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"Edda" (/ˈɛdə/; Old Norse
Old Norse
Edda, plural Eddur) is an Old Norse
Old Norse
term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda. The term historically referred only to the Prose Edda, but this since has fallen out of use because of the confusion with the other work. Both works were written down in Iceland
Iceland
during the 13th century in Icelandic, although they contain material from earlier traditional sources, reaching into the Viking Age. The books are the main sources of medieval skaldic tradition in Iceland
Iceland
and Norse mythology.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 The Poetic Edda 3 The Prose Edda 4 See also 5 Notes 6 External links

Etymology[edit] There are several theories concerning the origins of the word edda. One theory holds that it is identical to a word that means "great-grandmother" appearing in the Eddic poem Rígsþula.[1] Another theory holds that edda derives from Old Norse
Old Norse
óðr, "poetry". A third, proposed in 1895 by Eiríkr Magnússon, is that it derives from the Icelandic place name Oddi, site of the church and school where students, including Snorri Sturluson, were educated.[2] A fourth hypothesis—the derivation of the word Edda as the name of Snorri Sturluson’s treatise on poetry from the Latin edo, "I compose (poetry)", by analogy with kredda, "superstition", from Latin credo, "creed"—is now widely accepted, though this acceptance may stem from its agreement with modern usage rather than historical accuracy.[3] The Poetic Edda[edit] Main article: Poetic Edda The Poetic Edda, also known as Sæmundar Edda or the Elder Edda, is a collection of Old Norse
Old Norse
poems from the Icelandic medieval manuscript Codex Regius
Codex Regius
("Royal Book"). Along with the Prose Edda, the Poetic Edda is the most expansive source on Norse mythology. The first part of the Codex Regius
Codex Regius
preserves poems that narrate the creation and foretold destruction and rebirth of the Old Norse
Old Norse
mythological world as well as individual myths about gods concerning Norse deities. The poems in the second part narrate legends about Norse heroes and heroines, such as Sigurd, Brynhildr
Brynhildr
and Gunnar. The Codex Regius
Codex Regius
was written in the 13th century, but nothing is known of its whereabouts until 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson, then the Church of Iceland's Bishop of Skálholt. At that time, versions of the Prose Edda
Prose Edda
were well known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was another Edda—an Elder Edda—which contained the pagan poems Snorri quotes in his book. When the Codex Regius
Codex Regius
was discovered, it seemed that this speculation had proven correct. Brynjólfur attributed the manuscript to Sæmundr the Learned, a larger-than-life 12th century Icelandic priest. While this attribution is rejected by modern scholars, the name Sæmundar Edda is still sometimes encountered. Bishop Brynjólfur sent the Codex Regius
Codex Regius
as a present to King Christian IV of Denmark, hence the name Codex Regius. For centuries it was stored in the Royal Library in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
but in 1971 it was returned to Iceland. The Prose Edda[edit] Main article: Prose Edda The Prose Edda, sometimes referred to as the Younger Edda or Snorri's Edda, is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. Its purpose was to enable Icelandic poets and readers to understand the subtleties of alliterative verse, and to grasp the mythological allusions behind the many kennings that were used in skaldic poetry. It was written by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson around 1220. It survives in four known manuscripts and three fragments, written down from about 1300 to about 1600.[4] The Prose Edda
Prose Edda
consists of a Prologue and three separate books: Gylfaginning, concerning the creation and foretold destruction and rebirth of the Norse mythical world; Skáldskaparmál, a dialogue between Ægir, a Norse god connected with the sea, and Bragi, the skaldic god of poetry; and Háttatal, a demonstration of verse forms used in Norse mythology. See also[edit]

Gesta Danorum Heimskringla Saga Laufás-Edda

Notes[edit]

^ Snorri Sturluson. The Prose Edda: Tales from Norse Mythology, translated by Jean I. Young (University of California Press, 1964), p. 8. ^ Liberman, Anatoly (1996). "Ten Scandinavian and North English Etymologies". Alvíssmál. 6: 63–98.  ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages (2010) under "Snorri Sturluson" ^ Kevin J. Wanner (2008). Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
and the Edda: The Conversion of Cultural Capital in Medieval Scandinavia. University of Toronto Press. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-0-8020-9801-6. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Edda.

 "Edda". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

v t e

The Poetic Edda

Mythological poems

Codex Regius

Völuspá Hávamál Vafþrúðnismál Grímnismál Skírnismál Hárbarðsljóð Hymiskviða Lokasenna Þrymskviða Völundarkviða Alvíssmál

Non-Codex Regius

Baldrs draumar Rígsþula Hyndluljóð

Völuspá
Völuspá
hin skamma

Svipdagsmál

Grógaldr Fjölsvinnsmál

Gróttasöngr Hrafnagaldr Óðins

Heroic Lays

Codex Regius

Helgi Lays

Helgakviða Hundingsbana I Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar Helgakviða Hundingsbana II

Niflung Cycle

Frá dauða Sinfjötla Grípisspá Reginsmál Fáfnismál Sigrdrífumál Brot af Sigurðarkviðu Guðrúnarkviða I Sigurðarkviða hin skamma Helreið Brynhildar Dráp Niflunga Guðrúnarkviða II Guðrúnarkviða III Oddrúnargrátr Atlakviða Atlamál

