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The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the countries of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact.[1][2][3] The terms Communist Bloc and Soviet Bloc were also used to denote groupings of states aligned with the Soviet Union, although these terms might include states outside.

Contents

1 Terminology and other countries 2 The USSR and World War II
World War II
in Central and Eastern Europe

2.1 Expansion of the USSR from 1939 to 1940 2.2 Eastern Front and Allied conferences

3 Concealed transformation dynamics 4 Early events prompting stricter control

4.1 Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
rejection 4.2 Berlin blockade and airlift 4.3 Tito–Stalin split

5 Politics

5.1 Political and civil restrictions 5.2 Media and information restrictions

6 Religion 7 Organizations 8 Emigration restrictions and defectors 9 Population 10 Housing

10.1 Housing quality

11 Economies

11.1 Social conditions 11.2 Initial changes

11.2.1 Transformations billed as reforms 11.2.2 Asset relocation 11.2.3 Trade and COMECON

11.3 Five Year Plans 11.4 Heavy industry emphasis 11.5 Black markets 11.6 Urbanisation 11.7 Agricultural collectivisation 11.8 Economic growth

11.8.1 Growth rates

11.9 Development policies 11.10 Shortages

12 Revolts

12.1 1953 East Germany
East Germany
uprising 12.2 Hungarian Revolution of 1956 12.3 Prague Spring
Prague Spring
and the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia

13 Dissolution 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Works cited

16 Further reading 17 External links

Terminology and other countries[edit] Use of the term "Eastern Bloc" generally refers to the "communist states of eastern Europe."[1] Sometimes, more generally, they are referred to as "the countries of Eastern Europe under communism".[4] Many sources consider Yugoslavia to be a member of the Eastern Bloc.[1][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] Others consider Yugoslavia not to be a member after it broke with Soviet policy in the 1948 Tito–Stalin split.[12] The term "Eastern Bloc" was sometimes used interchangeably with the term Second World, being considered one of the two main blocs of the Cold War, opposed by the Western Bloc. The Soviet-aligned members of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
besides the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
are often referred to as "satellite states" of the Soviet Union.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Prior to this use of the term, in the 1920s, "Eastern bloc" was used to refer to a loose alliance of eastern and central European countries. Other countries that were not Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republics, not Soviet Satellite States or not in Europe were sometimes referred to as being in the Eastern Bloc, Soviet Bloc, or Communist Bloc, including:[citation needed]

The Republic of Cuba
Cuba
from 1961 The People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada from 1979 The People's Republic of Benin
People's Republic of Benin
from 1975 The People's Republic of the Congo
People's Republic of the Congo
from 1969 The People's Republic of Angola
People's Republic of Angola
from 1975 The People's Republic of Mozambique
People's Republic of Mozambique
from 1975 The Derg/ People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
from 1974 The Somali Democratic Republic
Somali Democratic Republic
until the Ogaden War
Ogaden War
in 1977 The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen from 1967 The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
from 1978 The Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic
from 1924 The People's Republic of China
China
until the Sino-Soviet split
Sino-Soviet split
in 1961 The Democratic People's Republic of Korea from 1948 The Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
from 1945 The Lao People's Democratic Republic from 1975 The People's Republic of Kampuchea
People's Republic of Kampuchea
from 1979

The USSR and World War II
World War II
in Central and Eastern Europe[edit]

Eastern block from 1938 to 1948

In 1922, the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
and the Transcaucasian SFSR, approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR
Treaty of Creation of the USSR
and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, forming the Soviet Union.[22] Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who viewed the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as a "socialist island", stated that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
must see that "the present capitalist encirclement is replaced by a socialist encirclement."[23] Expansion of the USSR from 1939 to 1940[edit] Main articles: Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Soviet invasion of Poland, Territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union, Occupation of the Baltic states, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina, Winter War, and Moscow Armistice In 1939, the USSR entered into the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
with Nazi Germany[24] that contained a secret protocol that divided Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland
Finland
into German and Soviet spheres of influence.[24][25] Eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland
Finland
and Bessarabia
Bessarabia
in northern Romania were recognized as parts of the Soviet sphere of influence.[25] Lithuania
Lithuania
was added in a second secret protocol in September 1939.[26] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had invaded the portions of eastern Poland assigned to it by the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
two weeks after the German invasion of western Poland, followed by co-ordination with German forces in Poland.[27][28] During the Occupation of East Poland by the Soviet Union, the Soviets liquidated the Polish state, and a German-Soviet meeting addressed the future structure of the "Polish region."[29] Soviet authorities immediately started a campaign of sovietization[30][31] of the newly Soviet-annexed areas.[32][33][34] Soviet authorities collectivized agriculture,[35] and nationalized and redistributed private and state-owned Polish property.[36][37][38] Initial Soviet occupations
Soviet occupations
of the Baltic countries had occurred in mid-June 1940, when Soviet NKVD
NKVD
troops raided border posts in Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia,[39][40] followed by the liquidation of state administrations and replacement by Soviet cadres.[39][41] Elections for parliament and other offices were held with single candidates listed and the official results fabricated, purporting pro-Soviet candidates' approval by 92.8 percent of the voters in Estonia, 97.6 percent in Latvia, and 99.2 percent in Lithuania.[42][43] The fraudulently installed peoples assemblies immediately requested admission into the USSR, which was granted by the Soviet Union, with the annexations resulting in the Estonian Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republic, Latvian Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republic, and Lithuanian Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republic.[42] The international community condemned this initial annexation of the Baltic states
Baltic states
and deemed it illegal.[44][45] In 1939, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
unsuccessfully attempted an invasion of Finland,[46] subsequent to which the parties entered into an interim peace treaty granting the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the eastern region of Karelia (10% of Finnish territory),[46] and the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republic was established by merging the ceded territories with the KASSR. After a June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum demanding Bessarabia, Bukovina, and the Hertza region
Hertza region
from Romania,[47][48] the Soviets entered these areas, Romania caved to Soviet demands and the Soviets occupied the territories.[47][49] Eastern Front and Allied conferences[edit]

The Big Three: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin at the Yalta Conference, February 1945.

Further information: Operation Barbarossa, Eastern Front (World War II), List of World War II
World War II
conferences, Yalta Conference, and Potsdam Conference In June 1941, Germany
Germany
broke the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact by invading the Soviet Union. From the time of this invasion to 1944, the areas annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were part of Germany's Ostland (except for the Moldavian SSR). Thereafter, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
began to push German forces westward through a series of battles on the Eastern Front. In the aftermath of World War II
World War II
on the Soviet-Finnish border, the parties signed another peace treaty ceding to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1944, followed by a Soviet annexation of roughly the same eastern Finnish territories as those of the prior interim peace treaty as part of the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republic.[citation needed] From 1943 to 1945, several conferences regarding Post-War Europe occurred that, in part, addressed the potential Soviet annexation and control of countries in Central Europe. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill's Soviet policy regarding Central Europe differed vastly from that of American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, with the former believing Soviet leader Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
to be a "devil"-like tyrant leading a vile system.[50] When warned of potential domination by a Stalin dictatorship over part of Europe, Roosevelt responded with a statement summarizing his rationale for relations with Stalin: "I just have a hunch that Stalin is not that kind of a man. . . . I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask for nothing from him in return, noblesse oblige, he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for a world of democracy and peace."[51] While meeting with Stalin and Roosevelt in Tehran in 1943, Churchill stated that Britain was vitally interested in restoring Poland as an independent country.[52] Britain did not press the matter for fear that it would become a source of inter-allied friction.[52] In February 1945, at the conference at Yalta, Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Central Europe.[53] Stalin eventually was convinced by Churchill and Roosevelt not to dismember Germany.[53] Stalin stated that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had already taken via invasion in 1939, and wanted a pro-Soviet Polish government in power in what would remain of Poland.[53] After resistance by Churchill and Roosevelt, Stalin promised a re-organization of the current pro-Soviet government on a broader democratic basis in Poland.[53] He stated that the new government's primary task would be to prepare elections.[54] The parties at Yalta further agreed that the countries of liberated Europe and former Axis satellites would be allowed to "create democratic institutions of their own choice", pursuant to "the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live."[55] The parties also agreed to help those countries form interim governments "pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections" and "facilitate where necessary the holding of such elections."[55] At the beginning of the July–August 1945 Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
after Germany's unconditional surrender, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he would refrain from a "sovietization" of Central Europe.[56] In addition to reparations, Stalin pushed for "war booty", which would permit the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to directly seize property from conquered nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation.[57] A clause was added permitting this to occur with some limitations.[57] Concealed transformation dynamics[edit]

World War II
World War II
Polish Prime Minister Stanisław Mikołajczyk fled Poland in 1947 after facing arrest and persecution.

At first, the Soviets concealed their role in other Eastern Bloc politics, with the transformation appearing as a modification of western "bourgeois democracy".[58] As a young communist was told in East Germany: "it's got to look democratic, but we must have everything in our control."[59] Stalin felt that socioeconomic transformation was indispensable to establish Soviet control, reflecting the Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
view that material bases, the distribution of the means of production, shaped social and political relations.[60] Moscow-trained cadres were put into crucial power positions to fulfill orders regarding sociopolitical transformation.[60] Elimination of the bourgeoisie's social and financial power by expropriation of landed and industrial property was accorded absolute priority.[58] These measures were publicly billed as "reforms" rather than socioeconomic transformations.[58] Except for initially in Czechoslovakia, activities by political parties had to adhere to "Bloc politics", with parties eventually having to accept membership in an "antifascist" "bloc" obliging them to act only by mutual "consensus".[61] The bloc system permitted the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to exercise domestic control indirectly.[62] Crucial departments such as those responsible for personnel, general police, secret police and youth, were strictly communist run.[62] Moscow cadres distinguished "progressive forces" from "reactionary elements", and rendered both powerless. Such procedures were repeated until communists had gained unlimited power, and only politicians who were unconditionally supportive of Soviet policy remained.[63] Early events prompting stricter control[edit] Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
rejection[edit] Further information: Marshall Plan In June 1947, after the Soviets had refused to negotiate a potential lightening of restrictions on German development, the United States announced the Marshall Plan, a comprehensive program of American assistance to all European countries wanting to participate, including the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and those of Eastern Europe.[64] The Soviets rejected the Plan and took a hard line position against the United States
United States
and non-communist European nations.[65] However, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was eager to accept the US aid; the Polish government had a similar attitude, and this was of great concern to the Soviets.[66] In one of the clearest signs of Soviet control over the region up to that point, the Czechoslovakian foreign minister, Jan Masaryk, was summoned to Moscow and berated by Stalin for considering joining the Marshall Plan. Polish Prime minister Józef Cyrankiewicz
Józef Cyrankiewicz
was rewarded for the Polish rejection of the Plan with a huge 5 year trade agreement, including $450 million in credit, 200,000 tons of grain, heavy machinery and factories.[67] In July 1947, Stalin ordered these countries to pull out of the Paris Conference on the European Recovery Programme, which has been described as "the moment of truth" in the post– World War II
World War II
division of Europe.[68] Thereafter, Stalin sought stronger control over other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, abandoning the prior appearance of democratic institutions.[69] When it appeared that, in spite of heavy pressure, non-communist parties might receive in excess of 40% of the vote in the August 1947 Hungarian elections, repressions were instituted to liquidate any independent political forces.[69] In that same month, annihilation of the opposition in Bulgaria began on the basis of continuing instructions by Soviet cadres.[69][70] At a late September 1947 meeting of all communist parties in Szklarska Poręba,[71] Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
communist parties were blamed for permitting even minor influence by non-communists in their respective countries during the run up to the Marshall Plan.[69] Berlin blockade and airlift[edit] Main article: Berlin Blockade

Germans watching Western supply planes at Berlin Tempelhof Airport during the Berlin Airlift.

