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The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
(EaP) is an initiative of the European External Action Service of the European Union
European Union
(EU) governing its relationship with the post-Soviet states of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, intended to provide an avenue for discussions of trade, economic strategy, travel agreements, and other issues between the EU and its Eastern European neighbours. The project was initiated by Poland
Poland
and a subsequent proposal was prepared in co-operation with Sweden.[1] It was presented by the foreign ministers of Poland
Poland
and Sweden
Sweden
at the EU's General Affairs and External Relations Council in Brussels on 26 May 2008.[2] The Eastern Partnership was inaugurated by the European Union
European Union
in Prague, Czech Republic on 7 May 2009.[3] The first meeting of foreign ministers in the framework of the Eastern Partnership was held on 8 December 2009 in Brussels.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Member States 3 Institutions and aims 4 Financing 5 Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
and EU- Ukraine
Ukraine
bilateral relations 6 Relationship with Russia 7 Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Civil Society Forum 8 Summits 9 Criticism 10 Further reading

10.1 Academic policy papers 10.2 Books 10.3 Journal articles

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
complements the Northern Dimension and the Union for the Mediterranean
Union for the Mediterranean
by providing an institutionalised forum for discussing visa agreements, free trade deals, and strategic partnership agreements with the EU's eastern neighbours, while avoiding the controversial topic of accession to the European Union. Its geographical scope consists of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.[5] Unlike the Union for the Mediterranean, the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
does not have its own secretariat, but is controlled directly by the European Commission.[6]

4th Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit, Riga, May 2015

In May 2008, Poland
Poland
and Sweden
Sweden
put forward a joint proposal for an Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
with Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, with Russia and Belarus
Belarus
participating in some aspects. Eventually, Belarus
Belarus
joined the initiative as a full member, while Russia does not participate at all. The Polish foreign minister Radosław Sikorski
Radosław Sikorski
said "We all know the EU has enlargement fatigue. We have to use this time to prepare as much as possible so that when the fatigue passes, membership becomes something natural"[7] It was discussed at the European Council
European Council
on 19 and 20 June 2008, along with the Union for the Mediterranean.[8] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
endorsed the proposal completely, while Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Romania
Romania
were cautious, fearing that the Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue
Black Sea Forum for Partnership and Dialogue
and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
could be undermined. Meanwhile, Germany, France, and others were not happy with the possibility that the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
could be seen as a stepping stone to membership (especially for Ukraine), while Poland and other Eastern states have explicitly welcomed this effect.[9] The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
was officially launched in May 2009 when the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
invited the leaders of the six members of the initiative. Meanwhile, Germany
Germany
attended the summit to signal their alarm at the economic situation in the East. Russia accused the EU of trying to carve out a new sphere of influence, which the EU denied, stating that they were "responding to the demands of these countries...and the economic reality is that most of their trade is done with the EU".[10] Member States[edit] The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
consists of the following 28 EU member states and the 6 Eastern European post-Soviet states:

EU members

 Austria  Belgium  Bulgaria  Croatia  Cyprus  Czech Republic  Denmark

 Estonia  Finland  France  Germany  Greece  Hungary  Ireland

 Italy  Latvia  Lithuania  Luxembourg  Malta  Netherlands  Poland

 Portugal  Romania  Slovakia  Slovenia  Spain  Sweden  United Kingdom

Non-EU members

 Armenia  Azerbaijan  Belarus  Georgia  Moldova  Ukraine

In addition, the above members further participate in the Council of Europe
Europe
and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly
Euronest Parliamentary Assembly
in which these states forge closer political and economic ties with the European Union. The participation of Belarus
Belarus
in the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
and their President Lukashenko, who has been described as authoritarian, at a summit in 2009 was the subject of debate.[11] On 30 September 2011 Belarus
Belarus
seemingly withdrew from the initiative because of: "unprecedented discrimination" and a "substitution" of the principles on which it was built two years ago.[12] However three days later Foreign Minister of Belarus
Belarus
Sergei Martynov refuted this.[13] Institutions and aims[edit]

