a daily compact (newspaper), compact newspaper published in Sydn ...
and
Julia Gillard Julia Eileen Gillard (born 29 September 1961) is an Australian former politician who served as the 27th prime minister of Australia from 2010 to 2013, holding office as leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP). She is the first and only ...
, made the argument that the Australian government did not have a stable, concise approach to funding for schools. This report was the basis for the National Plan for School Improvement of 2014 whose mission was to make sure all Australian students, regardless of background or disability, would be receiving a "world-class education". The National Plan was the beginning of more opportunities for deaf students to have a specialized, enriching education similar to that of hearing students. From the National Plan and statistics about Australian disability education came the National Disability Strategy of 2012. The strategy highlights a ten-year plan developed by the National People with Disabilities and Carer Council to " mprovelife for Australians with disability". The plan was to take place from 2011 to 2020 with three main phases: 1) gathering statistics about disability education and life in Australia, 2) prioritizing certain actions based on gathered statistics and implement them into Australian government/daily life and 3) check on progress of implemented actions and make sure the plan is on track. The National Disability Strategy is considered in Australia to be a "historic milestone" due to it being the first time all aspects of Australian government and society has come together to focus on improving the lives of disabled citizens.


Germany

In 1778, Samuel Heinicke opened the first public school for the deaf in
Leipzig, Germany Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
. Heinicke believed lipreading to be the best method of teaching and opposed the dependence on sign language in his school. His ideology was that lipreading made his students understand the language as it was spoken and used in society. This method of teaching became normalized among schools for the deaf and hard of hearing in Germany. The government and school system suggests parents of children with hearing loss use the oral method at home, to stimulate and create excitement in learning. By 1975 there were 73 schools for the hearing impaired in West Germany, most being state residential schools, with a few private religious schools. In classrooms, gestures and signing were not allowed, children had to closely watch their teachers' lips as vocabulary and background information is explained. Children could easily move throughout programs that best suited their learning needs; their placement typically based on their hearing ability. Integrated programs had been unsuccessful except in classes like sports, workshop, and art, but contact between the deaf and mainstream schools is encouraged. Outside of the classroom students are free to communicate however they chose, which tends to be a manual communication. In recent years, deaf schools have begun to accept a bilingual approach to education. 90% of deaf institutions still have an oralist approach, but about 60% of those schools use a combined manual method of teaching.


United States

Deaf education in the United States began during the early 1800s, when the Cobbs School (an
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...
school) was established by William Bolling and John Braidwood and the Connecticut Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb (a manual school) was established by
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (December 10, 1787 – September 10, 1851) was an American educator. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Fitch Cogswell, Mason Cogswell, he co-founded the first permanent institution for the Education of the Deaf, educatio ...
and
Laurent Clerc Louis Laurent Marie Clerc (; 26 December 1785 – 18 July 1869) was a French teacher called "The Apostle of the Deaf culture, Deaf in America" and was regarded as the most renowned deaf person in American Deaf History. He was taught by Abbé S ...
. When the Cobbs School closed in 1816, the manual method (which used
American Sign Language American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States of America and most of Anglophone Canada. ASL is a complete and organized visual language that is expres ...
) became common in deaf schools for most of the rest of the century. During the late 1800s schools began using the oral method, which only allowed the use of speech (in contrast to the manual method previously in place). The oral method was used for many years, until sign-language instruction gradually returned to deaf education.