In former German capital Berlin, surrounded by Soviet-occupied Germany, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade
on June 24, 1948, preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin.[72] The blockade was caused, in part, by early local elections of October 1946 in which the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
(SED) was rejected in favor of the Social Democratic Party, which had gained two and a half times more votes than the SED.[73] The United States, Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several other countries began a massive "Berlin airlift", supplying West Berlin
West Berlin
with food and other supplies.[74] The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the western policy change and communists attempted to disrupt the elections of 1948 preceding large losses therein,[75] while 300,000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue.[76] In May 1949, Stalin lifted the blockade, permitting the resumption of Western shipments to Berlin.[77][78] Tito–Stalin split[edit] Further information: Tito–Stalin split After disagreements between Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
regarding Greece
Greece
and Albania, a Tito–Stalin split occurred, followed by Yugoslavia being expelled from the Cominform
Cominform
in June 1948 and a brief failed Soviet putsch in Belgrade.[79] The split created two separate communist forces in Europe.[79] A vehement campaign against Titoism
Titoism
was immediately started in the Eastern Bloc, describing agents of both the West and Tito in all places engaging in subversive activity.[79] Stalin ordered the conversion of the Cominform
Cominform
into an instrument to monitor and control internal affairs of other Eastern Bloc parties.[79] He briefly considered also converting the Cominform
Cominform
into an instrument for sentencing high-ranking deviators, but dropped the idea as impractical.[79] Instead, a move to weaken communist party leaders through conflict was started.[79] Soviet cadres in communist party and state positions in the Bloc were instructed to foster intra-leadership conflict and to transmit information against each other.[79] This accompanied a continuous stream of accusations of "nationalistic deviations", "insufficient appreciation of the USSR's role", links with Tito and "espionage for Yugoslavia."[80] This resulted in the persecution of many major party cadres, including those in East Germany.[80] The first country experiencing this approach was Albania, where leader Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
immediately changed course from favoring Yugoslavia to opposing it.[80] In Poland, leader Władysław Gomułka, who had previously made pro-Yugoslav statements, was deposed as party secretary-general in early September 1948 and subsequently jailed.[80] In Bulgaria, when it appeared that Traicho Kostov, who was not a Moscow cadre, was next in line for leadership, in June 1949, Stalin ordered Kostov's arrest, followed soon thereafter by a death sentence and execution.[80] A number of other high ranking Bulgarian officials were also jailed.[80] Stalin and Hungarian leader Mátyás Rákosi
Mátyás Rákosi
met in Moscow to orchestrate a show trial of Rákosi opponent László Rajk, who was thereafter executed.[81] Politics[edit] Main article: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Despite the initial institutional design of communism implemented by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in the Eastern Bloc, subsequent development varied across countries.[82] In satellite states, after peace treaties were initially concluded, opposition was essentially liquidated, fundamental steps towards socialism were enforced and Kremlin leaders sought to strengthen control therein.[83] Right from the beginning, Stalin directed systems that rejected Western institutional characteristics of market economies, capitalist parliamentary democracy (dubbed "bourgeois democracy" in Soviet parlance) and the rule of law subduing discretional intervention by the state.[84] The resulting states aspired to total control of a political center backed by an extensive and active repressive apparatus, and a central role of Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
ideology.[84] However, the vestiges of democratic institutions were never entirely destroyed, resulting in the façade of Western style institutions such as parliaments, which effectively just rubber-stamped decisions made by rulers, and constitutions, to which adherence by authorities was limited or non-existent.[84] Parliaments were still elected, but their meetings occurred only a few days per year, only to legitimize politburo decisions, and so little attention was paid to them that some of those serving were actually dead, and officials would openly state that they would seat members who had lost elections.[85] The first or General Secretary of the central committee in each communist party was the most powerful figure in each regime.[86] The party over which the politburo held sway was not a mass party but, conforming with Leninist
Leninist
tradition, a smaller selective party of between three and fourteen percent of the country's population who had accepted total obedience.[87] Those who secured membership in this selective party received considerable rewards, such as access to special lower priced shops with a greater selection of goods, special schools, holiday facilities, homes, furniture, works of art and official cars with special white license plates so that police and others could identify these members from a distance.[87] Political and civil restrictions[edit] Main article: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Further information: Political repression in the Soviet Union, Human rights in the Soviet Union, Soviet democracy, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Gulag, Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc, Suppressed research in the Soviet Union, Samizdat, and Sharashka In addition to emigration restrictions, civil society, defined as a domain of political action outside the party's state control, was not allowed to firmly take root, with the possible exception of Poland in the 1980s.[88] While the institutional design on the communist systems were based on the rejection of rule of law, the legal infrastructure was not immune to change reflecting decaying ideology and the substitution of autonomous law.[88] Initially, communist parties were small in all countries except Czechoslovakia, such that there existed an acute shortage of politically "trustworthy" persons for administration, police and other professions.[89] Thus, "politically unreliable" non-communists initially had to fill such roles.[89] Those not obedient to communist authorities were ousted, while Moscow cadres started a large-scale party programs to train personnel who would meet political requirements.[89] Communist regimes in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
viewed marginal groups of opposition intellectuals as a potential threat because of the bases underlying Communist power therein.[90] The suppression of dissidence and opposition was considered a central prerequisite to retain power, though the enormous expense at which the population in certain countries were kept under secret surveillance may not have been rational.[90] Following a totalitarian initial phase, a post-totalitarian period followed the death of Stalin in which the primary method of Communist rule shifted from mass terror to selective repression, along with ideological and sociopolitical strategies of legitimation and the securing of loyalty.[91] Juries were replaced by a tribunal of a professional judges and two lay assessors that were dependable party actors.[92] The police deterred and contained opposition to party directives.[92] The political police served as the core of the system, with their names becoming synonymous with raw power and the threat of violent retribution should an individual become active against the collective.[92] Several state police and secret police organizations enforced communist party rule, including:

East Germany
East Germany
– Stasi, Volkspolizei
Volkspolizei
and Combat Groups of the Working Class Soviet Union/Ukraine/Byelorussia – NKVD, KGB
KGB
and GRU Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
– StB Bulgaria – KDS Albania – Sigurimi Hungary – ÁVH Romania – Securitate Poland – Urząd Bezpieczeństwa, Służba Bezpieczeństwa and ZOMO

Media and information restrictions[edit]

Trybuna Ludu
Trybuna Ludu
14 December 1981 reports Martial law in Poland

Main article: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Further information: Deutscher Fernsehfunk, Mass media in Communist Czechoslovakia, Propaganda
Propaganda
in the People's Republic of Poland, Propaganda
Propaganda
in the Soviet Union, and Soviet Information Bureau The press in the communist period was an organ of the state, completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party.[93] Before the late 1980s, Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
radio and television organizations were state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organizations, mostly by the local communist party.[94] Youth newspapers and magazines were owned by youth organizations affiliated with communist parties.[94] The control of the media was exercised directly by the communist party itself, and by state censorship, which was also controlled by the party.[94] Media served as an important form of control over information and society.[95] The dissemination and portrayal of knowledge were considered by authorities to be vital to communism's survival by stifling alternative concepts and critiques.[95] Several state Communist Party newspapers were published, including:

Central newspapers of the Soviet Union Trybuna Ludu
Trybuna Ludu
(Poland) Czerwony Sztandar (annexed former eastern Poland) Népszabadság
Népszabadság
(until 1956 Szabad Nép, Hungary) Neues Deutschland
Neues Deutschland
(East Germany) Rudé právo
Rudé právo
(Czechoslovakia) Rahva Hääl
Rahva Hääl
(annexed former Estonia) Pravda
Pravda
(Slovakia) Kauno diena
Kauno diena
(annexed former Lithuania) Scînteia
Scînteia
(Romania) Zvyazda
Zvyazda
(Belarus).

The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(TASS) served as the central agency for collection and distribution of internal and international news for all Soviet newspapers, radio and television stations. It was frequently infiltrated by Soviet intelligence and security agencies, such as the NKVD
NKVD
and GRU. TASS had affiliates in 14 Soviet republics, including the Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR, Estonian SSR, Moldavian SSR. Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and Byelorussian SSR. Western countries invested heavily in powerful transmitters which enabled services such as the BBC, VOA
VOA
and Radio Free Europe
Radio Free Europe
(RFE) to be heard in the Eastern Bloc, despite attempts by authorities to jam the airways. Religion[edit]

Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, once the most dominant landmark in Baku, was demolished in the 1930s under Stalin.

Main article: Treatment of Christians in Communist Bloc countries Under the state atheism of many Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nations, religion was actively suppressed.[96] Since some of these states tied their ethnic heritage to their national churches, both the peoples and their churches were targeted by the Soviets.[97][98] Organizations[edit] Main articles: Cominform, Comecon, and Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact In 1949, the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania founded the Comecon
Comecon
in accordance with Stalin's desire to enforce Soviet domination of the lesser states of Central Europe and to mollify some states that had expressed interest in the Marshall Plan,[99][100] and which were now, increasingly, cut off from their traditional markets and suppliers in Western Europe.[68] The Comecon's role became ambiguous because Stalin preferred more direct links with other party chiefs than the Comecon's indirect sophistication; it played no significant role in the 1950s in economic planning.[101] Initially, the Comecon
Comecon
served as cover for the Soviet taking of materials and equipment from the rest of the Eastern Bloc, but the balance changed when the Soviets became net subsidizers of the rest of the Bloc by the 1970s via an exchange of low cost raw materials in return for shoddily manufactured finished goods.[102] In 1955, the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
was formed partly in response to NATO's inclusion of West Germany
West Germany
and partly because the Soviets needed an excuse to retain Red Army
Red Army
units in Hungary.[100] For 35 years, the Pact perpetuated the Stalinist concept of Soviet national security based on imperial expansion and control over satellite regimes in Eastern Europe.[103] This Soviet formalization of their security relationships in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
reflected Moscow's basic security policy principle that continued presence in East Central Europe was a foundation of its defense against the West.[103] Through its institutional structures, the Pact also compensated in part for the absence of Joseph Stalin's personal leadership since his death in 1953.[103] The Pact consolidated the other Bloc members' armies in which Soviet officers and security agents served under a unified Soviet command structure.[104] Beginning in 1964, Romania took a more independent course.[105] While it did not repudiate either Comecon
Comecon
or the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, it ceased to play a significant role in either.[105] Nicolae Ceaușescu's assumption of leadership one year later pushed Romania even further in the direction of separateness.[105] Albania, which had become increasingly isolated under Stalinist leader Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
following de-Stalinization, withdrew from the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
in 1968[106] following the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia.[107] Emigration restrictions and defectors[edit] Main article: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection Further information: List of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
defectors, Berlin Wall, Republikflucht, Iron Curtain, Soviet Border Troops, Refusenik, Passport system in the Soviet Union, Grepo, and Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic In 1917, Russia
Russia
restricted emigration by instituting passport controls and forbidding the exit of belligerent nationals.[108] In 1922, after the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, both the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
and the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
issued general rules for travel that foreclosed virtually all departures, making legal emigration impossible.[109] Border controls thereafter strengthened such that, by 1928, even illegal departure was effectively impossible.[109] This later included internal passport controls, which when combined with individual city Propiska ("place of residence") permits, and internal freedom of movement restrictions often called the 101st kilometre, greatly restricted mobility within even small areas of the Soviet Union.[110]

Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
1975.

After the creation of the Eastern Bloc, emigration out of the newly occupied countries, except under limited circumstances, was effectively halted in the early 1950s, with the Soviet approach to controlling national movement emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.[111] However, in East Germany, taking advantage of the Inner German border
Inner German border
between occupied zones, hundreds of thousands fled to West Germany, with figures totaling 197,000 in 1950, 165,000 in 1951, 182,000 in 1952 and 331,000 in 1953.[112][113] One reason for the sharp 1953 increase was fear of potential further Sovietization with the increasingly paranoid[dubious – discuss] actions of Joseph Stalin in late 1952 and early 1953.[114] 226,000 had fled in the just the first six months of 1953.[115] With the closing of the Inner German border
Inner German border
officially in 1952,[116] the Berlin city sector borders remained considerably more accessible than the rest of the border because of their administration by all four occupying powers.[117] Accordingly, it effectively comprised a "loophole" through which Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
citizens could still move west.[116] The 3.5 million East Germans that had left by 1961, called Republikflucht, totaled approximately 20% of the entire East German population.[118] In August 1961, East Germany
East Germany
erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively closing the loophole.[119] With virtually non-existent conventional emigration, more than 75% of those emigrating from Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries between 1950 and 1990 did so under bilateral agreements for "ethnic migration."[120] About 10% were refugee migrants under the Geneva Convention of 1951.[120] Most Soviets allowed to leave during this time period were ethnic Jews permitted to emigrate to Israel after a series of embarrassing defections in 1970 caused the Soviets to open very limited ethnic emigrations.[121] The fall of the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
was accompanied by a massive rise in European East-West migration.[120] Famous Eastern Bloc defectors included Joseph Stalin's daughter Svetlana Alliluyeva, who denounced Stalin after her 1967 defection.[122]

Population[edit] Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had high rates of population growth. In 1917, the population of Russia
Russia
in its present borders was 91 million. Despite the destruction in the Russian Civil War, the population grew to 92.7 million in 1926. In 1939, the population increased by 17 percent to 108. million. Despite more than 20 million deaths suffered throughout World War II, Russia's population grew to 117.2 million in 1959. The Soviet census of 1989 showed Russia's population at 147 million people.[123] The Soviet economical and political system produced further consequences such as, for example, in Baltic states, where the population was approximately half of what it should have been compared with similar countries such as Denmark, Finland
Finland
and Norway
Norway
over the years 1939–1990. Poor housing was one factor leading to severely declining birth rates throughout the Eastern Bloc.[124] However, birth rates were still higher than in Western European countries. A reliance upon abortion, in part because periodic shortages of birth control pills and intrauterine devices made these systems unreliable,[125] also depressed the birth rate and forced a shift to pro-natalist policies by the late 1960s, including severe checks on abortion and propagandist exhortations like the 'heroine mother' distinction bestowed on those Romanian women who bore ten or more children.[126] In October 1966, artificial birth control was proscribed in Romania and regular pregnancy tests were mandated for women of child-bearing age, with severe penalties for anyone who was found to have terminated a pregnancy.[127] Despite such restrictions, birth rates continued to lag, in part, because of unskilled induced abortions.[126] Population in Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries was as follows:[128][129]

Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
Population

Country Area (000s) 1950 (mil) 1970 (mil) 1980 (mil) 1985 (mil) Annual Growth (1950–1985) Density (1980)

Albania 28.7 square kilometres (11.1 sq mi) 1.22 2.16 2.59 2.96 +4.07% 90.2/km2

Bulgaria 110.9 square kilometres (42.8 sq mi) 7.27 8.49 8.88 8.97 +0.67% 80.1/km2

Czechoslovakia 127.9 square kilometres (49.4 sq mi) 13.09 14.47 15.28 15.50 +0.53% 119.5/km2

Hungary 93.0 square kilometres (35.9 sq mi) 9.20 10.30 10.71 10.60 +0.43% 115.2/km2

East Germany 108.3 square kilometres (41.8 sq mi) 17.94 17.26 16.74 16.69 -0.20% 154.6/km2

Poland 312.7 square kilometres (120.7 sq mi) 24.82 30.69 35.73 37.23 +1.43% 114.3/km2

Romania 237.5 square kilometres (91.7 sq mi) 16.31 20.35 22.20 22.73 +1.12% 93.5/km2

Soviet Union 22,300 square kilometres (8,600 sq mi) 182.32 241.72 265.00 272.00 +1.41% 11.9/km2

Yugoslavia 255.8 square kilometres (98.8 sq mi) 16.35 20.37 22.30 23.32 +1.22% 87.2/km2

Housing[edit] A housing shortage existed throughout the Eastern Bloc, especially after a severe cutback in state resources available for housing starting in 1975.[130] Cities became filled with large system-built apartment blocks[131] Western visitors from places like West Germany expressed surprise at the perceived shoddiness of new, box-like concrete structures across the border in East Germany, along with a relative greyness of the physical environment and the often joyless appearance of people on the street or in stores.[132] Housing construction policy suffered from considerable organisational problems.[133] Moreover, completed houses possessed noticeably poor quality finishes.[133] Housing quality[edit]

Prominent examples of urban design included Marszałkowska Housing Estate (MDM) in Warsaw

