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The Economic Cooperation Organisation or ECO is a Eurasian
Eurasian
political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran
Tehran
by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkey. It provides a platform to discuss ways to improve development and promote trade and investment opportunities. The ECO is an ad hoc organisation under the United Nations Charter (Chap. VIII). The objective is to establish a single market for goods and services, much like the European Union.[2] ECO's secretariat and cultural department are located in Iran, its economic bureau is in Turkey
Turkey
and its scientific bureau is situated in Pakistan. The nature of ECO is that it consists of predominantly Muslim-majority states as it is a trade bloc for the Central Asian states connected to the Mediterranean through Turkey, to the Persian Gulf via Iran, and to the Arabian sea via Pakistan. The current framework of ECO expresses itself mostly in the form of bilateral agreements and arbitration mechanisms between individual and fully sovereign member states. This makes ECO similar to ASEAN
ASEAN
in that it is an organisation that has its own offices and bureaucracy for implementation of trade amongst sovereign member states. This consists of the historically integrated agricultural region of the Ferghana Valley
Ferghana Valley
which allows for trade and common agricultural production in the border region of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Free trade agreements between the industrial nations of Iran
Iran
and Turkey
Turkey
are due to be signed[dubious – discuss] in 2017.[3] Likewise the Pakistan- Turkey
Turkey
Free Trade
Trade
Agreement is due to be signed[dubious – discuss].[4] Pakistan
Pakistan
has free trade agreements with both Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran
Iran
which are signed and are in the process of implementation, and currently most of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
trade is through Pakistan. And the Afghanistan- Pakistan
Pakistan
Transit Trade
Trade
Agreement is designed to facilitate trade for goods and services for Central Asia via both Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan.[5] This is in addition to the Ashgabat agreement which is a multi-modal transport agreement between the Central Asian states.[6] Further cooperation amongst members is planned in the form of the Iran- Pakistan
Pakistan
gas pipeline as well as a Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan
Pakistan
pipeline. Current pipelines include the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline
Tabriz–Ankara pipeline
in addition to the planned Persian Pipeline. This is in addition to the transportation of oil and gas from resource rich Central Asian states such as Kazakshtan and Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
of minerals and agriculture that complements the industrialisation underway in Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkey. Pakistan plans to diversify its source of oil and gas supplies towards the Central Asian states including petroleum import contracts with Azerbaijan.[7]

Contents

1 History 2 Official names 3 Objectives & Principles of Cooperation 4 Membership

4.1 Full members 4.2 Observers

5 Structure

5.1 Council of Ministers 5.2 Council of Permanent Representatives 5.3 Regional Planning Council 5.4 General Secretariat

6 Activities 7 Summits and General Secretaries

7.1 List of summits 7.2 List of General Secretaries

8 Regional Institutions & Agencies

8.1 ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry 8.2 ECO Reinsurance Company 8.3 ECO Consultancy & Engineering Company 8.4 ECO Trade
Trade
and Development Bank 8.5 ECO Cultural Institute (ECI) 8.6 Others

9 Relationship with other organizations 10 Leaders of ECO member states, as of 2018 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] The Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
was the successor organisation of what was the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD), founded in 1964, which ended activities in 1979. In 1985 Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkey
Turkey
joined to form the ECO. By the fall of 1992, the ECO expanded to include seven new members; Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Uzbekistan. The date of the expansion to its present strength, 28 November, is referred to as "ECO Day". The status and power of the ECO is growing. However, the organisation faces many challenges. Most importantly, the member states are lacking appropriate infrastructure and institutions which the Organization is primarily seeking to develop, to make full use of the available resources in the region and provide sustainable development for the member nations. The Economic Cooperation Organisation Trade
Trade
Agreement (ECOTA) was signed on 17 July 2003 in Islamabad.[8] ECO Trade
Trade
Promotion Organization (TPO) is a new organization for trade promotion among member states located in Iran (2009).[9] Under the agreement reached between ECO members, the common trade market should be established by 2015.[2] Official names[edit] The official working language of the Economic Cooperation Organization is English. The official names of the organization are:

Azeri: İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı Kazakh: Экономикалық ынтымақтастық ұйымы Kyrgyz: Экономикалык Кызматташтык Уюму Pashto:د اقتصادي همکاريو سازمان Persian: سازمان همکاری اقتصادی Russian: Организация экономического сотрудничества Tajik: Созмони Ҳамкории Иқтисодӣ Turkish: Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı Urdu: اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم Uzbek: Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti

Objectives & Principles of Cooperation[edit]