Warsaw Summit 2011

The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
is a forum aiming to improve the political and economic trade-relations of the six Post-Soviet states
Post-Soviet states
of "strategic importance" – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
with the European Union.[11] Promotion of human rights and rule of law in former Soviet states has been reported to form the "core" of the policy of the Eastern Partnership. The EU draft of the EaP states that: "Shared values including democracy, the rule of law, and respect for human rights will be at its core, as well as the principles of market economy, sustainable development and good governance." The Partnership is to provide the foundation for new Association Agreements between the EU and those partners who have made sufficient progress towards the principles and values mentioned. Apart from values, the declaration says the region is of "strategic importance" and the EU has an "interest in developing an increasingly close relationship with its Eastern partners..."[14] The inclusion of Belarus
Belarus
prompts the question whether values or geopolitics are paramount in the initiative. EU diplomats agree that the country's authoritarian president, Alexander Lukashenko, has done little to merit involvement in the policy at this stage. But the EU fears Russia will strengthen its grip on Minsk
Minsk
if it is left out. It is, however, assumed that in the long-term, Lukashenko will become less important with time.[14] There are plans to model the concept on the Stabilisation and Association Process used by the EU in the Balkans, including a possible free trade area encompassing the countries in the region, similar to BAFTA or CEFTA. A future membership perspective is not ruled out, either.[15]

  Current EU members   Candidate countries   Potential candidate countries   Membership possible

Financing[edit] The EC has earmarked €600 million for the six partner countries for the period 2010–13 as part of the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), constituting about a quarter of the total funding available to the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
countries in this period. The funds will be used for three main purposes: Comprehensive Institution Building programmes, aimed at supporting reforms (approximately €175 million); Pilot regional development programmes, aimed at addressing regional economic and social disparities (approximately €75 million); and Implementation of the Eastern Partnership, focusing on democracy, governance and stability, economic integration and convergence with EU policies, energy security, and contacts between people with the aim of bringing the partners closer to the EU (approximately €350 million).[16] In December 2010 the European Investment Bank
European Investment Bank
(EIB) has established the ″ Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Technical Assistance Trust Fund″ (EPTATF).[17] It includes the ″ Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Internship Programme″ which is open to students who are nationals of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova
Moldova
or Ukraine.[18] Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
and EU- Ukraine
Ukraine
bilateral relations[edit]

