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The economy of Asia comprises more than 4.5 billion people (60% of the world population) living in 49 different nations.[7] Asia is the fastest growing economic region, as well as the largest continental economy by both GDP Nominal and PPP in the world.[8] Moreover, Asia is the site of some of the world's longest modern economic booms, starting from the Japanese economic miracle (1950–1990), Miracle on the Han River (1961–1996) in South Korea, economic boom (1978–2013) in China, Tiger Cub Economies (1990–present) in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam, and economic boom in India (1991–present).

As in all world regions, the wealth of Asia differs widely between, and within, states. This is due to its vast size, meaning a huge range of different cultures, environments, historical ties and government systems. The largest economies in Asia in terms of PPP gross domestic product (GDP) are China, India, Japan, Indonesia, Turkey, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Thailand and Taiwan and in terms of nominal gross domestic product (GDP) are China, Japan, India, South Korea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Taiwan, Thailand and Iran.

Total wealth is mainly concentrated in East Asia, India and Southeast Asia, while if measured by GDP per capita; is mostly concentrated in the East Asia in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, and Brunei, as well as in oil rich countries in West Asia such as Saudi Arabia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Oman.[9][10][11] Israel and Turkey are also two major economies in West Asia. Israel (entrepreneurship on diversified industries) is a developed country, while Turkey (founding member of OECD) is an advanced emerging country. Asia, with the exception of Japan (heavy industry and electrical sophistication), South Korea (heavy industry and information and communication technology), Taiwan (heavy industry and hi-tech parts manufacturing), Hong Kong (financial industry and services) and Singapore (high-tech manufacturing, biotechnology, financial and business services and tourism) in recent years, is currently undergoing rapid growth and industrialization . China (manufacturing and FDI-led growth[12]) and India (commodities, outsourcing destination and computer software) are the two fastest growing major economies in the world.

East Asian and ASEAN countries generally rely on manufacturing and trade (and then gradually upgrade to industry and commerce[13]), and incrementally building on high-tech industry and financial industry[14] for growth, countries in the Middle East depend more on engineering to overcome climate difficulties for economic growth and the production of commodities, principally Sweet crude oil.[15] Over the years, with rapid economic growth and large trade surplus with the rest of the world, Asia has accumulated over US$8.5 trillion of foreign exchange reserves – more than half of the world's total, and adding tertiary and quaternary sectors to expand in the share of Asia's economy.