Nigeria

Before the government stepped in, those with special needs were looked after by different religious or voluntary groups in the country, such as the School for the Blind of Gindiri and the Wesley School for the Deaf in
Lagos Lagos (Nigerian English: ; ) is the largest city in Nigeria and the List of cities in Africa by population, second most populous city in Africa, with a population of 15.4 million as of 2015 within the city proper. Lagos was the national ca ...
. The Wesley School for the Deaf is the oldest school for the Deaf in Nigeria, being founded in 1958. The Wesley School for the Deaf is still teaching the Deaf in Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria, with the help of the Wesley Methodist mission and the state government. The expansion of deaf education in
Nigeria Nigeria ( ), , ig, Naìjíríyà, yo, Nàìjíríà, pcm, Naijá , ff, Naajeeriya, kcg, Naijeriya officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is situated between the Sahel to the north and the Gulf of G ...
is largely credited to Andrew Foster, the first black graduate of
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
. Foster had previously founded a school for the deaf in Ghana. While identifying deaf individuals he offered to send them to his school in Ghana. Those selected would complete a certification course to get them ready to become an administrator, teacher, or office workers for the schools which Foster established in Nigeria. Foster established three schools in Nigeria: Kaduna in northern Nigeria, Enugu in eastern Nigeria, and lastly Ibadan in western Nigeria. The schools he established have since closed down or merged into other schools, but his legacy is still remembered. Public special education began to change in 1975 though. The National Policy on Education recognized
Special Education Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, alternative provision, exceptional student education, special ed., SDC, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that accommodates th ...
and was passed in 1977 and revised in 1981 and 2015. The policy has a section devoted to special need education. The Blueprint on Education of the Handicapped in Nigeria started in 1989, which established several schools, like School for the Deaf Akure, catering especially to those with special education needs. The 2006 national
census A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring, recording and calculating information about the members of a given population Population typically refers to the number of people in a single area, whether it be a city A city is a ...
puts the figure of persons with disability in Nigeria at 3,253,169, with about 39 per cent of school age. Nigeria uses a 6–3–3–4 educational system, standing for six years of primary education, three years in junior primary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four years of higher education. In theory the 6–3–3–4 system should allow for the deaf and special needs to receive an education; however, in practice service for the deaf and special needs are well behind other countries.


Andrew Foster

Andrew Jackson Foster is known as the "Father of Deaf Education" in Africa where he founded 32 schools for the Deaf across 13 African nations. He was the first African American graduate of Gallaudet University with a degree in education in 1954. In 1956, he received his master's degree in Deaf education at Michigan State Normal College and then a second master's in Christian missions at Seattle Pacific College, respectively. Foster founded the Christian Missions for Deaf Africans and led to the establishment of Ghana Mission School for the Deaf in Accra, Ghana. Foster's work continued for the next three decades, expanding all over the continent. In 1987, en route to Kenya, Foster died in a plane crash. In 2004, Gallaudet University named an auditorium in recognition of Foster's role with a bust displayed upfront.


Issues

Two general methods of deaf education are manualism and oralism.
Manualism Manualism is a method of Education of the deaf, education of deaf students using sign language within the classroom. Manualism arose in the late 18th century with the advent of free public schools for the deaf in Europe. These teaching methods we ...
is instruction using
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
, and
oralism Oralism is the Education of the deaf, education of deaf students through oral language by using lip reading, speech, and mimicking the Articulatory phonetics, mouth shapes and breathing patterns of speech.Through Deaf Eyes. Diane Garey, Lawrence ...
uses spoken language. Although controversy has existed since the early eighteenth century about which method is more effective, many deaf-educational facilities attempt to integrate both approaches. The National Association of the Deaf advocates a bilingual approach, to best support deaf students in their education. There are also disputes over which form of schooling is best for children who are deaf. Some say that mainstream schooling with other non-deaf students is the best because it prepares students for the real world where there is a mix of both hearing and deaf people. While others say that sending their child to a deaf school is the better option because it surrounds their child with other students who are like them. Neither is better than the other and it is important to keep in mind that what is best for one child probably will not be the same for another.


National approaches


United States

Some deaf students receive an individualized education program (IEP) outlining how the school will meet the student's individual needs. The
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a piece of American legislation Legislation is the process or result of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating laws by a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembl ...
(IDEA) requires that students with special needs be provided with
Free Appropriate Public Education The right to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is an educational entitlement of all students in the United States who are identified as having a disability, guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities ...
in the
least restrictive environment In the U.S. the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a special education law that mandates regulation for students with disabilities to protect their rights as students and the rights of their parents. The IDEA requires that all s ...
appropriate to the student's needs. Government-run schools provide deaf education in varying degrees, from the least-restrictive setting (full inclusion) to the most restrictive (segregation in a deaf school). Education offered by the school must be appropriate to the student's individual needs; however, schools are not required to maximize the student's potential or provide the best possible services. Like most developed countries, American schools are required to provide medical services (such as
speech therapy Speech is a human vocal communication Communication (from la, communicare, meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is usually defined as the transmission of information. The term may also refer to the message communicated throug ...
) if the student needs those services. As technology improves, more solutions become available in classrooms. Things such as FM systems have been put into many schools. An FM system has two parts: the first is a microphone that the teacher wears around their neck while teaching. There are two ways the system is set up for the child. First, the FM radio waves can be directly set up with the child's hearing aid or cochlear implant, so the sound is amplified only to the particular child. The second is called a sound field. The sound field uses special speakers put strategically throughout the classroom. This increases sound to a whole classroom instead of just one student.