Pro-EU demonstration on 27 November 2013 in Kiev

Main article: Ukraine– European Union
European Union
relations Ukraine
Ukraine
is one of six post-Soviet nations to be invited to co-operate with the EU within the new multilateral framework that the Eastern partnership is expected to establish. However, Kiev
Kiev
pointed out that it remains pessimistic about the "added value" of this initiative. Indeed, Ukraine
Ukraine
and the EU have already started the negotiations on new, enhanced political and free-trade agreements (Association and Free-Trade Agreements). Also, there has been some progress in liberalising the visa regime despite persistent problems in the EU Member States' visa approach towards Ukrainians.[citation needed] That is why Ukraine
Ukraine
has a specific view of the Eastern Partnership Project. According to the Ukrainian presidency, it should correspond, in case of his country, to the strategic foreign policy objective, i.e. the integration with the EU.[19] Yet, the Eastern Partnership documents (the European Council
European Council
Declaration of May 2009)[20] do not confirm such priorities as political and economic integration or lifting visas. Ukraine
Ukraine
has expressed enthusiasm about the project. Ukraine
Ukraine
deputy premier Hryhoriy Nemyria
Hryhoriy Nemyria
said that the project is the way to modernise the country and that they welcome the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
policy, because it uses 'de facto' the same instruments as for EU candidates.[21] Under the Eastern Partnership, Poland
Poland
and Ukraine
Ukraine
have reached a new agreement replacing visas with simplified permits for Ukrainians residing within 30 km of the border. Up to 1.5 million people may benefit from this agreement which took effect on 1 July 2009.[22] Relationship with Russia[edit] Russia has expressed strong concerns over the Eastern Partnership,[23] seeing it as an attempt to expand the European Union's “sphere of influence”. Russia has also expressed concerns that the EU is putting undue pressure on Belarus[24] by suggesting it might be marginalised if it follows Russia in recognising the independence of the Georgian breakaway regions of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia. “Is this promoting democracy or is it blackmail? It's about pulling countries from the positions they want to take as sovereign states”, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov
Sergei Lavrov
has stated. Sweden, the co-author of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
project together with Poland, rejected Mr Lavrov's position as "completely unacceptable". “The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
is not about spheres of influence. The difference is that these countries themselves opted to join”, Swedish foreign minister Carl Bildt
Carl Bildt
said at the Brussels Forum. The EU's position on Georgia is not 'blackmail' but “is about upholding the principles of the EU and international law, which Russia should also be respecting”, he added.[21] In November 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev dismissed the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
as useless: “Frankly speaking, I don't see any special use (in the program) and all the participants of this partnership are confirming this to me”. However a few days later Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov
Sergei Lavrov
said that Russia does not rule out joining the EU's Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
programme.[25] Russia maintained its opposition towards the EPP. For instance, after the Warsaw Summit 2011 of the EPP, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin stated that due to the economic crisis in the EU, Ukraine
Ukraine
would probably not join the EU. Instead of joining the EU, Putin offered a Russia – Ukraine
Ukraine
relationship which he said would provide a more competitive and productive economic process.[26] In May 2015, President of the European Council
European Council
Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
stated that Russia was "[compensating for] its shortcomings by destructive, aggressive and bullying tactics against its neighbours" while German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
said that "the EU makes a crystal clear difference with Russia. We accept that the different Eastern Partnership nations can go their own way and we accept these different ways."[27] Finnish Prime Minister Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb
stated that "It is the prerogative and right of every independent and sovereign state to choose which club it wants to belong to."[28] Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Civil Society Forum[edit] Founded during the Prague
Prague
Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in 2009, the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Civil Society Forum (CSF) is an integral part of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
program and creates a significant and institutional platform for civil society organisations to monitor and discuss the developments regarding democracy building and human rights development in the six partnership countries.[29] The CSF consists of six national platforms and five thematic working groups, which are represented by an annually elected Steering Committee composed of 13 members. The CSF meets annually to discuss the latest developments and to set their working program. The first meeting took place in Brussels in 2009. The last three meetings took place in Batumi in 2014, Chisinau in 2013 and Stockholm in 2012.[30] The Forum contributes to the implementation of flagship projects that monitor and facilitate democratic transition in the Eastern Partnership region and provides direct input and submission of written opinions and recommendations in the early stages of policy-making both in the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
and the EU, conducts advocacy campaigns at critical junctures, and monitors the implementation of commitments and agreements made between the EU and partner countries within the framework of the Eastern Partnership. As of 2014, the Forum supported two flagship initiatives including the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Media Freedom Index and the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Integration Index. In terms of its past advocacy work, the Forum has successfully secured greater funding for civil society in the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
and contributed to the design of the EU's roadmap for the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Vilnius Summit in 2013.[31] As of 2014, the Forum was actively campaigning for an EU response to the human rights situation in Azerbaijan.[32] It is also preparing to monitor the implementation of Association Agreements between the European Union
European Union
and Georgia, the Republic of Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine. The linkages between civil society organisations in the Eastern Partnership and the EU mean that the CSF provides a framework for transmitting European values and norms. As a result, some scholars have attributed a socialisation function to the Forum, whereby norms sponsored by the European Union
European Union
are internalised by participating civil society organisations.[33] Summits[edit]

1st Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in Prague
Prague
in May 2009[34] 2nd Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in Warsaw in September 2011[35] 3rd Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in Vilnius in November 2013[36][37] 4th Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in Riga
Riga
in May 2015[38] 5th Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit in Brussels on November 24, 2017[39]