The near-total emphasis on large apartment blocks was a common feature of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
cities in the 1970s and 1980s.[134] East German authorities viewed large cost advantages in the construction of Plattenbau
Plattenbau
apartment blocks such that the building of such architecture on the edge of large cities continued until the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc.[134] These buildings, such as the Paneláks of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and Panelház
Panelház
of Hungary, contained cramped concrete apartments that broadly lined Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
streets, leaving the visitor with a "cold and grey" impression.[134] Wishing to reinforce the role of the state in the 1970s and 1980s, Nicolae Ceaușescu enacted the systematization programme, which consisted of the demolition and reconstruction of existing villages, towns, and cities, in whole or in part, in order to make place to standardized apartment blocks across the country (blocuri).[134] Under this ideology, Ceaușescu built Centrul Civic
Centrul Civic
of Bucharest in the 1980s, which contains the Palace of the Parliament, in the place of the former historic center. Even by the late 1980s, sanitary conditions in most Eastern Bloc countries were generally far from adequate.[135] For all countries for which data existed, 60% of dwellings had a density of greater than one person per room between 1966 and 1975.[135] The average in western countries for which data was available approximated 0.5 persons per room.[135] Problems were aggravated by poor quality finishes on new dwellings often causing occupants to undergo a certain amount of finishing work and additional repairs.[135] Housing quality figures for the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
are as follows:[136]

Housing quality in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
by the 1980s

Country Adequate sanitation % (year) Piped water % Central heating % Inside toilet % More than 1 person/room %

Albania n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Bulgaria n/a 66.1% 7.5% 28.0% 60.2%

Czechoslovakia 60.5% (1983) 75.3% 30.9% 52.4% 67.9%%

East Germany 70.0% (1985) 82.1% 72.2% 43.4% n/a

Hungary 60.0% (1984) 64% (1980) n/a 52.5% (1980) 64.4%

Poland 50.0% (1980) 47.3% 22.2% 33.4% 83.0%

Romania 50.0% (1980) 12.3% (1966) n/a n/a 81.5%

Soviet Union 50.0% (1980) n/a n/a n/a n/a

Yugoslavia 69.8% (1981) 93.2% 84.2% 89.7% 83.1%

Housing quality in Hungary (1949–1990)

Year Houses/flats total With piped water With sewage disposal With inside toilet With piped gas

1949 2,466,514 420,644 (17.1%) - 306,998 (12.5%) 174,186 (7.1%)

1960 2,757,625 620,600 (22.5%) - 440,737 (16%) 373,124 (13.5%)

1970 3,118,096 1,370,609 (44%) 1,167,055 (37.4%) 838,626 (26.9%) 1,571,691 (50.4%)

1980 3,542,418 2,268,014 (64%) 2,367,274 (66.8%) 1,859,677 (52.5%) 2,682,143 (75.7%)

1990 3,853,288 3,209,930 (83.3%) 3,228,257 (83.8%) 2,853,834 (74%) 3,274,514 (85%)

[137] The worsening shortages of the 1970s and 1980s occurred during an increase in the quantity of dwelling stock relative to population from 1970 to 1986.[138] Even for new dwellings, average dwelling size was only 61.3 square metres (660 sq ft) in the Eastern Bloc compared with 113.5 square metres (1,222 sq ft) in ten western countries for which comparable data was available.[138] Space standards varied considerably, with the average new dwelling in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1986 being only 68% the size of its equivalent in Hungary.[138] Apart from exceptional cases, such as East Germany
East Germany
in 1980–1986 and Bulgaria in 1970–1980, space standards in newly built dwellings rose before the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc.[138] Housing size varied considerably across time, especially after the oil crisis in the Eastern Bloc; for instance, 1990-era West German homes had an average floor space of 83 square metres (890 sq ft), compared to an average dwelling size in the GDR of 67 square metres (720 sq ft) in 1967.[139][140] The figures are as follows:[141]

Housing characteristics in New Dwellings the Eastern Bloc

Floor space/dwelling' People/dwelling

Country 1970 1980 1986 1970 1986

Western countries 113.5 square metres (1,222 sq ft) n/a n/a

Bulgaria 63.7 square metres (686 sq ft) 59.0 square metres (635 sq ft) 66.9 square metres (720 sq ft) 3.8 2.8

Czechoslovakia 67.2 square metres (723 sq ft) 73.8 square metres (794 sq ft) 81.8 square metres (880 sq ft) 3.4 2.7

East Germany 55.0 square metres (592 sq ft) 62.7 square metres (675 sq ft) 61.2 square metres (659 sq ft) 2.9 2.4

Hungary 61.5 square metres (662 sq ft) 67.0 square metres (721 sq ft) 83.0 square metres (893 sq ft) 3.4 2.7

Poland 54.3 square metres (584 sq ft) 64.0 square metres (689 sq ft) 71.0 square metres (764 sq ft) 4.2 3.5

Romania 44.9 square metres (483 sq ft) 57.0 square metres (614 sq ft) 57.5 square metres (619 sq ft) 3.6 2.8

Soviet Union 46.8 square metres (504 sq ft) 52.3 square metres (563 sq ft) 56.8 square metres (611 sq ft) 4.1 3.2

Yugoslavia 59.2 square metres (637 sq ft) 70.9 square metres (763 sq ft) 72.5 square metres (780 sq ft) n/a 3.4

Albania n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Poor housing was one of four factors, others being high female employment and education levels and abortion access, which led to severely declining birth rates throughout the Eastern Bloc.[124] Homelessness was the most obvious effect of the housing shortage, though it was hard to define and measure in the Eastern Bloc.[142] Economies[edit]

During World War II
World War II
85% of buildings in Warsaw
Warsaw
were destroyed by German troops.

A line for the distribution of cooking oil in Bucharest, Romania
Bucharest, Romania
in May 1986

"Vitosha" computer, produced in Bulgaria, 1960s

As with the economy of the Soviet Union, planners in the Eastern Bloc were directed by the resulting Five Year Plans which followed paths of extensive rather than intensive development, focusing upon heavy industry as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had done, leading to inefficiencies and shortage economies.[143] The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries achieved high rates of economic and technical progress, promoted industrialisation, and ensured steady growth rates of labor productivity and rises in the standard of living.[144][unreliable source?] However, because of the lack of market signals, Eastern Bloc economies
Eastern Bloc economies
experienced mis-development by central planners.[145][146] The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
also depended upon the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for significant amounts of materials.[145][147] Technological backwardness resulted in dependency on imports from Western countries and this, in turn, in demand for Western currency. Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries were heavily borrowing from Club de Paris (central banks) and London Club (private banks) and most of them by early 80's were forced to notify the creditors of their insolvency.[148][149][150] Social conditions[edit] Further information: Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection, Eastern Bloc information dissemination, and Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics As a consequence of the Germans and World War II
World War II
in Eastern Europe, much of the region had been subjected to enormous destruction of industry, infrastructure and loss of civilian life. In Poland alone the policy of plunder and exploitation inflicted enormous material losses to Polish industry (62% of which was destroyed),[151] agriculture, infrastructure and cultural landmarks, the cost of which has been estimated as approximately €525 billion or $640 billion in 2004 exchange values[152] Throughout the Eastern Bloc, both in the USSR and the rest of the Bloc, Russia
Russia
was given prominence, and referred to as the naiboleye vydayushchayasya natsiya (the most prominent nation) and the rukovodyashchiy narod (the leading people).[153] The Soviets promoted the reverence of Russian actions and characteristics, and the construction of Soviet structural hierarchies in the other countries of the Eastern Bloc.[153] The defining characteristic of Stalinist totalitarianism was the unique symbiosis of the state with society and the economy, resulting in politics and economics losing their distinctive features as autonomous and distinguishable spheres.[82] Initially, Stalin directed systems that rejected Western institutional characteristics of market economies, democratic governance (dubbed "bourgeois democracy" in Soviet parlance) and the rule of law subduing discretional intervention by the state.[84] The Soviets mandated expropriation and etatisation of private property.[154] The Soviet-style "replica regimes" that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economies, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and Soviet secret police to suppress real and potential opposition.[154] Stalinist regimes in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
saw even marginal groups of opposition intellectuals as a potential threat because of the bases underlying Stalinist power therein.[90] The suppression of dissent and opposition was a central prerequisite for the security of Stalinist power within the Eastern Bloc, though the degree of opposition and dissident suppression varied by country and time throughout the Eastern Bloc.[90] In addition, media in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
were organs of the state, completely reliant on and subservient to the government of the USSR with radio and television organisations being state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organisations, mostly by the local party.[93] While over 15 million Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
residents migrated westward from 1945 to 1949,[155] emigration was effectively halted in the early 1950s, with the Soviet approach to controlling national movement emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.[111] Initial changes[edit] Transformations billed as reforms[edit] In the USSR, because of strict Soviet secrecy under Joseph Stalin, for many years after World War II, even the best informed foreigners did not effectively know about the operations of the Soviet economy.[156] Stalin had sealed off outside access to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
since 1935 (and until his death), effectively permitting no foreign travel inside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
such that outsiders did not know of the political processes that had taken place therein.[157] During this period, and even for 25 years after Stalin's death, the few diplomats and foreign correspondents permitted inside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were usually restricted to within a few kilometres of Moscow, their phones were tapped, their residences were restricted to foreigner-only locations and they were constantly followed by Soviet authorities.[157] The Soviets also modeled economies in the rest of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
outside the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
along Soviet command economy lines.[158] Before World War II, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
used draconian procedures to ensure compliance with directives to invest all assets in state planned manners, including the collectivisation of agriculture and utilising a sizeable labor army collected in the gulag system.[159] This system was largely imposed on other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries after World War II.[159] While propaganda of proletarian improvements accompanied systemic changes, terror and intimidation of the consequent ruthless Stalinism
Stalinism
obfuscated feelings of any purported benefits.[102] Stalin felt that socioeconomic transformation was indispensable to establish Soviet control, reflecting the Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
view that material bases, the distribution of the means of production, shaped social and political relations.[60] Moscow trained cadres were put into crucial power positions to fulfill orders regarding sociopolitical transformation.[60] Elimination of the bourgeoisie's social and financial power by expropriation of landed and industrial property was accorded absolute priority.[58] These measures were publicly billed as reforms rather than socioeconomic transformations.[58] Throughout the Eastern Bloc, except for Czechoslovakia, "societal organisations" such as trade unions and associations representing various social, professional and other groups, were erected with only one organisation for each category, with competition excluded.[58] Those organisations were managed by Stalinist cadres, though during the initial period, they allowed for some diversity.[61] Asset relocation[edit] At the same time, at the war's end, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
adopted a "plunder policy" of physically transporting and relocating east European industrial assets to the Soviet Union.[160] Eastern Bloc states were required to provide coal, industrial equipment, technology, rolling stock and other resources to reconstruct the Soviet Union.[161] Between 1945 and 1953, the Soviets received a net transfer of resources from the rest of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
under this policy of roughly $14 billion, an amount comparable to the net transfer from the United States
United States
to western Europe in the Marshall Plan.[161][162] "Reparations" included the dismantling of railways in Poland and Romanian reparations to the Soviets between 1944 and 1948 valued at $1.8 billion concurrent with the domination of SovRoms.[159] In addition, the Soviets re-organised enterprises as joint-stock companies in which the Soviets possessed the controlling interest.[162][163] Using that control vehicle, several enterprises were required to sell products at below world prices to the Soviets, such as uranium mines in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and East Germany, coal mines in Poland, and oil wells in Romania.[164] Trade and COMECON[edit] Main articles: Comecon
Comecon
and History of the Comecon The trading pattern of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries was severely modified.[165] Before World War II, no greater than 1% – 2% of those countries' trade was with the Soviet Union.[165] By 1953, the share of such trade had jumped to 37%.[165] In 1947, Stalin had also denounced the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and forbade all Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries from participating in it.[166] Soviet dominance further tied other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies, except for Yugoslavia,[165] to Moscow via the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) or COMECON, which determined countries' investment allocations and the products that would be traded within Eastern Bloc.[167] Although COMECON
COMECON
was initiated in 1949, its role became ambiguous because Stalin preferred more direct links with other party chiefs than the indirect sophistication of the Council; it played no significant role in the 1950s in economic planning.[101] Initially, COMECON
COMECON
served as cover for the Soviet taking of materials and equipment from the rest of the Eastern Bloc, but the balance changed when the Soviets became net subsidisers of the rest of the Bloc by the 1970s via an exchange of low cost raw materials in return for shoddily manufactured finished goods.[102] While resources such as oil, timber and uranium initially made gaining access to other Eastern Bloc economies attractive, the Soviets soon had to export Soviet raw materials to those countries to maintain cohesion therein.[159] Following resistance to COMECON
COMECON
plans to extract Romania's mineral resources and heavily utilise its agricultural production, in 1964 Romania began to take a more independent stance.[105] While it did not repudiate COMECON, it took no significant role in its operation, especially after the rise to power of Nicolae Ceauşescu.[105] Five Year Plans[edit] Further information: Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Six-Year Plan

Agitprop
Agitprop
poster by Vladimir Mayakovsky: "1. You want to overcome cold? 2. You want to overcome hunger? 3. You want to eat? 4. You want to drink? Hurry to enter shock brigades!"