Canada

Canada upholds and recognizes the UN
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights instrument, international human rights multilateral treaty, treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with Disabi ...
stating that all Deaf people have the right to be educated in sign language. The Canadian Association of the Deaf's doctrine is the education of a child in a language that best fits them, and then the addition of a second language, like English or French, once a primary form of communication has been established.


Nepal

Deaf children in Nepal have the right to free, qualified education in line with provisions of the UN
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights instrument, international human rights multilateral treaty, treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with Disabi ...
(UNCRPD). However, education in a school for the deaf is limited to 13 dedicated schools for the deaf and a slightly higher number of deaf resource classes in regular schools. All schools and classes are
bilingual Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all E ...
, with
Nepali Sign Language Nepalese Sign Language or Nepali Sign Language is the main sign language of Nepal. It is a partially Language standardization, standardized language based informally on the variety used in Kathmandu, with some input from varieties from Pokhara an ...
and written
Nepali Nepali or Nepalese may refer to : Concerning Nepal * Anything of, from, or related to Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), formerly the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकत ...
the media of instruction.


Teacher training

Deaf education teacher training programs generally focus on one of the three major philosophies: bilingual (sign language), oral (listening and spoken language), or total (combination of oral and bilingual). Teachers learn through a combination of academic coursework and student teaching experiences with children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Academic preparation may include a combination of
education Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty ...
,
special education Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, alternative provision, exceptional student education, special ed., SDC, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that accommodates th ...
,
audiology Audiology (from Latin , "to hear"; and from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and related disorders. Audiologists treat those with hearing loss and proactively prevent related ...
, speech-language pathology,
sign language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...
, Deaf studies, and Deaf culture, with specific content guided by the philosophy, specific program degree requirements, and (if applicable) state teacher certification/licensure requirements.


Canada

*
George Brown College George Brown College is a public, fully accredited college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiary ...
Toronto *
Nova Scotia Community College Nova Scotia Community College, commonly referred to as NSCC, is a community college A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an "ope ...
*
Red River College Red River College Polytechnic (RRC Polytech) is a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituent part of one. A college may be a academic degree, degree-awarding Tertiar ...
*
University of Alberta The University of Alberta, also known as U of A or UAlberta, is a Public university, public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford,"A Gentleman of Strathcona – Alexande ...
*
Vancouver Community College Vancouver Community College is a public College (Canada), community college in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Founded in 1965, it is the largest and oldest community college in British Columbia, offering 91 Academic certificate, certificate ...
*
York University York University (french: Université York), also known as YorkU or simply YU, is a public university, public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is Canada's fourth-largest university, and it has approximately 55,700 students, 7,0 ...


Ireland

*
Trinity College Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Ital ...


United States

* Bachelors program: **
Boston University Boston University (BU) is a Private university, private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, but has a historical affiliation with the United Methodist Church. It was founded in 1839 by Methodists with ...
**
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
**
Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is a private university, private research university in the town of Henrietta, New York, Henrietta in the Rochester, New York, metropolitan area. The university offers undergraduate and graduate degree ...
* Masters program: ** Washington University in St. Louis **
Boston University Boston University (BU) is a Private university, private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, but has a historical affiliation with the United Methodist Church. It was founded in 1839 by Methodists with ...
** National Center on Deafness,
California State University, Northridge California State University, Northridge (CSUN or Cal State Northridge) is a public university in the Northridge, Los Angeles, Northridge neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. With a total enrollment of 38,551 students (as of Fall 2021), it h ...
, Northridge, California *Doctoral program: **
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University ( ) is a private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. for the education of the Hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing. It was founded in 1864 as a gramma ...
Washington, D.C.