Sustainable economic development of Member States; Progressive removal of trade barriers and promotion of intra- regional trade; Greater role of ECO region in the growth of world trade; Gradual integration of the economies of the Member States with the world economy; Development of transport & communications infrastructure linking the Member States with each other and with the outside world; Economic liberalization and privatization; Mobilization and utilization of ECO region's material resources; Effective utilization of the agricultural and industrial potentials of ECO region. Regional cooperation for drug abuse control, ecological and environmental protection and strengthening of historical and cultural ties among the peoples of the ECO region; and Mutually beneficial cooperation with regional and international organizations. Sovereign equality of the Member States and mutual advantage; Linking of national economic, development plans with ECO's immediate and long-term objectives to the extent possible; Joint efforts to gain freer access to markets outside the ECO region for the raw materials and finished products of the Member States; Effective utilization of ECO institutions, agreements and cooperative arrangements with other regional and international organizations including multilateral financial institutions; Common endeavors to develop a harmonized approach for participation in regional and global arrangements; Realization of economic cooperation strategy; and Exchanges in educational, scientific, technical and cultural fields

Membership[edit] Full members[edit]

Official Name Capital Area (km²) Population (2017) Density (per km²) GDP (2016)(nominal)[10] GDP (2016) (per capita) (nominal)[11] Currency Official languages

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Kabul 7005647500000000000♠647,500 7007276571450000000♠27,657,145 42.7 $7001188860000000000♠18.886 billion $7002565000000000000♠565 Afghani Dari, Pashto

Republic of Azerbaijan Baku 7004866000000000000♠86,600 7006980200000000000♠9,802,000 113.2 $7001375569999900000♠37.556 billion $7003395600000000000♠3,956 Manat Azerbaijani

Islamic Republic of Iran Tehran 7006164819500000000♠1,648,195 7007799097000000000♠79,909,700 47.8 $7002376755000000000♠376.755 billion $7003468300000000000♠4,683 Rial Persian

Republic of Kazakhstan Astana 7006272490000000000♠2,724,900 7007179265000000000♠17,926,500 6.6 $7002184361000000000♠184.361 billion $7003745300000000000♠7,453 Tenge Kazakh, Russian

Kyrgyz Republic Bishkek 7005199900000000000♠199,900 7006612040000000000♠6,120,400 30.6 $7000655100000000000♠6.551 billion $7003107300000000000♠1,073 Som Kyrgyz, Russian

Islamic Republic of Pakistan Islamabad 7005796095000000000♠796,095 7008196358000000000♠196,358,000 222.7 $7002284185000000000♠284.185 billion $7003146800000000000♠1,468 Rupee Urdu, English

Republic of Tajikistan Dushanbe 7005143100000000000♠143,100 7006855100000000000♠8,551,000 59.8 $7000692200000000000♠6.922 billion $7002800000000000000♠800 Somoni Tajik, Russian (interethnic)

Republic of Turkey Ankara 7005783562000000000♠783,562 7007798148710000000♠79,814,871 101.9 $7002857429000000000♠857.429 billion $7004107430000000000♠10,743 Lira Turkish

Turkmenistan Ashgabat 7005488100000000000♠488,100 7006475112000000000♠4,751,120 9.7 $7001361800000000000♠36.180 billion $7003662200000000000♠6,622 Manat Turkmen, Russian (interethnic)

Republic of Uzbekistan Tashkent 7005447400000000000♠447,400 7007321210000000000♠32,121,000 71.8 $7001665020000000000♠66.502 billion $7003212200000000000♠2,122 Som Uzbek, Russian (interethnic)

Observers[edit]

Northern Cyprus[12] Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Turkic Council

Structure[edit] Council of Ministers[edit] The Council of Ministers (COM) is the highest policy and decision-making body and is composed of the various Ministers of Foreign Affairs or such other representatives of the ministerial rank as may be designated by the respective governments. The COM meets at least once a year by rotation among the member states. Council of Permanent Representatives[edit] The Council of Permanent Representatives (CPR) consists of the Permanent Representatives/Ambassadors of the member states accredited to the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
as well as to the ECO and the Director General for ECO Affairs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Regional Planning Council[edit] The Regional Planning Council (RPC) is composed of the Head of the Planning Organization of member states or such other representatives of corresponding authorities. General Secretariat[edit] The General Secretariat (GS) consists of six directorates under the supervision of the Secretary General and his deputies. Two specialized agencies and six regional institutes are acting under the supervision of the GS.