Criticism[edit] Although the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
was inaugurated on 7 May 2009, academic research critically analysing the policy became available by early 2010 with the findings from a UK research project, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, examining the EU's relations with three Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
member states, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova
Moldova
notes both conceptual and empirical dilemmas.[40] First, conceptually the EU has limited uniform awareness of what it is trying to promote in its eastern neighbourhood under the aegis of 'shared values', 'collective norms' and 'joint ownership'. Secondly, empirically, the EU seems to favour a 'top-down' governance approach (based on rule/norm transfer and conditionality) in its relations with outsiders, which is clearly at odds with a voluntary idea of 'partnership', and explicitly limits the input of 'the other' in the process of reform.[41] Further reading[edit] Academic policy papers[edit]

Moldova’s Values Survey: Widening a European Dialogue in Moldova, Global Europe
Europe
Centre, University of Kent, January 2014 Visegrad 4 the Eastern Partnership: Towards the Vilnius Summit, Research Center of the Slovak Foreign Policy Association, Bratislava, October 2013 Belarus
Belarus
and the Eastern Partnership: a National Values SurveyGlobal Europe
Europe
Centre, University of Kent, October 2013 Building a Stronger Eastern Partnership: Towards an EaP 2.0, Global Europe
Europe
Centre, University of Kent, September 2013 The EEAS and the Eastern Partnership: Let the blame game stop, Centre for European Policy Studies, September 2012 German Foreign Policy and Eastern Partnership: Position Paper of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Task Force, German Council on Foreign Relations, February 2012

Books[edit]

Korosteleva, E.A., Natorski, M. and Simao, L.(Eds.), (2014), EU Policies in the Eastern Neighbourhood: the practices perspective, London: Routledge, ISBN 0415720575 Korosteleva, E.A. (2012),The European Union
European Union
and its Eastern Neighbours: Towards a more ambitious partnership? London: BASEES/Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies, ISBN 0-415-61261-6 Korosteleva E.A, (Ed.), (2011), Vostochnoe Partnerstvo: problemy i perspektivy [Eastern Partnership: problems and perspectives], Minsk: Belarusian State University, ISBN 978-985-491-088-8 Korosteleva, E.A. (Ed.) (2011), Eastern Partnership: A New Opportunity for the Neighbours?, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-67607-X Whitman, R., & Wolff, S., (Ed.), (2010), The European Neighbourhood Policy in perspective: context, implementation and impact, Palgrave:London, ISBN 023020385X

Journal articles[edit]

Korosteleva, E.A, ‘Change or Continuity: Is the Eastern Partnership an Adequate Tool for the European Neighbourhood’, International Relations, 25(2) June 2011: 243–62 Whitman, R., European Union's relations with the Wider Europe’ Journal of Common Market Studies Annual Review of the European Union in 2010, 49, (2011). pp. 187–208. Korosteleva, E.A, ‘Eastern Partnership: a New Opportunity for the Neighbours?’, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Special
Special
Issue, 27(1) 2011: 1–21 Korosteleva, E.A, ‘Moldova’s European Choice: Between Two Stools’, Europe-Asia Studies, 61(8) 2010: 1267–89 Wolfgang Tiede and Jakob Schirmer: "The EU’s Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
– Objectives and Legal Basis", in: "The European Legal Forum" (EuLF) 3/2009, pp. 168–174. Korosteleva, E.A, ‘The Limits of the EU Governance: Belarus’ Response to the European Neighbourhood Policy’, Contemporary Politics, 15 (2) 2009: 229–45 Bosse, G., & Korosteleva, E.A, ‘Changing Belarus? The Limits of EU Governance in Eastern Europe’, Cooperation and Conflict, 44 (2) 2009: 143–165

See also[edit]

Armenia– European Union
European Union
relations 2014 Crimean crisis Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Community of Democratic Choice Eastern European Group Euromaidan Euronest Parliamentary Assembly Eurasian Union European integration Eurovoc Future enlargement of the European Union INOGATE Politics of Europe War in Donbass

European Union
European Union
portal Europe
Europe
portal

References[edit]