United Kingdom

*
University of Central Lancashire , mottoeng = "From the Earth to the Sun" , established = as Institution for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledgere-established 1992 (University status granted) , type = Public In public relatio ...
, Lancashire, England *
University of Bristol The University of Bristol is a Red brick university, red brick Russell Group research university in Bristol, England. It received its royal charter in 1909, although it can trace its roots to a Society of Merchant Venturers, Merchant Venturers' sc ...
, Bristol *
University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh ( sco, University o Edinburgh, gd, Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann; abbreviated as ''Edin.'' in Post-nominal letters, post-nominals) is a Public university, public research university based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Granted ...
Edinburgh *
University of Wolverhampton The University of Wolverhampton is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership, owned by the state or receives significant government spending, public funds through a natio ...


New Zealand

*
Auckland University of Technology Auckland University of Technology (AUT) ( mi, Te Wānanga Aronui o Tāmaki Makau Rau) is a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and re ...
*
Victoria University of Wellington Victoria University of Wellington ( mi, Te Herenga Waka) is a university in Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. It was established in 1897 by Act of New Zealand Parliament, Parliament, and was a constituent college of the University of New Z ...


The Netherlands

* HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht *Visual Language, Signs and Gestures,
Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics The Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics (German language, German: ''Max-Planck-Institut für Psycholinguistik''; Dutch language, Dutch: ''Max Planck Instituut voor Psycholinguïstiek'') is a research institute situated on the campus of Rad ...
, Nijmegen


Deaf education associations

;Philippines ;* International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) ;Europe ;* European Federation of Associations of Teachers of the Deaf (FEAPDA) ;* European Union of the Deaf ;United States * Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ** Volta Bureau * American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC) * Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools and Programs for the Deaf (CEASD) *
National Association of the Deaf (United States) The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) is an organization for the promotion of the rights of deaf people in the United States. NAD was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1880 as a non-profit organization run by Deaf people to advocate for deaf ri ...
*National Deaf Education Conference ;Canada ;* Canadian Association of the Deaf ;United Kingdom * British Association of Teachers of the Deaf (BATOD) *British Deaf Association (BDA)


See also

* :Deaf universities and colleges * :Schools for the deaf * History of institutions for deaf education * Deaf culture * Deaf studies *
History of sign language The recorded history of sign language in Western societies starts in the 17th century, as a visual language A visual language is a system of communication using visual elements. Speech as a means of communication cannot strictly be separated fr ...
* Language exposure for deaf children *
Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf The Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf was an international Meeting, conference of deaf educators held in Milan, Italy in 1880. It is commonly known as "the Milan Conference or Milan Congress". The first meeting was held in Par ...
* Signing Exact English *
Special education Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, alternative provision, exceptional student education, special ed., SDC, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that accommodates th ...
*'' American Annals of the Deaf'' *
Sign Language Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning, instead of spoken words. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulation in combination with non-manual markers. Sign l ...


References


Further reading

* Edwards. R.A.R. ''Words Made Flesh: Nineteenth-Century Deaf Education and the Growth of Deaf Culture.'' New York: New York University Press, 2012
online review
* Gannon, Jack R. ''Deaf Heritage: A Narrative History of Deaf America'' (2012) * Greenwald, Brian H., and John Vickrey Van Cleve. ''A Fair Chance in the Race of Life: The Role of Gallaudet University in Deaf History'' (2008)


External links

* A.A.P.T.S.D
''The Association Review: 1906''
Philadelphia, Penn.: American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf. Retrieved from the
Internet Archive The Internet Archive is an American digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge". It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, ...
, June 7, 2012. Note: this annual review contains extensive material on deaf education worldwide. It has been inadvertently listed on the Internet Archive as ''The Association Review: 1899'', although some metadata correctly identifies it as from the year 1906.
British Association of Teachers of the Deaf (BATOD)List of deaf education teacher preparation programs in the United States and Canada
* This article has a section on deaf children. {{DEFAULTSORT:Deaf Education Education for the deaf Special education