ECO Directorate of Industry & Agriculture ECO Directorate of Trade
Trade
& Investment ECO Directorate of Energy, Mineral & Environment ECO Directorate of Transport & Communications ECO Directorate of Economic Research & Statistics ECO Directorate of Project Research & Development

Activities[edit] Activities of ECO are conducted through directorates under the supervision of Secretary General and his Deputies which considered and evolve projects and programs of mutual benefit in the fields of:

Trade
Trade
and Investment Transport and Telecommunications Energy, Minerals and Environment Agriculture, Industry and Tourism Human Resources & Sustainable Development Project & Economic Research and Statistics

Summits and General Secretaries[edit] List of summits[edit]

Heads of State

Meeting Date Country Location

1st February, 16-17 1992  Iran Tehran

2nd 6-7 May 1993  Turkey Istanbul

3rd 14-15 May 1995  Pakistan Islamabad

4th 14 May 1996  Turkmenistan Ashgabat

Extraordinary 14 May 1997  Turkmenistan Ashgabat

5th 11 May 1998  Kazakhstan Almaty

6th 10 June 2000  Iran Tehran

7th 14 October 2002  Turkey Istanbul

8th 14 September 2004  Tajikistan Dushanbe

9th 5 May 2006  Azerbaijan Baku

10th 11 March 2009  Iran Tehran

11th 23 December 2010  Turkey Istanbul

12th 16 October 2012  Azerbaijan Baku

13th 1 March 2017 [13][14]  Pakistan Islamabad

List of General Secretaries[edit]

# Name Nationality Period

1 Alireza Salari[15]

August 1988 - July 1992

2 Shamshad Ahmad

August 1992 - July 1996

3 Önder Özar (tr)

August 1996 - July 2000

4 Abdolrahim Gavahi (fa)

August 2000 - July 2002

5 Seyed Mojtaba Arastou

August 2002 - July 2003

6 Bekzhassar Narbayev

August 2003 - January 2004

7 Askhat Orazbay

February 2004 - July 2006

8 Khurshid Anwar

August 2006 - July 2009

9 Yahya Maroofi

August 2009 - July 2012

10 Shamil Alaskerov

August 2012 - July 2015

11 Halil İbrahim Akça

August 2015 - July 2018

source ECO Secretaries General

Regional Institutions & Agencies[edit]

Azerbaijani stamp celebrating the 10th ECO summit in Azerbaijan.

ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry[edit] ECO-CCI was established on 10 June 1993. Its objectives are to contribute to enhance economic cooperation and relations in trade, industry, agriculture, tourism, contracting, engineering and banking sectors as well as to realize joint investments among the Member States. National Chambers of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Turkey
Turkey
are member of ECO-CCI. The 7th General Assembly Meeting of ECO Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ECO-CCI), held on 20 April 2004 in Kabul, Afghanistan. The participating member states offered some proposals for developing new mechanism and modalities for better interaction between member chambers and to re-activate ECO-CCI. ECO Reinsurance Company[edit] In March 1995, Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkey
Turkey
agreed to establish ECO Reinsurance Company. The purpose is supplement the existing reinsurance services in the region, promote growth of the national underwriting and retention capacities, minimize the outflow of foreign exchange from the region and to support economic development in the region. The three member countries decided to form a Trilateral Interim Committee to pave the way for the establishment of this important institution. The Trilateral Interim Committee in its various meetings reviewed the relevant issues such as the development of the business plan and signing of the Articles of Agreement already finalized by a group of Experts from the three founding member countries.[16] ECO Consultancy & Engineering Company[edit] Governments of all the ECO Member States has established a central resource pool in the shape of ECO Consultancy and Engineering Company (Pvt.) Ltd., or ECO-CEC, to assist in the development projects sponsored by ECO Member States or by its Trade
Trade
and Development Bank. The founder States are Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Republic of Turkey
Turkey
which hold an equal share in ECO-CEC, Turkey
Turkey
being represented by two companies and Iran
Iran
and Pakistan, by one each. The Iranian and Turkish Companies specialize mainly in oil and gas pipelines, refineries, petrochemical and industrial engineering, while the Pakistani partner in all other fields of development engineering, including communications, power, urban development public health, telecommunications, water resources development and agriculture. ECO-CEC provides its expertise in the entire range of consultancy operations, starting from conception, project planning and appraisal, through pre-feasibility, feasibility and financial studies, investigation and exploration, site selection to engineering design, material and equipment specifications, construction supervision, contract management, quality control and preparation of technical manuals for the operation and maintenance of the projects. ECO Trade
Trade
and Development Bank[edit] The Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
Trade
Trade
and Development Bank (ETDB) was established by the three founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) in 2005 which are the Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Republic of Turkey. The Republic of Azerbaijan, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Kyrgyz Republic
Kyrgyz Republic
became the member of the ETDB in 2013, 2014 and 2015 respectively. As of 31 December 2015, the paid in share capital of the ETDB was SDR 310,870 thousand since Azerbaijan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
are in process of payment of their paid-in capital contributions. The Bank has successfully started its operations in 2008. Its headquarters is in Istanbul
Istanbul
(Turkey) and representative offices are in Karachi (Pakistan) and Tehran
Tehran
(Iran). The primary objective of the Bank is to provide financial resources for projects and programmes in member countries. The Bank offers a range of medium-to-long term products i.e. project finance, corporate finance, trade finance and loans to support small and medium-sized enterprises directly or through financial intermediaries to private and state owned entities. ECO Cultural Institute (ECI)[edit] ECO Cultural Institute (ECI) is affiliated with ECO and aims at fostering understanding and the preservation of the rich cultural heritage of its members through common projects in the field of the media, literature, art, philosophy, sport and education.[17] Others[edit]