Jörmunrekkr Lays

Guðrúnarhvöt Hamðismál

Non-Codex Regius

Hlöðskviða Hervararkviða

Later poems

Sólarljóð

Manuscripts

Codex Regius AM 748 I 4to AM 738 4to Hauksbók Flateyjarbók Codex Wormianus

See also

Prose Edda Norse mythology Skaldic poetry Old Norse
Old Norse
poetry Icelandic language

v t e

The Prose Edda

Books

Prologue Gylfaginning

Heimdalargaldr

Skáldskaparmál

Bjarkamál Haustlöng Þórsdrápa Ragnarsdrápa Húsdrápa Nafnaþulur

Háttatal

See also

Poetic Edda Skald Laufás-Edda

v t e

Norse mythology

Deities and other figures

Æsir

Baldr Bragi Dellingr Forseti Heimdallr Hermóðr Höðr Hœnir Ítreksjóð Lóðurr Loki Máni Meili Mímir Móði and Magni Odin Óðr Thor Týr Ullr Váli Víðarr Vili and Vé

Ásynjur

Bil Eir Frigg Fulla Gefjon Gerðr Gná Hlín Iðunn Ilmr Irpa Lofn Nanna Njörun Rán Rindr Sága Sif Sigyn Sjöfn Skaði Snotra Sól Syn Þorgerðr Hölgabrúðr Þrúðr Vár Vör

Vanir

Freyja Freyr

Ingunar-Freyr Yngvi

Gersemi Gullveig Hnoss Kvasir Njörðr Sister-wife of Njörðr

Jötnar

Ægir Alvaldi Angrboða Aurboða Baugi Beli Bergelmir Bestla Bölþorn Býleistr Eggthér Fárbauti Fjörgyn Fjörgynn Fornjót Gangr Geirröd Gilling Gjálp Greip Gríðr Gunnlöð Gymir Harðgreipr Helblindi Helreginn Hljod Hræsvelgr Hrímgerðr Hrímgrímnir Hrímnir Hroðr Hrungnir Hrym Hymir Hyrrokkin Iði Im Járnsaxa Jörð Laufey Leikn Litr Logi Mögþrasir Narfi Sökkmímir Surtr Suttungr Þjazi Þökk Þrívaldi Þrúðgelmir Þrymr Útgarða-Loki Vafþrúðnir Váli Víðblindi Vosud Vörnir Ymir

Dwarfs

Alvíss Andvari Billingr Brokkr Dáinn Durinn Dúrnir Dvalinn Eitri Fafnir Fjalar and Galar Gandalf Hreiðmarr Litr Mótsognir Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri Ótr Regin Sons of Ivaldi

Heroes

Egil Arngrim Bödvar Bjarki Björn Járnsíða Guðmundr Hagbarðr Haki Heiðrekr Helgi Haddingjaskati Helgi Hjörvarðsson Helgi Hundingsbane Hervör Hjalmar and Ingeborg Hlöðr Höðbroddr Hrólfr Kraki Ingjald Jónakr's sons Örvar-Oddr Palnatoke Ragnarr Loðbrók Rerir Sigmund Sigurðr Svafrlami Sinfjötli Starkaðr Styrbjörn the Strong Svipdagr Völsung Vésteinn

Others

Ask and Embla Auðumbla Beyla Borr Búri Byggvir Dís Einherjar Eldir Elves

Dark elves (Dökkálfar) Light elves (Ljósálfar) Black elves (Svartálfar)

Fimafeng Fenrir Garmr Hati Hróðvitnisson Hel Hjúki Horses of the Æsir

Árvakr and Alsviðr Blóðughófi Falhófnir Gísl Glaðr Glær Glenr Grani Gullfaxi Gulltoppr Gyllir Hamskerpir and Garðrofa Hófvarpnir Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi Sleipnir Svaðilfari

Jafnhárr Jörmungandr Móðguðr Nine Daughters of Ægir Nine Mothers of Heimdallr Narfi and Nari Níðhöggr Norns Personifications

Dagr Elli Nótt Sumarr and Vetr

Skírnir Sköll Shieldmaiden Þjálfi and Röskva Valkyrie Vættir Völundr

Locations

Nine Realms

Álfheimr Asgard Jötunheimr Midgard Muspelheim Niðavellir Svartálfar Niflheim Vanaheimr

Underworld

Éljúðnir Hel Gjallarbrú Náströnd Niflhel Niðafjöll

Rivers

Élivágar Gjöll Ífingr Kerlaugar Körmt and Örmt Slidr River Vadgelmir Vimur River

Other locations

Amsvartnir Andlang Barri Bifröst Bilskirnir Brávellir Brimir Fensalir Fólkvangr Fornsigtuna Fyrisvellir Gálgviðr Gandvik Gastropnir Gimlé Ginnungagap Gjallarbrú Glaðsheimr Glæsisvellir Glitnir Gnipahellir Grove of fetters Himinbjörg Hindarfjall Hlidskjalf Hnitbjorg Hoddmímis holt Iðavöllr Járnviðr Mímameiðr Myrkviðr Munarvágr Niðavellir Nóatún Okolnir Sessrúmnir Sindri Singasteinn Þrúðheimr Þrúðvangr Þrymheimr Útgarðar Valaskjálf Valhalla Víðbláinn Vígríðr Vingólf Wells

Hvergelmir Mímisbrunnr Urðarbrunnr

Ýdalir Yggdrasil

Events

Æsir– Vanir
Vanir
War Fimbulvetr Hjaðningavíg Ragnarök

Sources

Gesta Danorum Poetic Edda Prose Edda Runestones Sagas Tyrfing Cycle Völsung
Völsung
Cycle Old Norse
Old Norse
language Orthography Later influence

Society

Blót Félag Germanic calendar Heiti Hörgr Kenning Mead hall Nīþ Norse pagan worship Numbers Sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism
Germanic paganism
and mythology Seiðr Skald Viking Age Völva

See also

Norse gods Norse giants Mythological Norse people, items and places Germanic paganism Heathenry (new religious movement)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 177803146 GND: 4138527-5 SUDOC: 02984990X BNF: cb121390085 (d

.