Economic activity was governed by Five year plans, divided into monthly segments, with government planners frequently attempting to meet plan targets regardless of whether a market existed for the goods being produced.[168] Little coordination existed between departments such that cars could be produced before filling stations or roads were built, or a new hospital in Warsaw
Warsaw
in the 1980s could stand empty for four years waiting for the production of equipment to fill it.[168] Nevertheless, if such political objectives had been met, propagandists could boast of increased vehicle production and the completion of another new hospital.[168] Inefficient bureaucracies were frequently created, with for instance, Bulgarian farms having to meet at least six hundred different plan fulfillment figures.[168] Socialist
Socialist
product requirements produced distorted black market consequences, such that broken light bulbs possessed significant market values in Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
offices because a broken light bulb was required to be submitted before a new light bulb would be issued.[169] Factory managers and foremen could hold their posts only if they were cleared under the nomenklatura list system of party-approved cadres.[169] All decisions were constrained by the party politics of what was considered good management.[169] For laborers, work was assigned on the pattern of "norms", with sanctions for non-fulfillment.[169] However, the system really served to increase inefficiency, because if the norms were met, management would merely increase them.[169] The stakhanovite system was employed to highlight the achievements of successful work brigades, and "shock brigades" were introduced into plants to show the others how much could be accomplished.[169] Also, " Lenin
Lenin
shifts" or " Lenin
Lenin
Saturdays" were introduced, requiring extra work time for no pay.[170] However, the emphasis on the construction of heavy industry provided full employment and social mobility through the recruitment of young rural workers and women.[171] While blue-collar workers enjoyed that they earned as much or more than many professionals, the standard of living did not match the pace of improvement in Western Europe.[171] Only Yugoslavia (and later Romania and Albania) engaged in their own industrial planning, though they enjoyed little more success than that of the rest of the Bloc.[167] Albania, which had remained strongly Stalinist in ideology well after de-Stalinisation, was politically and commercially isolated from the other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries and the west.[172] By the late 1980s, it was the poorest country in Europe, and still lacked sewerage, piped water, and piped gas.[172] Heavy industry emphasis[edit] In the Soviet Union, there was unprecedented affordability of housing, health care, and education.[173] Apartment rent on average amounted to only 1 percent of the family budget, a figure which reached 4 percent when municipal services are factored in. Tram tickets were 20 kopecki, and a loaf of bread was 15 kopecki. The average salary of an engineer was 140-160 rubles.[174] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
made major progress in developing the country's consumer goods sector. In 1970, the USSR produced 679 million pairs of leather footwear, compared to 534 million for the United States. Czechoslovakia, which had the world's highest per-capita production of shoes, exported a significant portion of its shoe production to other countries.[175] The rising standard of living under socialism led to a steady decrease in the workday and an increase in leisure. In 1974, the average workweek for Soviet industrial workers was 40 hours. Paid vacations in 1968 reached a minimum of 15 workdays. In the mid-1970s the number of free days per year-days off, holidays and vacations was 128-130, almost double the figure from the previous ten years.[176] Because of the lack of market signals in such economies, they experienced mis-development by central planners resulting in those countries following a path of extensive (large mobilisation of inefficiently used capital, labor, energy and raw material inputs) rather than intensive (efficient resource use) development to attempt to achieve quick growth.[145][177] The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries were required to follow the Soviet model over-emphasising heavy industry at the expense of light industry and other sectors.[169] Since that model involved the prodigal exploitation of natural and other resources, it has been described as a kind of "slash and burn" modality.[177] While the Soviet system strove for a dictatorship of the proletariat, there was little existing proletariat in many eastern European countries, such that to create one, heavy industry needed to be built.[169] Each system shared the distinctive themes of state-oriented economies, including poorly defined property rights, a lack of market clearing prices and overblown or distorted productive capacities in relation to analogous market economies.[82] Major errors and waste occurred in the resource allocation and distribution systems.[131] Because of the party-run monolithic state organs, these systems provided no effective mechanisms or incentives to control costs, profligacy, inefficiency and waste.[131] Heavy industry was given priority because of its importance for the military-industrial establishment and for the engineering sector.[178] Factories were sometimes inefficiently located, incurring high transport costs, while poor plant-organisation sometimes resulted in production hold ups and knock-on effects in other industries dependent on monopoly suppliers of intermediates.[179] For example, each country, including Albania, built steel mills regardless of whether they lacked the requisite resource of energy and mineral ores.[169] A massive metallurgical plant was built in Bulgaria despite the fact that its ores had to be imported from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and carried for 320 kilometres from the port at Burgas.[169] A Warsaw
Warsaw
tractor factory in 1980 had a 52-page list of unused rusting, then useless, equipment.[169] The emphasis on heavy industry diverted investment from the more practical production of chemicals and plastics.[167] In addition, the plans' emphasis on quantity rather than quality made Eastern Bloc products less competitive in the world market.[167] High costs passed though the product chain boosted the 'value' of production on which wage increases were based, but made exports less competitive.[179] Planners rarely closed old factories even when new capacities opened elsewhere.[179] For example, the Polish steel industry retained a plant in Upper Silesia despite the opening of modern integrated units on the periphery while the last old Siemens-Martin process
Siemens-Martin process
furnace installed in the 19th century was not closed down immediately.[179] There were claims that producer goods were favoured over consumer goods, causing consumer goods to be lacking in quantity and quality in the shortage economies that resulted.[146][177][177] However, this is disputed. An article in "Russian Life" writes, "Today the Soviet reality is discussed, there are stories about food shortages. This is one of the most persistent, propagandistic cliches ... It is necessary to say that in reality, nothing of the sort happened. Starting in 1979, when I was seven, my mother regularly took me to the farm market in Butyrsky. The abundance of groceries at the market left me with a strong impression. I remember fresh meat for 3-5 rubles per kg, potatoes at 20 kopecki, and pineapples and watermelons in mid-winter."[180] By the mid-1970s, budget deficits rose considerably and domestic prices widely diverged from the world prices, while production prices averaged 2% higher than consumer prices.[181] Many premium goods could be bought only in special stores using foreign currency generally inaccessible to most Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
citizens, such as Intershop
Intershop
in East Germany,[182] Beryozka in the Soviet Union,[183] Pewex
Pewex
in Poland,[184][185] Tuzex
Tuzex
in Czechoslovakia[186] and Corecom in Bulgaria. Much of what was produced for the local population never reached its intended user, while many perishable products became unfit for consumption before reaching their consumers.[131] Black markets[edit] As a result of the deficiencies of the official economy, black markets were created that were often supplied by goods stolen from the public sector.[170][187] The second, "parallel economy" flourished throughout the Bloc because of rising unmet state consumer needs.[188] Black and gray markets for foodstuffs, goods, and cash arose.[188] Goods included household goods, medical supplies, clothes, furniture, cosmetics, and toiletries in chronically short supply through official outlets.[185] Many farmers concealed actual output from purchasing agencies to sell it illicitly to urban consumers.[185] Hard foreign currencies were highly sought after, while highly valued Western items functioned as a medium of exchange or bribery in Stalinist countries, such as in Romania, where Kent cigarettes served as an unofficial extensively used currency to buy goods and services.[189] Some service workers moonlighted illegally providing services directly to customers for payment.[189] This created a particular petty theft mentality. A saying in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was "if you do not steal from the state, you are robbing your own family."[170] See also: Second economy of the Soviet Union Urbanisation[edit] The extensive production industrialisation that resulted was not responsive to consumer needs and caused a neglect in the service sector, unprecedented rapid urbanisation, acute urban overcrowding, chronic shortages and massive recruitment of women into mostly menial and/or low-paid occupations.[131] The consequent strains resulted in the widespread used of coercion, repression, show trials, purges and intimidation.[131] By 1960, massive urbanisation occurred in Poland (48% urban) and Bulgaria (38%), which increased employment for peasants, but also caused illiteracy to skyrocket when children left school for work.[131] Cities became massive building sites, resulting in the reconstruction of some war-torn buildings but also the construction of drab dilapidated system-built apartment blocks.[131] Urban living standards plummeted because resources were tied up in huge long-term building projects, while industrialisation forced millions of former peasants to live in hut camps or grim apartment blocks close to massive polluting industrial complexes.[131] Agricultural collectivisation[edit]

Propaganda
Propaganda
poster showing increased agricultural production from 1981 to 1983 and 1986 in East Germany.

Collectivisation
Collectivisation
is a process pioneered by Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in the late 1920s by which Marxist-Leninist
Marxist-Leninist
regimes in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
and elsewhere attempted to establish an ordered socialist system in rural agriculture.[190] It required the forced consolidation of small-scale peasant farms and larger holdings belonging to the landed classes for the purpose of creating larger modern "collective farms" owned, in theory, by the workers therein or the state.[190] In addition to eradicating the perceived inefficiencies associated with small-scale farming on discontiguous land holdings, collectivisation also purported to achieve the political goal of removing the rural basis for resistance to Stalinist regimes.[190] A further justification given was the need to promote industrial development by facilitating the state's procurement of agricultural products and transferring "surplus labor" from rural to urban areas.[190] In short, agriculture was reorganised in order to proletarianise the peasantry and control production at prices determined by the state.[191] The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
possesses substantial agricultural resources, especially in southern areas, such as Hungary's Great Plain, which offered good soils and a warm climate during the growing season.[191] Rural collectivisation proceeded differently in non-Soviet Eastern Bloc countries than it did in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the 1920s and 1930s.[192] Because of the need to conceal of the assumption of control and the realities of an initial lack of control, no Soviet dekulakisation-style liquidation of rich peasants could be carried out in the non-Soviet Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries.[192] Nor could they risk mass starvation or agricultural sabotage (e.g., holodomor) with a rapid collectivisation through massive state farms and agricultural producers' cooperatives (APCs).[192] Instead, collectivisation proceeded more slowly and in stages from 1948 to 1960 in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and East Germany, and from 1955 to 1964 in Albania.[192] Collectivisation
Collectivisation
in the Baltic republics of the Lithuanian SSR, Estonian SSR
Estonian SSR
and Latvian SSR
Latvian SSR
took place between 1947 and 1952.[193] Unlike Soviet collectivisation, neither massive destruction of livestock nor errors causing distorted output or distribution occurred in the other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries.[192] More widespread use of transitional forms occurred, with differential compensation payments for peasants that contributed more land to APCs.[192] Because Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and East Germany
East Germany
were more industrialised than the Soviet Union, they were in a position to furnish most of the equipment and fertiliser inputs needed to ease the transition to collectivised agriculture.[177] Instead of liquidating large farmers or barring them from joining APCs as Stalin had done through dekulakisation, those farmers were utilised in the non-Soviet Eastern Bloc collectivisations, sometimes even being named farm chairman or managers.[177] Massive industrialisation eventually caused young men to move to urban centres, depressing agricultural productivity.[citation needed] Collectivisation
Collectivisation
often met with strong rural resistance, including peasants frequently destroying property rather than surrendering it to the collectives.[190] Strong peasant links with the land through private ownership were broken and many young people left for careers in industry.[191] In Poland and Yugoslavia, fierce resistance from peasants, many of whom had resisted the Axis, led to the abandonment of wholesale rural collectivisation in the early 1950s.[177] In part because of the problems created by collectivisation, agriculture was largely de-collectivised in Poland in 1957.[190] The fact that Poland nevertheless managed to carry out large-scale centrally planned industrialisation with no more difficulty than its collectivised Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
neighbours further called into question the need for collectivisation in such planned economies.[177] Only Poland's "western territories", those eastwardly adjacent to the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
that were annexed from Germany, were substantially collectivised, largely in order to settle large numbers of Poles on good farmland which had been taken from German farmers.[177] Economic growth[edit]

A Robotron KC 87
Robotron KC 87
home computer made in East Germany
East Germany
between 1987 and 1989.

There was significant progress made in the economy in countries such as the Soviet Union. In 1980, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
took first place in Europe and second worldwide in terms of industrial and agricultural production, respectively. In 1960, the USSR's industrial output was only 55% that of America, but this increased to 80% in 1980.[173] With the change of the Soviet leadership in 1964, there were significant changes made to economic policy. The Government on 30 September 1965 issued a decree "On improving the management of industry" and the 4 October 1965 resolution "On improving and strengthening the economic incentives for industrial production". The main initiator of these reforms was Premier A. Kosygin. Kosygin's reforms on agriculture gave considerable autonomy to the collective farms, giving them the right to the contents of private farming. During this period, there was the large-scale land reclamation program, the construction of irrigation channels, and other measures.[173] In the period 1966–70, the gross national product grew by over 350%. The country produced 4 times more than the previous five-year period. Industrial output increased by 485% and agriculture by 171%.[173] In the eighth Five-Year Plan, the national income grew at an average rate of 7.8%. In the ninth Five-Year Plan (1971–1975), the national income grew at an annual rate of 5.7%. In the 10th Five-Year Plan (1976–1981), the national income grew at an annual rate of 4.3%.[173] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
made noteworthy scientific and technological progress. Unlike capitalist countries, scientific and technological potential in the USSR was used in accordance with a plan on the scale of society as a whole.[194] In 1980, the number of scientific personnel in the USSR was 1.4 million. The number of engineers employed in the national economy was 4.7 million. Between 1960 and 1980, the number of scientific personnel increased by a factor of 4. In 1975, the number of scientific personnel in the USSR amounted to one-fourth of the total number of scientific personnel in the world. In 1980, as compared with 1940, the number of invention proposals submitted was more than 5 million. In 1980, there were 10 all-Union research institutes, 85 specialised central agencies, and 93 regional information centres.[195] The world's first nuclear power plant was commissioned on June 27, 1954 in Obninsk.[196] Soviet scientists made a major contribution to the development of computer technology. The first major achievements in the field were associated with the building of analog computers. In the USSR, principles for the construction of network analysers were developed by S. Gershgorin in 1927 and the concept of the electrodynamic analog computer was proposed by N. Minorsky in 1936. In the 1940s, the development of AC electronic antiaircraft directors and the first vacuum-tube integrators was begun by L. Gutenmakher. In the 1960s, important developments in modern computer equipment were the BESM-6 system built under the direction of S. A. Lebedev, the MIR series of small digital computers, and the Minsk series of digital computers developed by G.Lopato and V. Przhyalkovsky.[197] The Moscow Metro has 180 stations used by around 7 million passengers per day. It is one of the world's busiest undergrounds and considered to be the most beautiful. In the Soviet period, the fare was 5 kopeks which permitted the rider to ride everywhere on the system.[198] Author Turnock claims that transport in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was characterised by poor infrastructural maintenance.[199] The road network suffered from inadequate load capacity, poor surfacing and deficient roadside servicing.[199] While roads were resurfaced, few new roads were built and there were very few divided highway roads, urban ring roads or bypasses.[200] Private car ownership remained low by Western standards.[200]

A Trabant
Trabant
601 Limousine, manufactured between 1964 and 1989 (left) and a Wartburg 353, manufactured between 1966 and 1989 (right). They were made in East Germany
East Germany
and exported throughout the Eastern Bloc.

A Soviet made ZAZ-968, manufactured between 1971 and 1994 (left) and a VAZ-2101/ Lada
Lada
1200, manufactured between 1970 and 1988 (right).