ECO Supreme Audit Institutions ECO Cultural Institute ECO Science Foundation ECO Educational Institute ECO Drug Control Coordination Unit ECO Trade
Trade
promotion Unit ECO Post ECO Shipping Company

Relationship with other organizations[edit] All the ECO states are also member-states of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC), while ECO itself has observer status in the OIC since 1995.

A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational organisations within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (note that Syria
Syria
is currently suspended from all organizations included in this diagram due to human rights abuses in the ongoing Syrian Civil War).v • d • e

Leaders of ECO member states, as of 2018[edit]

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ashraf Ghani President of Afghanistan

Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev President of Azerbaijan

Islamic Republic of Iran Hassan Rouhani President of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev President of Kazakhstan

Kyrgyz Republic Sooronbay Jeenbekov President of Kyrgyzstan

Islamic Republic of Pakistan Shahid Khaqan Abbasi Prime Minister of Pakistan

Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon President of Tajikistan

Republic of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan President of Turkey

Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow President of Turkmenistan

Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev President of Uzbekistan

See also[edit]

Gül Train Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Middle East economic integration White card system List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements

References[edit]

^ ".:The Secretariat of Economic Cooperation Organization:". Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.  ^ a b http://www.tehrantimes.com/economy-and-business/98000-official-irans-share-of-eco-trade-stands-at-10-billion- ^ http://theiranproject.com/blog/2017/01/04/turkey-hopes-sign-free-trade-agreement-iran/ ^ "Pakistan- Turkey
Turkey
sixth round of talks on FTA next week". www.thenews.com.pk.  ^ Center, Asia Regional Integration. "Pakistan- Turkey
Turkey
Preferential Trade
Trade
Agreement Free Trade
Trade
Agreement". aric.adb.org.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
announces to join Ashgabat
Ashgabat
Agreement, Lapis Lazuli Corridor - Pakistan
Pakistan
- Dunya News".  ^ "Away from Gulf, Pakistan
Pakistan
set to import oil, gas from Central Asia - The Express Tribune". 4 February 2017.  ^ "ECOTA" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ [1] Archived 2 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 18 April 2017.  ^ Some data refers to IMF staff estimates but some are actual figures for the year 2017, made in 12 April 2017. World Economic Outlook Database-April 2017, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 18 April 2017. ^ ECO Secretariat ECO Secretary General Meets the Representatives of Turkish Cyprus State in Tehran ^ https://sceneonhaiofficial.com/islamabad-rawalpindi-holiday-eco-summit-2017/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
to host 13th ECO Summit
13th ECO Summit
in Islamabad
Islamabad
next week". Dawn. February 25, 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.  ^ "ECO Secretary Generals". Ecosecretariat.org. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.  ^ "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 2010-02-11. Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ "ECO Cultural Institute's Medals". http://en.ecieco.org/. Retrieved 31 October 2014.  External link in website= (help)

External links[edit]

ECO's Website ECO's Cultural Institute ECO's Trade
Trade
and Development Bank ECO's Drug Control Coordination Unit ECO's Trade
Trade
promotion Unit ECO's Post

Videos

Iran
Iran
and ECO - PressTV
PressTV
(2009)

v t e

Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO)

Politics

ECOTA Secretariat Secretaries-General Treaty of Izmir Islamabad
Islamabad
Declaration

Symbols

Emblem Flag

Summits

Tehran
Tehran
1992 Istanbul
Istanbul
1993 Islamabad
Islamabad
1995 Ashgabat
Ashgabat
1996 Almaty
Almaty
1998 Tehran
Tehran
2000 Istanbul
Istanbul
2002 Dushanbe
Dushanbe
2004 Baku
Baku
2006 Tehran
Tehran
2009 Istanbul
Istanbul
2010 Baku
Baku
2012 Islamabad
Islamabad
2017

Member

  Afghanistan   Azerbaijan   Iran   Kazakhstan   Kyrgyzstan   Pakistan   Tajikistan   Turkey   Turkmenistan   Uzbekistan

Observers

Countries

  Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
(as Turkish Cypriot State)

International organizations

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Turkic Council

v t e

ECO leaders

Ghani Aliyev Rouhani Nazarbayev Jeenbekov Abbasi Rahmon Yıldırım Berdimuhamedow Mirziyoyev

v t e

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Eurasian
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v t e

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Economic Cooperation Organization Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Turkic Council TAKM

v t e

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