^ http://www.atlantic-community.org/app/webroot/files/articlepdf/EasternPartnership.pdf ^ Poland
Poland
takes on Russia with 'Eastern Partnership' proposal, Daily Telegraph, 2008-05-25 ^ EU pact challenges Russian influence in the east, guardian.co.uk, 2009-05-07 ^ „ Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
implementation well on track“, europa.eu, 2009-12-08 ^ EU might get new Eastern Partnership, Barents Observer, 2008-05-22 ^ " Poland
Poland
and Sweden
Sweden
to pitch 'Eastern Partnership' idea", EUObserver, 2008-05-22 ^ "'Eastern Partnership' could lead to enlargement, Poland
Poland
says". EU Observer. 27 May 2008.  ^ Poland, Sweden
Sweden
defend 'Eastern initiative', EurActive.com, 2008-05-26 ^ "'Eastern Partnership' could lead to enlargement, Poland
Poland
says", EU Observer, 2008-05-27 ^ "'EU reaches out to troubled East", BBC News, 2009-05-07 ^ a b EU assigns funds and staff to 'Eastern Partnership', EU Observer, 2009-03-20 ^ Belarus
Belarus
quits EU's Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
initiative, Eur Activ, 2011-10-30 ^ Belarus
Belarus
still Participating in "Eastern Partnership," FM Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine., [1], 2011-11-03 ^ a b Values to form core of EU 'Eastern Partnership, EU Observer, 2009-03-18 ^ Balkans
Balkans
model to underpin EU's 'Eastern Partnership', EU Observer, 2008-09-18 ^ "Vademecum on Financing in the Frame of the Eastern Partnership" (PDF). Europa. Retrieved 4 January 2011.  ^ Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Technical Assistance Trust Fund (EPTATF). Retrieved 10 February 2016. ^ Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Internship Programme funded by the Eastern Partnership Technical Assistance Trust Fund. Retrieved 10 February 2016. ^ http://www.president.gov.ua, 24 March 2009 ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/er/107589.pdf ^ a b EU expanding its 'sphere of influence,' Russia says, EU Observer, 2009-03-21 ^ "Sikorski: umowa o małym ruchu granicznym od 1 lipca". Gazeta Wyborcza. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ "Playing East against West: The success of the Eastern Partnership depends on Ukraine". The Economist. November 23, 2013. ^ Korosteleva, E.A., “The Limits of the EU Governance: Belarus
Belarus
' Response to the European Neighbourhood Policy”, Contemporary Politics, Vol. 15(2), June 2009, pp. 229–45 ^ “Lavrov: Russia could join EU Eastern Partnership”, Hurriyet, 2009-11-25. ^ "Польша: Увидев процветающую в ЕС Украину, Россия сама попросит об экономической интеграции с нами". ИА REGNUM.  ^ Ritter, Karl; Casert, Raf (21 May 2015). "EU seeks to keep partnership with ex-Soviet nations on track". Associated Press.  ^ Ritter, Karl; Casert, Raf (22 May 2015). "EU embrace of eastern partners turns lukewarm". Associated Press.  ^ . Civil Society Forum ^ "Report on the Civil Society Forum 2012". eap-csf.eu.  ^ "The Role of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Civil Society Forum". eap-csf.eu.  ^ "Statement: EaPCSF condemns arrests of internationally respected civil society leaders in Azerbaijan". eap-csf.eu. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ http://ejes.uaic.ro/articles/EJES2013_0402_KOS.pdf ^ " European Commission
European Commission
- PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Brussels, 7 May 2009 Joint Declaration of the Prague
Prague
Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit, Prague, 7 May 2009". europa.eu. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ " European Commission
European Commission
- PRESS RELEASES - Press release - José Manuel Durão Barroso President of the European Commission
European Commission
Statement by President Barroso following the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit Eastern Partnership Summit Warsaw, 30 September 2011". europa.eu. Retrieved 11 June 2017.  ^ http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-1169_en.htm ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/31799/2013_eap-11-28-joint-declaration.pdf ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/EN/MEETINGS/INTERNATIONAL-SUMMIT/2015/05/21-22/ ^ http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/international-summit/2017/11/24/ ^ " Moldova
Moldova
most EU-friendly Eastern country, survey reveals". Euractive. 14 June 2010. Archived from the original on 22 Jan 2013.  ^ "Europeanizing or Securitizing the 'outsiders'? Assessing the EU's partnership-building approach with Eastern Europe". esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk. 10 Oct 2009. Archived from the original on 21 Jan 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eastern Partnership.