Vehicle ownership increased in the 1970s and 1980s with the production of inexpensive cars in East Germany
East Germany
such as Trabants and the Wartburgs.[200] However, the wait list for the distribution of Trabants was ten years in 1987 and up to fifteen years for Soviet Lada and Czechoslovakian Škoda cars.[200] Soviet-built aircraft exhibited deficient technology, with high fuel consumption and heavy maintenance demands.[199] Telecommunications networks were overloaded.[199] Adding to mobility constraints from the inadequate transport systems were bureaucratic mobility restrictions.[201] While outside of Albania, domestic travel eventually became largely regulation-free, stringent controls on the issue of passports, visas and foreign currency made foreign travel difficult inside the Eastern Bloc.[201] Countries were inured to isolation and initial post-war autarky, with each country effectively restricting bureaucrats to viewing issues from a domestic perspective shaped by that country's specific propaganda.[201] Severe environmental problems arose through urban traffic congestion, which was aggravated by pollution generated by poorly maintained vehicles.[201] Large thermal power stations burning lignite and other items became notorious polluters, while some hydro-electric systems performed inefficiently because of dry seasons and silt accumulation in reservoirs.[202] Kraków, Poland was covered by smog 135 days per year, while Wrocław
Wrocław
was covered by a fog of chrome gas.[specify][203] Several villages were evacuated because of copper smelting at Głogów.[203] Further rural problems arose from piped water construction being given precedence over building sewerage systems, leaving many houses with only inbound piped water delivery and not enough sewage tank trucks to carry away sewage.[204] The resulting drinking water became so polluted in Hungary that over 700 villages had to be supplied by tanks, bottles and plastic bags.[204] Nuclear power projects were prone to long commissioning delays.[202] The catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in the Ukrainian SSR was caused by an irresponsible safety test on a reactor design that is normally safe,[205] some operators lacking an even basic understanding of the reactor's processes and authoritarian Soviet bureaucracy, valuing party loyalty over competence, that kept promoting incompetent personnel and choosing cheapness over safety.[206][207] The consequent release of fallout resulted in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people[208] leaving a massive desolate Zone of alienation containing extensive still-standing abandoned urban development. Tourism
Tourism
from outside the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was neglected, while tourism from other Stalinist countries grew within the Eastern Bloc.[209] Tourism
Tourism
drew investment, relying upon tourism and recreation opportunities existing before World War II.[210] By 1945, most hotels were run-down, while many which escaped conversion to other uses by central planners were slated to meet domestic demands.[210] Authorities created state companies to arrange travel and accommodation.[210] In the 1970s, investments were made to attempt to attract western travelers, though momentum for this waned in the 1980s when no long-term plan arose to procure improvements in the tourist environment, such as an assurance of freedom of movement, free and efficient money exchange and the provision of higher quality products with which these tourists were familiar.[209] However, western tourists were generally free to move about in Hungary, Poland and Yugoslavia and go where they wished. It was more difficult or even impossible to go as an individual tourist to East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania. It was generally possible in all cases, save Albania, for relatives from the west to visit and stay with family in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, except for Albania. In these cases, permission had to be sought, precise times, length of stay, location and movements had to be known in advance. Catering to western visitors required creating an environment of an entirely different standard than that used for the domestic populace, which required concentration of travel spots including the building of relatively high-quality infrastructure in travel complexes, which could not easily be replicated elsewhere.[209] In Albania, because of a desire to preserve ideological discipline and the fear of the presence of wealthier foreigners engaging in differing lifestyles, Albania segregated travelers.[211] Because of the worry of the subversive effect of the tourist industry, travel was restricted to 6,000 visitors per year.[212] Growth rates[edit] Growth rates in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
were initially high in the 1950s and 1960s.[158] During this first period, progress was rapid by European standards, and per capita growth within the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
increased by 2.4 times the European average.[179] Eastern Europe accounted for 12.3 percent of European production in 1950 but 14.4 in 1970.[179] However, the system was resistant to change, and did not easily adapt to new conditions. For political reasons, old factories were rarely closed, even when new technologies became available.[179] As a result, after the 1970s, growth rates within the bloc experienced relative decline.[213] Meanwhile, West Germany, Austria, France
France
and other Western European nations experienced increased economic growth in the Wirtschaftswunder
Wirtschaftswunder
("economic miracle"), Trente Glorieuses ("thirty glorious years") and the post- World War II
World War II
boom. After the fall of USSR in the 1990s, growth plummeted, living standards declined, drug use, homelessness and poverty skyrocketed, and suicides increased dramatically.[citation needed] Growth did not begin to return to pre-reform era levels for approximately 15 years.[citation needed] From the end of the World War II
World War II
to the mid-1970s, the economy of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
steadily increased at the same rate as the economy in Western Europe, with the least none-reforming Stalinist nations of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
having a stronger economy then the reformist-Stalinist states.[214] While most western European economies essentially began to approach the per capita Gross Domestic Product
Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) levels of the United States
United States
during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Eastern Bloc countries did not,[213] with per capita GDPs trailing significantly behind their comparable western European counterparts.[215] The following table displays a set of estimated growth rates of GDP from 1951 onward, for the countries of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
as well as those of Western Europe, as reported by The Conference Board
The Conference Board
as part of its Total Economy Database. Note that in some cases, data availability does not go all the way back to 1951.

GDP growth rates (in percent, for the given years)[216] 1951 1961 1971 1981 1989 1991 2001 2015

 People's Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Albania 6.608 4.156 6.510 2.526 2.648 -28.000 7.940 2.600

 People's Republic of Bulgaria 20.576 6.520 3.261 2.660 -1.792 -8.400 4.248 2.968

 Hungarian People's Republic 9.659 5.056 4.462 0.706 -2.240 -11.900 3.849 2.951

 Polish People's Republic 4.400 7.982 7.128 -5.324 -1.552 -7.000 1.248 3.650

  Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Romania 7.237 6.761 14.114 -0.611 -3.192 -16.189 5.592 3.751

  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
/ Czech Republic - - 5.215 -0.160 1.706 -11.600 3.052 4.274

  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
/  Slovakia - - - - 1.010 -14.600 3.316 3.595

  Soviet Union
Soviet Union
/  Russia - 7.200 4.200 1.200 0.704 -5.000 5.091 -3.727

 Austria 6.840 5.309 5.112 -0.099 4.227 3.442 1.351 0.811

 Belgium 5.688 4.865 3.753 -1.248 3.588 1.833 0.811 1.374

 Denmark 0.668 6.339 2.666 -0.890 0.263 1.300 0.823 1.179

 Finland 8.504 7.620 2.090 1.863 5.668 -5.914 2.581 0.546

 France 6.160 5.556 4.839 1.026 4.057 1.039 1.954 1.270

  Germany
Germany
(West) 9.167 4.119 2.943 0.378 3.270 5.108 1.695 1.700

 Greece 8.807 8.769 7.118 0.055 3.845 3.100 4.132 -0.321

 Ireland 2.512 4.790 3.618 3.890 7.051 3.098 9.006 8.538

 Italy 7.466 8.422 1.894 0.474 2.882 1.538 1.772 0.800

 Netherlands 2.098 0.289 4.222 -0.507 4.679 2.439 2.124 1.990

 Norway 5.418 6.268 5.130 0.966 0.956 3.085 2.085 1.598

 Portugal 4.479 5.462 6.633 1.618 5.136 4.368 1.943 1.460

 Spain 9.937 12.822 5.722 0.516 5.280 2.543 4.001 3.214

 Sweden 3.926 5.623 2.356 -0.593 3.073 -1.146 1.563 3.830

  Switzerland 8.097 8.095 4.076 1.579 4.340 -0.916 1.447 0.855

 United Kingdom 2.985 3.297 2.118 -1.303 2.179 -1.257 2.758 2.329

The United Nations Statistics Division also calculates growth rates, using a different methodology, but only reports the figures starting in 1971 (note: for Slovakia
Slovakia
and the constituent republics of the USSR, data availability begins later). Thus, according to the U.N., growth rates in Europe were as follows:

GDP growth rates (in percent, for the given years)[217] 1971 1981 1989 1991 2001 2015

 People's Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Albania 4.001 5.746 9.841 -28.002 8.293 2.639

 People's Republic of Bulgaria 6.897 4.900 -3.290 -8.445 4.248 2.968

 Hungarian People's Republic 6.200 2.867 0.736 -11.687 3.774 3.148

 Polish People's Republic 7.415 -9.971 0.160 -7.016 1.248 3.941

  Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Romania 13.000 0.112 -5.788 -12.918 5.592 3.663

  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
/ Czech Republic 5.044 -0.095 0.386 -11.615 3.052 4.536

  Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
/  Slovakia - - - -14.541 3.316 3.831

  Soviet Union
Soviet Union
/  Russia 5.209 5.301 6.801 -5.000 5.091 -3.727

 Ukraine - - - -8.699 8.832 -9.870

 Lithuania - - - -5.676 6.524 1.779

 Yugoslavia /  Serbia 9.162 1.400 1.500 -11.664 4.993 0.758

 Austria 5.113 -0.144 3.887 3.442 1.351 0.963

 Belgium 3.753 -0.279 3.469 1.833 0.812 1.500

 Denmark 3.005 -0.666 0.645 1.394 0.823 1.606

 Finland 2.357 1.295 5.088 -5.914 2.581 0.210

 France 5.346 1.078 4.353 1.039 1.954 1.274

  Germany
Germany
(West) 3.133 0.529 3.897 5.108 1.695 1.721

 Greece 7.841 -1.554 3.800 3.100 4.132 -0.219

 Ireland 3.470 3.325 5.814 1.930 6.052 26.276

 Italy 1.818 0.844 3.388 1.538 1.772 0.732

 Netherlands 4.331 -0.784 4.420 2.439 2.124 1.952

 Norway 5.672 1.598 1.038 3.085 2.085 1.611

 Portugal 6.632 1.618 6.441 4.368 1.943 1.596

 Spain 4.649 -0.132 4.827 2.546 4.001 3.205

 Sweden 0.945 0.455 2.655 -1.146 1.563 4.085

  Switzerland 4.075 1.601 4.331 -0.916 1.447 0.842

 United Kingdom 3.479 -0.779 2.583 -1.119 2.726 2.222

Per Capita GDP in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
from 1950 to 2003 (1990 base Geary-Khamis dollars), according to Angus Maddison.

While, arguably the World Bank estimates of GDP used for 1990 figures underestimate Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
GDP because of undervalued local currencies, per capita incomes are undoubtedly lower than in their counterparts.[215] East Germany
East Germany
was the most advanced industrial nation of the Eastern Bloc.[182] Until the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, East Germany
East Germany
was considered a weak state, hemorrhaging skilled labor to the West such that it was referred to as "the disappearing satellite."[218] Only after the wall sealed in skilled labor was East Germany
East Germany
able to ascend to the top economic spot in the Eastern Bloc.[218] Thereafter, its citizens enjoyed a higher quality of life and fewer shortages in the supply of goods than those in the Soviet Union, Poland or Romania.[182] However, many citizens in East Germany
Germany
enjoyed one particular advantage over their counterparts in other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, in that they were often supported by relatives and friends in West Germany
West Germany
who would bring goods from the West on visits or even send goods or money. The West German government and many organisations in West Germany
West Germany
supported projects in East Germany, such as rebuilding and restoration or making good some shortages in times of need (e.g. toothbrushes) from which East German citizens again benefited. The two Germanies, divided politically, remained however united by language (although with two political systems, some terms had different meanings in East and West). West German television reached East Germany, which many East Germans watched and from which they obtained information about their own state in short supply at home. Being part of a divided country, East Germany occupied a unique position therefore in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
unlike, for example, Hungary in relation to Austria, which had previously been under one monarch but which were already divided by language and culture. While official statistics painted a relatively rosy picture, the East German economy had eroded because of increased central planning, economic autarky, the use of coal over oil, investment concentration in a few selected technology-intensive areas and labor market regulation.[219] As a result, a large productivity gap of nearly 50% per worker existed between East and West Germany.[219][220] However, that gap does not measure the quality of design of goods or service such that the actual per capita rate may be as low as 14 to 20 per cent.[220] Average gross monthly wages in East Germany
East Germany
were around 30% of those in West Germany, though after accounting for taxation, the figures approached 60%.[221] Moreover, the purchasing power of wages differed greatly, with only about half of East German
East German
households owning either a car or a color television set as late as 1990, both of which had been standard possessions in West German households.[221] The Ostmark was only valid for transactions inside East Germany, could not be legally exported or imported[221] and could not be used in the East German
East German
Intershops which sold premium goods.[182] In 1989, 11% of the East German
East German
labor force remained in agriculture, 47% was in the secondary sector and only 42% in services.[220] Once installed, the economic system was difficult to change given the importance of politically reliable management and the prestige value placed on large enterprises.[179] Performance declined during the 1970s and 1980s due to inefficiency when industrial input costs, such as energy prices, increased.[179] Though growth lagged behind the west, it did occur.[167] Consumer goods started to become more available by the 1960s.[167] Before the Eastern Bloc's dissolution, some major sectors of industry were operating at such a loss that they exported products to the West at prices below the real value of the raw materials.[222] Hungarian steel costs doubled those of western Europe.[222] In 1985, a quarter of Hungary's state budget was spent on supporting inefficient enterprises.[222] Tight planning in Bulgaria industry meant continuing shortages in other parts of its economy.[222] Development policies[edit]

East German
East German
Plattenbau
Plattenbau
apartment blocks.

