1 History 2 Politics 3 Kings 4 Spring and Autumn period 5 Warring States period 6 References
6.1 Citations 6.2 Works cited
In 770 BC, the capital of the
Map of major states in Eastern Zhou
Map of the Five Hegemons during the
Spring and Autumn period
In 635 BC, the Chaos of Prince Dai took place. King Xiang of Zhou turned to Duke Wen of Jin for help, who killed Prince Dai and was rewarded with the reign of Henei and Yangfan. In 632 BC, King Xiang of Zhou was forced by Duke Wen of Jin to attend the conference of vassals in Jiantu. In 606 BC, King Zhuang of Chu inquired for the first time regarding the "weight of the cauldrons" (问鼎之轻重) only to be rebuffed by the Zhou minister Wangsun Man (王孙满). Asking such a question was at that time a direct challenge to the power of the reigning dynasty. At the time of King Nan of Zhou, the kings of Zhou had lost almost all political and military power,as even their remaining crown land was split into two states or factions, led by rival feudal lords: West Zhou, where the capital Wangcheng was located, and East Zhou, centered at Chengzhou and Kung. King Nan of Zhou managed to preserve his weakened dynasty through diplomacy and conspiracies for fifty-nine years until his deposition and death by Qin in 255 BC. Seven years later, West Zhou was conquered by Qin. Politics This period marked a big turn in Chinese history, as the dominant toolmaking material became iron by the end of the period. The Eastern Zhou period was believed to be the beginning of the Iron Age in China. There was a considerable development in agriculture with a consecutive increase in population. There were constantly fights between vassals to scramble for lands or other resources. People started using copper coins. Education was made universal for civilians. The boundaries between the nobility and the civilians subsided. A revolutionary transformation of the society was taking place, to which the patriarchal clan system made by the Zhou Dynasty could no longer adapt. Kings
King Ping of Zhou — Ji Yijiu (772 BCE–720 BCE) King Xie of Zhou — Ji Yuchen (770 BCE–760 BCE or 771 BCE–750 BCE) King Huan of Zhou — Ji Lin (719 BCE–697 BCE) King Zhuang of Zhou — Ji Tuo (696 BCE–682 BCE) King Xi of Zhou — Ji Huqi (681 BCE–677 BCE) King Hui of Zhou — Ji Lang (676 BCE–652 BCE) King Xiang of Zhou — Ji Zheng (651 BCE–619 BCE) King Qing of Zhou — Ji Renchen (618 BCE–613 BCE) King Kuang of Zhou — Ji Ban (612 BCE–607 BCE) King Ding of Zhou — Ji Yu (606 BCE–586 BCE) King Jian of Zhou — Ji Yi (585 BCE–572 BCE) King Ling of Zhou — Ji Xiexin (571 BCE–545 BCE) King Jing of Zhou — Ji Gui (544 BCE–520 BCE) King Dao of Zhou — Ji Meng (520 BCE) King Jing of Zhou — Ji Gai (519 BCE–477 BCE) King Yuan of Zhou — Ji Ren (476 BCE–469 BCE) King Zhending of Zhou — Ji Jie (468 BCE–441 BCE) King Ai of Zhou — Ji Quji (441 BCE) King Si of Zhou — Ji Shu (441 BCE) King Kao of Zhou — Ji Wei (440 BCE–426 BCE) King Weilie of Zhou — Ji Wu (425 BCE–402 BCE) King An of Zhou — Ji Jiao (401 BCE–376 BCE) King Lie of Zhou — Ji Xi (375 BCE–369 BCE) King Xian of Zhou — Ji Bian (368 BCE–321 BCE) King Shenjing of Zhou — Ji Ding (320 BCE–315 BCE) King Nan of Zhou — Ji Yan (314 BCE–256 BCE)
Spring and Autumn period The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius. During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves. The gradual partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, and the beginning of the Warring States period. Warring States period
An ancient sword dates back to Western Zhou
Warring States period
^ "Zhou". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ a b c d e f Records of the Historians.
Yang Hsien-yi and
Reprinted by University Press of the Pacific, 2002. Contains