EU Neighbourhood Info Centre EU Neighbourhood Library European External Action Service: Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
(europa.eu) Eastbook.eu – Portal
Portal
on Eastern Partnership: Eastbook.eu Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Civil Society Forum: [2] (eap-csf.eu) Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Community: Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Community (easternpartnership.org) Europeanizing or Securitizing the 'outsiders'? Assessing the EU's partnership-building approach with Eastern Europe[permanent dead link] The Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
– an ambitious new chapter in the EU's relations with its Eastern neighbours (europa.eu, 3 December 2008) European Council
European Council
– Conclusions (Declaration in annex II) (europa.eu, 19–20 March 2009) Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit (eu2009.cz, 7 May 2009) Joint Declaration of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit (europa.eu, 7 May 2009) Conference Eastern Partnership: Towards Civil Society Forum[permanent dead link] Eastern Partnership: The Opening Report – submitted by the Polish Institute of International Affairs (www.pism.pl, April 2009) Marcin Łapczyński: The European Union's Eastern Partnership: Chances and Perspectives – submitted by the Caucasian Review of International Affairs (www.cria-online.org, Spring 2009) Sebastian Schäffer und Dominik Tolksdorf: „The Eastern Partnership – ‚ENP plus‘ for Europe's Eastern neighbors“, Centrum für angewandte Politikforschung, 4/2009. Sebastian Schäffer und Dominik Tolksdorf: „The EU member states
EU member states
and the Eastern Neighbourhood – From composite to consistent EU foreign policy?“, CAP Policy Analysis, August 2009. "Polish-Swedish Proposal: Eastern Partnership", June 2008. Belarus
Belarus
Engages Ukraine, Moldova, Improves Ties With EU And US – Foreign Policy Digest Central And Eastern European Dimension Of Belarusian Diplomacy – Belarus
Belarus
Foreign Policy Digest

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Euromaidan

Part of the Ukrainian crisis

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Timeline of the Euromaidan Domestic responses to the Euromaidan International reactions to the Euromaidan List of people killed during Euromaidan Order of the Heavenly Hundred Heroes Damaged communist monuments

Main events

1 December 2013 riots Fall of the monument to Lenin in Kiev 11 December 2013 assault Ukrainian–Russian action plan Anti-Maidan Vasylkiv terrorists case Anti-protest laws in Ukraine 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots 2014 RSA occupations Agreement on settlement of political crisis in Ukraine 2014 Ukrainian revolution

Aftermath

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Timeline

Russian military intervention 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia

Timeline

War in Donbass

Timeline

First Yatsenyuk government Lustration in Ukraine

Elections

2014 Ukrainian presidential election 2014 Ukrainian local elections 2014 Kiev
Kiev
local election 2014 Crimean status referendum 2014 Donbass status referendums 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election

Main places

Maidan Nezalezhnosti Khreshchatyk Lypky Bankova Street European Square Hrushevskoho Street Dynamo Stadium Kiev
Kiev
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Kiev
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Lead figures

Vitali Klitschko Arseniy Yatsenyuk Oleh Tyahnybok Petro Poroshenko Yuriy Lutsenko Oleksandr Turchynov Yulia Tymoshenko Andriy Parubiy Andriy Sadovyi Arsen Avakov Ruslana Tetiana Chornovol Dmytro Bulatov Dmytro Yarosh Refat Chubarov

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Organizations

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Ukraine– European Union
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relations

Main topics

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European Union
Association Agreement

Ukraine
Ukraine
topics

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European Union
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topics

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relations

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 156180830 GND

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