In social terms, the 18 years (1964–1982) of Brezhnev's leadership saw real incomes grow more than 1.5 times. More than 1.6 thousand million square metres of living space were commissioned and provided to over 160 million people. At the same time, the average rent for families did not exceed 3% of the family income. There was unprecedented affordability of housing, health care, and education.[173] In a survey by the Sociological Research Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1986, 75% of those surveyed said that they were better off than the previous ten years. Over 95% of Soviet adults considered themselves "fairly well off". 55% of those surveyed felt that medical services improved, 46% believed public transportation had improved, and 48% said that the standard of services provided public service establishments had risen.[223] During the years 1957–65 housing policy underwent several institutional changes with industrialisation and urbanisation had not been matched by an increase in housing after World War II.[224] Housing shortages in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were worse than in the rest of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
due to a larger migration to the towns and more wartime devastation, and were worsened by Stalin's pre-war refusals to invest properly in housing.[224] Because such investment was generally not enough to sustain the existing population, apartments had to be subdivided into increasingly smaller units, resulting in several families sharing an apartment previously meant for one family.[224] The prewar norm became one Soviet family per room, with the toilets and kitchen shared.[224] The amount of living space in urban areas fell from 5.7 square metres per person in 1926 to 4.5 square metres in 1940.[224] In the rest of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
during this time period, the average number of people per room was 1.8 in Bulgaria (1956), 2.0 in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1961), 1.5 in Hungary (1963), 1.7 in Poland (1960), 1.4 in Romania (1966), 2.4 in Yugoslavia (1961), and 0.9 in 1961 in East Germany.[224] After Stalin's death in 1953, forms of an economic "New Course" brought a revival of private house construction.[224] Private construction peaked in 1957–1960 in many Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries and then declined simultaneously along with a steep increase in state and co-operative housing.[224] By 1960, the rate of house-building per head had picked up in all countries in the Eastern Bloc.[224] Between 1950 and 1975, worsening shortages were generally caused by a fall in the proportion of all investment made housing.[225] However, during that period the total number of dwellings increased.[226] During the last fifteen years of this period (1960 to 1975), an emphasis was made for a supply side solution, which assumed that industrialised building methods and high rise housing would be cheaper and quicker than traditional brick-built, low-rise housing.[226] Such methods required manufacturing organisations to produce the prefabricated components and organisations to assemble them on site, both of which planners assumed would employ large numbers of unskilled workers-with powerful political contacts.[226] The lack of participation of eventual customers, the residents, constituted one factor in escalating construction costs and poor quality work.[227] This led to higher demolition rates and higher costs to repair poorly constructed dwellings.[227] In addition, because of poor quality work, a black market arose for building services and materials that could not be procured from state monopolies.[227] In most countries, completions (new dwellings constructed) rose to a high point between 1975 and 1980 and then fell, as a result presumably of worsening international economic conditions.[228] This occurred in Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Romania (with an earlier peak in 1960 also), Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, while the Soviet Union peaked in 1960 and 1970.[228] While between 1975 and 1986, the proportion of investment devoted to housing actually rose in most of the Eastern Bloc, general economic conditions resulted in total investment amounts falling or becoming stagnant.[225] The employment of socialist ideology in housing policy declined in the 1980s, which accompanied a shift in authorities looking at the need of residents to an examination of potential residents' ability to pay.[225] Yugoslavia was unique in that it continuously mixed private and state sources of housing finance, stressed self-managed building co-operatives along with central government controls.[225] Shortages[edit] The initial year that shortages were effectively measured and shortages in 1986 were as follows:[229]

Housing shortages in the Eastern Bloc

Country Initial Year Initial Year Shortage % of Total Stock 1986 Shortage 1986 % of Total Stock

Albania n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Bulgaria 1965 472,000 23.0% 880,400 27.4%

Hungary 1973 6,000 0.2% 257,000 6.6%

East Germany 1971 340,000 5.6% 1,181,700 17.1%

Poland 1974 1,357,000 15.9% 2,574,800 23.9%

Romania 1966 575,000 11.0% 1,157,900 14.0%

Soviet Union 1970 13,690,000 23.1% 26,662,400 30.2%

Czechoslovakia 1970 438,000 9.9% 877,600 15.3%

Yugoslavia n/a n/a n/a 1,634,700 23.9%

These are official housing figures and may be low. For example, in the Soviet Union, the figure of 26,662,400 in 1986 almost certainly underestimates shortages for the reason that it does not count shortages from large Soviet rural-urban migration; another calculation estimates shortages to be 59,917,900.[230] By the late 1980s, Poland had an average 20-year wait time for housing, while Warsaw
Warsaw
had between a 26- and 50-year wait time.[142][222] In the Soviet Union, widespread illegal subletting occurred at exorbitant rates.[231] Toward the end of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
allegations of misallocations and illegal distribution of housing were raised in Soviet CPSU
CPSU
Central Committee meetings.[231] In Poland, housing problems were caused by slow rates of construction, poor home quality (which was even more pronounced in villages), and a large black market.[133] In Romania, social engineering policy and concern about the use of agricultural land forced high densities and high-rise housing designs.[232] In Bulgaria, a prior emphasis on monolithic high-rise housing lessened somewhat in the 1970s and 1980s.[232] In the Soviet Union, housing was perhaps the primary social problem.[232] While Soviet housing construction rates were high, quality was poor and demolition rates were high, in part because of an inefficient building industry and lack of both quality and quantity of construction materials.[232] East German
East German
housing suffered from a lack of quality and a lack of skilled labor, with a shortage of materials, plot and permits.[172] In staunchly Stalinist Albania, housing blocks (panelka) were spartan, with six story walk-ups being the most frequent design.[172] Housing was allocated by workplace trade unions and built by voluntary labor organised into brigades within the workplace.[172] Yugoslavia suffered from fast urbanisation, uncoordinated development and poor organisation resulting from a lack of hierarchical structure and clear accountability, low building productivity, the monopoly position of building enterprises, and irrational credit policies.[172] Revolts[edit] 1953 East Germany
East Germany
uprising[edit] Main article: Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Three months after the death of Joseph Stalin, a dramatic increase of emigration (Republikflucht, brain drain) occurred from East Germany
East Germany
in the first half-year of 1953. Large numbers of East Germans traveled west through the only "loophole" left in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration restrictions, the Berlin sector border.[233] The East German government then raised "norms" – the amount each worker was required to produce—by 10%.[233] Already disaffected East Germans, who could see the relative economic successes of West Germany
West Germany
within Berlin, became enraged.[233] Angry building workers initiated street protests, and were soon joined by others in a march to the Berlin trade union headquarters.[233] While no official spoke to them at that location, by 2:00 pm, the East German
East German
government agreed to withdraw the "norm" increases.[234] However, the crisis had already escalated such that the demands were now political, including free elections, disbanding the army and resignation of the government.[234] By 17 June, strikes were recorded in 317 locations involving approximately 400,000 workers.[234] When strikers set ruling SED party buildings aflame and tore the flag from the Brandenburg Gate, SED General Secretary Walter Ulbricht
Walter Ulbricht
left Berlin.[234] A major emergency was declared and the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
stormed some important buildings.[234] With hours, Soviet tanks arrived, but they did not immediately fire upon all workers.[234] Rather, a gradual pressure was applied.[234] Approximately 16 Soviet divisions with 20,000 soldiers from the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany
Germany
using tanks, as well as 8,000 Kasernierte Volkspolizei
Volkspolizei
members, were employed. Bloodshed could not be entirely avoided, with the official death toll standing at 21, while the actual casualty toll may have been much higher.[234] Thereafter, 20,000 arrests took place along with 40 executions.[234] Hungarian Revolution of 1956[edit] Main article: Hungarian Revolution of 1956 After Stalin's 1953 death, a period of de-Stalinization followed, with reformist Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
replacing Hungarian Stalinist dictator Mátyás Rákosi.[235] Responding to popular demand, in October 1956, the Polish government appointed the recently rehabilitated reformist Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
as First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, with a mandate to negotiate trade concessions and troop reductions with the Soviet government. After a few tense days of negotiations, on 19 October, the Soviets finally gave in to Gomułka's reformist requests.[236] The revolution began after students of the Technical University compiled a list of Demands of Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1956 and conducted protests in support of the demands on 22 October.[237] Protests of support swelled to 200,000 by 6 pm the following day,[238][239] The demands included free secret ballot elections, independent tribunals, inquiries into Stalin and Rákosi Hungarian activities and that "the statue of Stalin, symbol of Stalinist tyranny and political oppression, be removed as quickly as possible." By 9:30 pm the statue was toppled (see photo to the right) and jubilant crowds celebrated by placing Hungarian flags in Stalin's boots, which was all that remained the statue.[239] The ÁVH
ÁVH
was called, Hungarian soldiers sided with the crowd over the ÁVH
ÁVH
and shots were fired on the crowd.[240][241] By 2 am on 24 October, under orders of Soviet defense minister Georgy Zhukov, Soviet tanks entered Budapest.[242] Protester attacks at the Parliament forced the dissolution of the government.[243] A ceasefire was arranged on 28 October, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrisons in the Hungarian countryside.[244] Fighting had virtually ceased between 28 October and 4 November, while many Hungarians believed that Soviet military units were indeed withdrawing from Hungary.[245] The new government that came to power during the revolution formally disbanded ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. The Soviet Politburo thereafter moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country.[246] The last pocket of resistance called for ceasefire on 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 722 Soviet troops were killed and thousands more were wounded.[247][248] Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union, many without evidence.[249] Approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary,[250] some 26,000 Hungarians were put on trial by the new Soviet-installed János Kádár
János Kádár
government, and of those, 13,000 were imprisoned.[251] Imre Nagy
Imre Nagy
was executed, along with Pál Maléter and Miklós Gimes, after secret trials in June 1958. Their bodies were placed in unmarked graves in the Municipal Cemetery outside Budapest.[252] By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. Prague Spring
Prague Spring
and the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia[edit] Main articles: Prague Spring
Prague Spring
and Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia A period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
called the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
took place in 1968. The event was spurred by several events, including economic reforms that addressed an early 1960s economic downturn.[253][254] The event began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Slovak Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
came to power. In April, Dubček launched an "Action Program" of liberalizations, which included increasing freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of movement, along with an economic emphasis on consumer goods, the possibility of a multiparty government and limiting the power of the secret police.[255][256] Initial reaction within the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
was mixed, with Hungary's János Kádár
János Kádár
expressing support, while Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and others grew concerned about Dubček's reforms, which they feared might weaken the Eastern Bloc's position during the Cold War.[257][258] On 3 August, representatives from the Soviet Union, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
met in Bratislava
Bratislava
and signed the Bratislava
Bratislava
Declaration, which affirmed unshakable fidelity to Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
and proletarian internationalism and declared an implacable struggle against "bourgeois" ideology and all "anti-socialist" forces.[259]

Czechoslovaks carry their national flag past a burning Soviet tank in Prague.

On the night of 20–21 August 1968, Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
armies from five Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
countries – the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Bulgaria — invaded Czechoslovakia.[260][261] The invasion comported with the Brezhnev Doctrine, a policy of compelling Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
states to subordinate national interests to those of the Bloc as a whole and the exercise of a Soviet right to intervene if an Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
country appeared to shift towards capitalism.[262][263] The invasion was followed by a wave of emigration, including an estimated 70,000 Czechoslovaks initially fleeing, with the total eventually reaching 300,000.[264] In April 1969, Dubček was replaced as first secretary by Gustáv Husák, and a period of "normalization" began.[265] Husák reversed Dubček's reforms, purged the party of liberal members, dismissed opponents from public office, reinstated the power of the police authorities, sought to re-centralize the economy and re-instated the disallowance of political commentary in mainstream media and by persons not considered to have "full political trust".[266][267] Dissolution[edit] Further information: Revolutions of 1989, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, January 1991 events in Latvia, Singing Revolution, Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts, Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria, and European integration During the late 1980s, the weakened Soviet Union
Soviet Union
gradually stopped interfering in the internal affairs of Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
nations and numerous independence movements took place. Following the Brezhnev stagnation, the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
in 1985 signaled the trend towards greater liberalization. Gorbachev rejected the Brezhnev Doctrine, which held that Moscow would intervene if socialism were threatened in any state.[268] He announced what was jokingly called the "Sinatra Doctrine" after the singer's "My Way", to allow the countries of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
to determine their own internal affairs during this period. Gorbachev initiated a policy of glasnost (openness) in the Soviet Union, and emphasized the need for perestroika (economic restructuring). The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was struggling economically after the long war in Afghanistan and did not have the resources to control Central and Eastern Europe. In 1989, a wave of revolutions, sometimes called the "Autumn of Nations",[269] swept across the Eastern Bloc.[270] Major reforms occurred in Hungary following the replacement of János Kádár as General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1988.[271] In Poland in April 1989, the Solidarity organization was legalized and allowed to participate in parliamentary elections. It captured 99% of available parliamentary seats.[272] On 9 November 1989, following mass protests in East Germany
East Germany
and the relaxing of border restrictions in Czechoslovakia, tens of thousands of Eastern Berliners flooded checkpoints along the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
and crossed into West Berlin.[273] The wall was torn down and Germany
Germany
was eventually reunified. In Bulgaria, the day after the mass crossings through the Berlin Wall, the leader Todor Zhivkov
Todor Zhivkov
was ousted by his Politburo
Politburo
and replaced with Petar Mladenov.[274] In Czechoslovakia, following protests of an estimated half-million Czechs and Slovaks demanding freedoms and a general strike, the authorities, which had allowed travel to the West, abolished provisions guaranteeing the ruling Communist party
Communist party
its leading role.[275] President Gustáv Husák
Gustáv Husák
appointed the first largely non-Communist government in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
since 1948, and resigned, in what was called the Velvet Revolution.[275] Romania had not had any de-Stalinization. Following growing public protests, president Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
ordered a mass rally in his support outside Communist Party headquarters in Bucharest. But mass protests against Ceauşescu proceeded.[276] The Romanian military sided with protesters and turned on Ceauşescu. They executed him after a brief trial three days later.[277] Even before the Bloc's last years, all of the countries in the Warsaw Pact did not always act as a unified bloc. For instance, the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
was condemned by Romania, which refused to take part in it. See also[edit]

Eastern European Group Eurasian Economic Union Post-Soviet states Second World Soviet Empire Soviet occupations Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc Western betrayal

Europe portal

References[edit]

^ a b c Hirsch, Donald; Kett, Joseph F.; Trefil, James S. (2002), The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, p. 316, ISBN 0-618-22647-8, Eastern Bloc. The name applied to the former communist states of eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia and Albania, as well as the countries of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact  ^ Satyendra, Kush (2003), Encyclopaedic dictionary of political science, Sarup & Sons, p. 65, ISBN 81-7890-071-8, the countries of Eastern Europe under communism  ^ Compare: Janzen, Jörg; Taraschewski, Thomas (2009). Shahshahānī, Suhaylā, ed. Cities of Pilgrimage. Iuaes-series. 4. Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 190. ISBN 9783825816186. Retrieved 2012-12-21. Until 1990, despite being a formally independent state, Mongolia had de facto been an integral part of the Soviet dominated Eastern Bloc.  ^ Satyendra, Kush, Encyclopaedic dictionary of political science, Sarup & Sons, 2003, ISBN 81-7890-071-8, page 65 ^ Teichova, Alice; Herbert, Matis (2003), Nation, state, and the economy in history, Cambridge University Press, p. 150, ISBN 978-0-521-79278-3, Within the Eastern Bloc, Poland, Yugoslavia and Hungary tended to be reformist and deviated most from the rigid Soviet model  ^ Cook, Bernard (2001), Europe since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Garland, p. 897, In the Eastern Bloc, only Yugoslavia, alongside efforts to eradicate or at least degrade previously existing nationalisms, made the gallant attempt to both foster a new nationalism and a new identify, that of being a Yugoslav.  ^ Ahonen, Pertti (2003), After the Expulsion: West Germany
West Germany
and Eastern Europe, 1945–1990, Oxford University Press, p. 212, The other Eastern bloc states – except Romania's fellow mavericks Albania and Yugoslavia – reacted to the breakthrough between Bonn and Bucharest by coordinating their own stances towards the Federal Republic.  ^ White, N. D. (1990), The United Nations and the maintenance of international peace and security, Manchester University Press, p. 183, ISBN 0-7190-3227-X, Nevertheless, the Eastern Bloc countries, including Albania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, argued that UNSCOB had been constituted illegally  ^ Library of Congress (1980), The Quarterly journal of the Library of Congress, 37, Library of Congress, 80 Yugoslavia is perhaps the most international of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries.  ^ Ryan, James; Mastrini, Hana; Baker, Mark (2009), Eastern Europe, John Wiley and Sons, p. 651, ISBN 0-470-39908-2, Tito played his cards right and – unlike other Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries – Yugoslavia enjoyed a fairly open relationship with the rest of the world  ^ Stanilov, Kiril (2007), The post-socialist city: urban form and space transformations in Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
after socialism, Springer, p. 362, ISBN 1-4020-6052-1, During the socialist period, Yugoslavia was marked by a system of socialist self-management, which place greater importance not he development of market-type relations in the economy than any of the other socialist countries of Europe. This strategy was a significant factor in achieving a higher standard of living and a lower level of under-urbanization compared to other members of the Eastern Bloc.  ^ Hawkesworth, M. E.; Paynter, John (1992), Encyclopedia of government and politics, Routledge, p. 1244, ISBN 0415072255, The processes of change in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
affected Yugoslavia as well, although this country, having been outside the bloc since 1948, had evolved specific political, economic and federal systems of its own.  ^ Whincop, Michael J., Corporate Governance in Government Corporations, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005, ISBN 0-7546-2276-2, page 43 ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand Joseph Maria, Russian law: the end of the Soviet system and the role of law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2358-0, page 63 ^ Ludlow, N. Piers, European integration
European integration
and the Cold War: Ostpolitik-Westpolitik, 1965–1973, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0-415-42109-8, page 37, 39 ^ Ahonen, Pertti, After the expulsion: West Germany
West Germany
and Eastern Europe, 1945–1990, Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-19-925989-5, page 125-126 & 183 ^ Zwass, Adam,Globalization of Unequal National Economies: Players and Controversies, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, ISBN 0-7656-0731-X, page 214 ^ Loth, Wilfried, The Division of the World, 1941–1955: 1941–1955, Routledge, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00365-2, page 297 ^ Haggett, Peter, Encyclopedia of World Geography, Marshall Cavendish, 2001, ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, page 1850 ^ Rees, G. Wyn International politics in Europe: the new agenda, Routledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-08282-X, page 6 ^ Skinner, Kiron F., The strategy of campaigning: lessons from Ronald Reagan & Boris Yeltsin, University of Michigan Press, 2007, ISBN 0-472-11627-4, page 137-8 ^ Julian Towster. Political Power in the U.S.S.R., 1917–1947: The Theory and Structure of Government in the Soviet State Oxford Univ. Press, 1948. p. 106 ^ Tucker 1992, p. 46 ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, 2008 ^ a b Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, executed 23 August 1939 ^ Christie, Kenneth, Historical Injustice and Democratic Transition in Eastern Asia and Northern Europe: Ghosts at the Table of Democracy, RoutledgeCurzon, 2002, ISBN 0-7007-1599-1 ^ Roberts 2006, p. 43 ^ Sanford, George (2005), Katyn and the Soviet Massacre Of 1940: Truth, Justice And Memory, London, New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-33873-5  ^ Nekrich, Ulam & Freeze 1997, p. 131 ^ various authors (1998), Adam Sudol, ed., Sowietyzacja Kresów Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej po 17 wrzesnia 1939 (in Polish), Bydgoszcz: Wyzsza Szkola Pedagogiczna, p. 441, ISBN 83-7096-281-5  ^ various authors (2001), "Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies", in Myron Weiner, Sharon Stanton Russell, Demography and National Security, Berghahn Books, pp. 308–315, ISBN 1-57181-339-X  ^ The Soviets organized staged elections,(in Polish) Bartlomiej Kozlowski Wybory" do Zgromadzen Ludowych Zachodniej Ukrainy i Zachodniej Bialorusi Archived 23 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine., NASK, 2005, Polska.pl, the result of which was to become a legitimization of Soviet annexation of eastern Poland. Jan Tomasz Gross, Revolution from Abroad, Princeton University Press, 2003, page 396 ISBN 0-691-09603-1 ^ Soviet authorities attempted to erase Polish history and culture, Trela-Mazur, Elzbieta, Sowietyzacja oswiaty w Malopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecka okupacja 1939–1941 ( Sovietization of Education in Eastern Lesser Poland During the Soviet Occupation 1939–1941), ed. Wlodzimierz Bonusiak, et al. (eds.), Wyzsza Szkola Pedagogiczna im. Jana Kochanowskiego, 1997, ISBN 978-83-7133-100-8 ^ Soviet authorities withdrew the Polish currency without exchanging rubles,(in Polish), Karolina Lanckoronska
Karolina Lanckoronska
Wspomnienia wojenne; 22 IX 1939 – 5 IV 1945, 2001, ed, page 364, Chapter I – Lwów, ZNAK, ISBN 83-240-0077-1 ^ (in Polish) Encyklopedia PWN, "OKUPACJA SOWIECKA W POLSCE 1939–41", last accessed on 1 March 2006, online[permanent dead link], Polish language ^ Piotrowski 2007, p. 11 ^ Soviet authorities regarded service for the pre-war Polish state as a "crime against revolution" Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, A World Apart: Imprisonment in a Soviet Labor Camp During World War II, 1996, page 284, Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-025184-7 and "counter-revolutionary activity",(in Polish) Władysław Anders, Bez ostatniego rozdzialu, 1995, page 540, Test, ISBN 83-7038-168-5 and subsequently started arresting large numbers of Polish citizens. ^ During the initial Soviet invasion of Poland, between 230,000 to 450,000 Poles were taken as prisoner, some of which were executed (see also Katyn massacre).Sanford, Google Books, p. 20-24.; Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000; Stalin's Killing Field Archived 9 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 20 ^ Senn, Alfred Erich, Lithuania
Lithuania
1940 : revolution from above, Amsterdam, New York, Rodopi, 2007 ISBN 978-90-420-2225-6 ^ 34,250 Latvians, 75,000 Lithuanians and almost 60,000 Estonians were deported or killed. Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, page 334 ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 21 ^ Furthermore, the Latvian results are known to be complete fabrications, having been accidentally released to the press in London and published a day ahead of schedule. Visvaldis, Mangulis, Latvia in the Wars of the 20th century, 1983, Princeton Junction: Cognition Books, ISBN 0-912881-00-3, Chapter=VIII. September 1939 to June 1941; Švābe, Arvīds. The Story of Latvia. Latvian National Foundation. Stockholm. 1949. Feldbrugge, Ferdinand et al., Encyclopedia of Soviet Law, 1985, Brill, ISBN 90-247-3075-9, page 460 ^ Smith et al. 2002, p. xix ^ O'Connor 2003, p. 117 ^ a b Kennedy-Pip, Caroline (1995), Stalin's Cold War, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-4201-1  ^ a b Roberts 2006, p. 55 ^ Shirer 1990, p. 794 ^ The occupation accompanied religious persecution during the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
and Soviet deportations from Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina. ^ Miscamble 2007, p. 51 ^ Miscamble 2007, p. 52 ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 44 ^ a b c d Roberts 2006, p. 241 & 244 ^ Wettig 2008, pp. 47–8 ^ a b 11 February 1945 Potsdam Report, reprinted in Potsdam Ashley, John, Soames Grenville and Bernard Wasserstein, The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts, Taylor & Francis, 2001 ISBN 0-415-23798-X ^ Roberts 2006, pp. 274–78 ^ a b Wettig 2008, pp. 90–1 ^ a b c d e f Wettig 2008, p. 37 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 211 ^ a b c d Wettig 2008, p. 36 ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 38 ^ a b Wettig 2008, p. 39 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 41 ^ Miller 2000, p. 16 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 139 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 138 ^ "Carnations – TIME". TIME. 9 February 1948. Retrieved 1 February 2009.  ^ a b Bideleux, Robert and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16111-8 ^ a b c d Wettig 2008, p. 148 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 149 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 140 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 33 ^ Turner 1987, p. 19 ^ Miller 2000, pp. 65–70 ^ Turner 1987, p. 29 ^ Fritsch-Bournazel, Renata, Confronting the German Question: Germans on the East-West Divide, Berg Publishers, 1990, ISBN 0-85496-684-6, page 143 ^ Gaddis 2005, p. 34 ^ Miller 2000, pp. 180–81 ^ a b c d e f g Wettig 2008, p. 156 ^ a b c d e f Wettig 2008, p. 157 ^ Wettig 2008, p. 158 ^ a b c Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 11 ^ Wettig 2008, pp. 108–9 ^ a b c d Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 12 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 246 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 244 ^ a b Crampton 1997, p. 245 ^ a b Hardt & Kaufman 1995, p. 18 ^ a b c Wettig 2008, p. 40 ^ a b c d Pollack & Wielgohs 2004, p. xiv ^ Pollack & Wielgohs 2004, p. xv ^ a b c Crampton 1997, p. 247 ^ a b O'Neil 1997, p. 15 ^ a b c O'Neil 1997, p. 125 ^ a b O'Neil 1997, p. 1 ^ Hobby, Jeneen (2009). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life: Europe. Gate. ISBN 1-4144-6430-4.  ^ President of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag
Gulag
a Biography of Aleksandras Stulginskis
Aleksandras Stulginskis
by Afonsas Eidintas Genocide and Research Center of Lithuania
Lithuania
ISBN 9986-757-41-X / 9789986757412 / 9986-757-41-X pg 23 "As early as August 1920 Lenin
Lenin
wrote to E. M. Skliansky, President of the Revolutionary War Soviet: "We are surrounded by the greens (we pack it to them), we will move only about 10-20 versty and we will choke by hand the bourgeoisie, the clergy and the landowners. There will be an award of 100,000 rubles for each one hanged." He was speaking about the future actions in the countries neighboring Russia. ^ Christ Is Calling You : A Course in Catacomb Pastorship by Father George Calciu Published by Saint Hermans Press April 1997 ISBN 978-1-887904-52-0 ^ Germany
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(East), Library of Congress Country Study, Appendix B: The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance ^ a b Crampton 1997, p. 240 ^ a b Turnock 1997, p. 26 ^ a b c Turnock 1997, p. 27 ^ a b c Michta & Mastny 1992, p. 31 ^ Michta & Mastny 1992, p. 32 ^ a b c d e Crampton 1997, pp. 312–3 ^ Cook 2001, p. 18 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 378 ^ Dowty 1989, p. 68 ^ a b Dowty 1989, p. 69 ^ Dowty 1989, p. 70 ^ a b Dowty 1989, p. 114 ^ Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Familie und Frauen, Statistik Spätaussiedler Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Bundesgebiet Bayern, Dezember 2007, p.3 (in German) ^ Loescher 2001, p. 60 ^ Loescher 2001, p. 68 ^ Dale 2005, p. 17 ^ a b Harrison 2003, p. 99 ^ Dowty 1989, p. 121 ^ Dowty 1989, p. 122 ^ Pearson 1998, p. 75 ^ a b c Böcker 1998, p. 209 ^ Krasnov 1985, p. 1&126 ^ Krasnov 1985, p. 2 ^ "Г.А.Зюганов. Система вымирания. Лидер КПРФ анализирует безрадостные итоги правления Путина. Демографическая проблема отражает все недуги общества". Kprf.ru. 2008-04-13. Retrieved 2013-11-19.  ^ a b Sillince 1990, p. 35 ^ Frucht 2003, p. 851 ^ a b Turnock 1997, p. 17 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 355 ^ Turnock 1997, p. 15 ^ Andreev, E.M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 978-5-02-013479-9 ^ Sillince 1990, p. 1 ^ a b c d e f g h i Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 475 ^ Philipsen 1993, p. 9 ^ a b c Sillince 1990, p. 2 ^ a b c d Turnock 1997, p. 54 ^ a b c d Sillince 1990, p. 18 ^ Sillince 1990, pp. 19–20 ^ "Központi Statisztikai Hivatal". www.nepszamlalas.hu.  ^ a b c d Sillince 1990, p. 14 ^ Pugh 1990, p. 135[not specific enough to verify][dead link] ^ " Germany
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Sharpe, 1994, ISBN 978-1-56324-287-8, page 162 ^ Nagengast, Carole, Reluctant Socialists, Rural Entrepreneurs: Class, Culture, and the Polish State, Westview Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-8133-8053-7, page 85 ^ a b c Bugajski & Pollack 1989, p. 189[citation not found] ^ Graubard 1991, p. 130 ^ Frucht 2003, p. 204 ^ a b Bugajski & Pollack 1989, p. 188[citation not found] ^ a b Bugajski & Pollack 1989, p. 190[citation not found] ^ a b c d e f Frucht 2003, p. 144 ^ a b c Turnock 1997, p. 34 ^ a b c d e f Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 473 ^ O'Connor 2003, p. xx-xxi ^ Aleksandr Andreevich Guber. USSR: Intensified Economy and Progress in Science and Technology. Novosti Press Agency Publishing House, 1985. p.14 ^ Yearbook the USSR. Novosti Press Agency Publishing House, 1982. p.174 ^ "The world's first nuclear power plant built in Obninsk Image galleries RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 2013-11-19.  ^ "Sergey A. Lebedev". Computer.org. 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CC Presidium Meeting with Satellite Leaders, 24 October 1956" (PDF). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, A History in Documents. George Washington University: The National Security Archive. 4 November 2002. Retrieved 2 September 2006.  ^ Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Resolution by students of the Building Industry Technological University: Sixteen Political, Economic, and Ideological Points, Budapest, 22 October 1956. Retrieved 22 October 2006. ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II. A (Meetings and demonstrations), para 54 (p. 19)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ a b UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II. C (The First Shots), para 55 (p. 20)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II. C (The First Shots), para 56 (p. 20)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary 1956 (1957) "Chapter II. C (The First Shots), paragraphs 56–57 (p. 20)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II.C, para 58 (p. 20)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II.F, para 65 (p. 22)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ UN General Assembly Special
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Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II. F (Political Developments) II. G (Mr. Nagy clarifies his position), paragraphs 67–70 (p. 23)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ Video: Revolt in Hungary "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 2016-02-08.  Narrator: Walter Cronkite, producer: CBS (1956) - Fonds 306, Audiovisual Materials Relating to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, OSA Archivum, Budapest, Hungary ID number: HU OSA 306-0-1:40 ^ UN General Assembly Special
Special
Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter IV. E (Logistical deployment of new Soviet troops), para 181 (p. 56)" (PDF).  (1.47 MB) ^ Mark Kramer, "The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the 1956 Crises in Hungary and Poland: Reassessments and New Findings", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol.33, No.2, April 1998, p.210. ^ Péter Gosztonyi, "Az 1956-os forradalom számokban", Népszabadság (Budapest), 3 November 1990. ^ "Report by Soviet Deputy Interior Minister M. N. Holodkov to Interior Minister N. P. Dudorov (15 November 1956)" (PDF). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, A History in Documents. George Washington University: The National Security Archive. 4 November 2002. Retrieved 2 September 2006.  ^ Cseresnyés, Ferenc (Summer 1999), "The '56 Exodus to Austria", The Hungarian Quarterly, Society of the Hungarian Quarterly, XL (154): 86–101, archived from the original on 27 November 2004, retrieved 9 October 2006.  ^ Molnár, Adrienne; Kõrösi Zsuzsanna (1996). "The handing down of experiences in families of the politically condemned in Communist Hungary". IX. International Oral History Conference. Gotegorg. pp. 1169–1166. Retrieved 10 October 2008.  ^ "On This Day 16 June 1989: Hungary reburies fallen hero Imre Nagy" British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) reports on Nagy reburial with full honors. Retrieved 13 October 2006. ^ "Photius.com, (info from CIA world Factbook)". Photius Coutsoukis. Retrieved 20 January 2008.  ^ Williams 1997, p. 5 ^ Ello (ed.), Paul (April 1968). Control Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, "Action Plan of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(Prague, April 1968)" in Dubcek’s Blueprint for Freedom: His original documents leading to the invasion of Czechoslovakia. William Kimber & Co. 1968, pp 32, 54 ^ Von Geldern, James; Siegelbaum, Lewis. "The Soviet-led Intervention in Czechoslovakia". Soviethistory.org. Archived from the original on 17 August 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2008.  ^ "Document #81: Transcript of Leonid Brezhnev's Telephone Conversation with Alexander Dubček, August 13, 1968". The Prague Spring '68. The Prague Spring
Prague Spring
Foundation. 1998. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Navrátil 2006, pp. 36 & 172–181 ^ Navrátil 2006, pp. 326–329 ^ Ouimet, Matthew (2003), The Rise and Fall of the Brezhnev Doctrine in Soviet Foreign Policy, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London, pp. 34–35  ^ "Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia". Military. GlobalSecurity.org. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2007.  ^ Grenville 2005, p. 780 ^ Chafetz, Glenn (30 April 1993), Gorbachev, Reform, and the Brezhnev Doctrine: Soviet Policy Toward Eastern Europe, 1985–1990, Praeger Publishers, p. 10, ISBN 0-275-94484-0  ^ Čulík, Jan. "Den, kdy tanky zlikvidovaly české sny Pražského jara". Britské Listy. Retrieved 23 January 2008.  ^ Williams 1997, p. xi ^ Goertz 1995, pp. 154–157 ^ Williams 1997, p. 164 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 338 ^ See various uses of this term in the following publications. The term is a play on a more widely used term for 1848 revolutions, the Spring of Nations. ^ E. Szafarz, "The Legal Framework for Political Cooperation in Europe" in The Changing Political Structure of Europe: Aspects of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-1379-8. p.221. ^ Crampton 1997, p. 381 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 392 ^ Crampton 1997, pp. 394–5 ^ Crampton 1997, pp. 395–6 ^ a b Crampton 1997, p. 398 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 399 ^ Crampton 1997, p. 400

Works cited[edit]

Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2007), A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-36626-7  Black, Cyril E.; English, Robert D.; Helmreich, Jonathan E.; McAdams, James A. (2000), Rebirth: A Political History of Europe since World War II, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-3664-3  Böcker, Anita (1998), Regulation of Migration: International Experiences, Het Spinhuis, ISBN 90-5589-095-2  Cook, Bernard A. (2001), Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8153-4057-5  Crampton, R. J. (1997), Eastern Europe in the twentieth century and after, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-16422-2  Dale, Gareth (2005), Popular Protest in East Germany, 1945–1989: Judgements on the Street, Routledge, ISBN 0714654086  Dowty, Alan (1989), Closed Borders: The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-04498-4  Frucht, Richard C. (2003), Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 0-203-80109-1  Gaddis, John Lewis (2005), The Cold War: A New History, Penguin Press, ISBN 1-59420-062-9  Goertz, Gary (1995), Contexts of International Politics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-46972-4  Grenville, John Ashley Soames (2005), A History of the World from the 20th to the 21st Century, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-28954-8  Graubard, Stephen R. (1991), Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Europe, Westview Press, ISBN 978-0-8133-1189-0  Hardt, John Pearce; Kaufman, Richard F. (1995), East-Central European Economies in Transition, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-612-0  Harrison, Hope Millard (2003), Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet- East German
East German
Relations, 1953–1961, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-09678-3  Krasnov, Vladislav (1985), Soviet Defectors: The KGB
KGB
Wanted List, Hoover Press, ISBN 0-8179-8231-0  Laqueur, Walter (1994), The dream that failed: reflections on the Soviet Union, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510282-7  Lipschitz, Leslie; McDonald, Donogh (1990), German unification: economic issues, International Monetary Fund, ISBN 1-55775-200-1  Loescher, Gil (2001), The UNHCR and World Politics: A Perilous Path, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-829716-5  Michta, Andrew A.; Mastny, Vojtech (1992), East Central Europe after the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact: Security Dilemmas in the 1990s, Greenwood Press, ISBN 92-64-02261-9  Miller, Roger Gene (2000), To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948–1949, Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 0-89096-967-1  Miscamble, Wilson D. (2007), From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-86244-2  Navrátil, Jaromír (2006), The Prague Spring
Prague Spring
1968: A National Security Archive Document Reader (National Security Archive Cold War Readers), Central European University Press, ISBN 963-7326-67-7  Nekrich, Aleksandr Moiseevich; Ulam, Adam Bruno; Freeze, Gregory L. (1997), Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German–Soviet Relations, 1922–1941, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-10676-9  O'Connor, Kevin (2003), The history of the Baltic States, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32355-0  O'Neil, Patrick (1997), Post-communism and the Media in Eastern Europe, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-4765-9  Pearson, Raymond (1998), The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire, Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-17407-1  Philipsen, Dirk (1993), We were the people: voices from East Germany's revolutionary autumn of 1989, Duke University Press, ISBN 0-8223-1294-8  Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2007), Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-2913-4  Pollack, Detlef; Wielgohs, Jan (2004), Dissent and Opposition in Communist Eastern Europe: Origins of Civil Society and Democratic Transition, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN 0-7546-3790-5  Roberts, Geoffrey (2006), Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-11204-1  Shirer, William L. (1990), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-671-72868-7  Sillince, John (1990), Housing policies in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02134-0  Smith, David James; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Lane, Thomas (2002), The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-28580-1  Roht-Arriaza, Naomi (1995), Impunity and human rights in international law and practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508136-6  Teichova, Alice; Matis, Herbert (2003), Nation, State, and the Economy in History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79278-9  Tucker, Robert C. (1992), Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-30869-3  Turner, Henry Ashby (1987), The Two Germanies Since 1945: East and West, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03865-8  Turnock, David (1997), The East European economy in context: communism and transition, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-08626-4  Wettig, Gerhard (2008), Stalin and the Cold War
Cold War
in Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-5542-9  Williams, Kieran (1997), The Prague Spring
Prague Spring
and its Aftermath: Czechoslovak Politics, 1968–1970, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-58803-0 

Further reading[edit]

Applebaum, Anne (2012), Iron Curtain: the Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-56, Allen Lane  Beschloss, Michael R (2003), The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941–1945, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-6085-6  Berthon, Simon; Potts, Joanna (2007), Warlords: An Extraordinary Re-creation of World War II
World War II
Through the Eyes and Minds of Hitler, Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-81538-9  Brackman, Roman (2001), The Secret File
File
of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life, Frank Cass Publishers, ISBN 0-7146-5050-1  Ericson, Edward E. (1999), Feeding the German Eagle: Soviet Economic Aid to Nazi Germany, 1933–1941, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-96337-3  Gorodetsky, Gabriel (2001), Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300084595  Grenville, John Ashley Soames; Wasserstein, Bernard (2001), The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-23798-X  Grogin, Robert C. (2001), Natural Enemies: The United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the Cold War, 1917–1991, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0160-9  Lukacs, John (2006), June 1941: Hitler and Stalin, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-11437-0  Maddison, Angus (2006), The world economy, OECD Publishing, ISBN 92-64-02261-9  Murray, Williamson; Millett, Allan (2001), A War to be Won: Fighting the Second World
Second World
War, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-00680-1  Myant, Martin; Drahokoupil, Jan (2010), Transition Economies: Political Economy in Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-470-59619-7  Olsen, Neil (2000), Albania, Oxfam, ISBN 0-85598-432-5  Overy, R. J. (2004), The Dictators: Hitler's Germany
Germany
and Stalin's Russia, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-02030-4  Puddington, Arch (2003), Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War
Cold War
Triumph of Radio Free Europe
Radio Free Europe
and Radio Liberty, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-9045-2  Roberts, Geoffrey (2002), Stalin, the Pact with Nazi Germany, and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography, 4 (4)  Saxonberg, Steven (2001), The Fall: A Comparative Study of the End of Communism
Communism
in Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary and Poland, Routledge, ISBN 90-5823-097-X  Taagepera, Rein (1993), Estonia: Return to Independence, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-1703-7  Watry, David M. (2014), Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press  Wegner, Bernd (1997), From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the World, 1939–1941, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-57181-882-0  Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1995), A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-55879-4 

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"Photographs of Russia
Russia
in 1967". Archived from the original on 31 January 2008.  Candid photos of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
September–December 1991, in the last months of the USSR Photographic project "Eastern Bloc" "Eastern Bloc" examines the specificities and differences of living in totalitarian and post totalitarian countries. The project is divided into chapters, each dedicated to one of the Eastern European countries—Slovak Republic, Poland, ex-GDR, Hungary, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and ex-Yugoslavia. RFE/RL East German
East German
Subject Files Open Society Archives, Budapest The Lives of Others official website RFE Czechoslovak Unit Open Society Archives, Budapest Museum of occupations of Estonia – Project by the Kistler-Ritso Estonian Foundation Estonian International Commission for Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity Gallery of events from Poznań 1956 protests OSA Digital Archive Videos of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution RADIO FREE EUROPE Research, RAD Background Report/29: (Hungary) 20 October 1981, A CHRONOLOGY OF THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION, 23–4 October November 1956, compiled by RAD/Hungarian Section-Published accounts Chronology Of Events Leading To The 1968 Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Invasion Solidarity, Freedom and Economical Crisis in Poland, 1980–81 "The Berlin Airlift". American Experience. Retrieved 5 March 2007.  – A PBS site on the context and history of the Berlin Airlift. "1961 JFK speech clarifying limits of American protection during the 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis". Archived from the original on 19 February 2006.  "Berlin 1983: Berlin and the Wall in the early 1980s". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.  The Lives of Others official website The Lost Border: Photographs of the Iron Curtain "Symbols in Transition" Documentary film regarding the post-89 handling of the political symbols and buildings of eastern Europe

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist
Socialist
Republic Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic of Albania
People's Republic of Albania
(to 1961) People's Republic of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German
East German
uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

v t e

Leaders of the ruling Communist parties of the Eastern Bloc

Party of Labour of Albania

Enver Hoxha Ramiz Alia

Bulgarian Communist Party

Georgi Dimitrov Valko Chervenkov Todor Zhivkov Petar Mladenov

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Klement Gottwald Antonín Novotný Alexander Dubček Gustáv Husák Miloš Jakeš Karel Urbánek

Socialist
Socialist
Unity Party of Germany

Wilhelm Pieck Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker Egon Krenz

Hungarian Working People's Party Hungarian Socialist
Socialist
Workers' Party

Mátyás Rákosi Ernő Gerő János Kádár Károly Grósz

Polish Workers' Party Polish United Workers' Party

Bolesław Bierut Edward Ochab Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Stanisław Kania Wojciech Jaruzelski Mieczysław Rakowski

Romanian Communist Party

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe Apostol Nicolae Ceaușescu

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Josip Broz Tito (1980–1990, rotating leadership)

v t e

Secret police
Secret police
agencies in the Eastern Bloc

Gulag Iron Curtain Telephone tapping in the Eastern Bloc Berlin Wall Inner German border

Soviet Union

Extraordinary Commission (Cheka) State Political Directorate
State Political Directorate
(GPU) Joint State Political Directorate
State Political Directorate
(OGPU) People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) Main Directorate of State Security
Main Directorate of State Security
(GUGB) People's Commissariat for State Security
People's Commissariat for State Security
(NKGB) Ministry of State Security (MGB) Committee for State Security (KGB)

People's Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Albania

Directorate of State Security (Sigurimi)

People's Republic of Bulgaria

Committee for State Security (DS)

Czechoslovak Socialist
Socialist
Republic

State Security (StB)

German Democratic Republic

Ministry for State Security (Stasi)

Hungarian People's Republic

State Protection Authority
State Protection Authority
(ÁVH)

Polish People's Republic

Ministry of Public Security (MBP) Security Service (SB)

Socialist
Socialist
Republic of Romania

Department of State Security (Securitate)

Socialist
Socialist
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Department of National Security (OZNA) Department of State Security (UDBA) Counterintelligence Service (KOS)

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

State Intelligence Agency (KHAD)

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen- South Yemen
South Yemen
Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen
South Yemen
Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Joseph Stalin

History and politics

Overviews

Early life Russian Revolution, Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War Rise Rule as Soviet leader Cult of personality

Chronology

August Uprising Anti-religious campaign (1921–1928)/(1928–1941) Collectivization

Kolkhoz Sovkhoz

Chinese Civil War First five-year plan Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) 16th / 17th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) 1931 Menshevik Trial Spanish Civil War Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Soviet–Japanese border conflicts 1937 Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang 1937 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election 18th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact Invasion of Poland Winter War Moscow Peace Treaty Occupation of the Baltic states German–Soviet Axis talks Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact Continuation War World War II Soviet atomic bomb project Tehran Conference Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference Ili Rebellion Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance 1946 Iran crisis 1946 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election Turkish Straits crisis First Indochina War Cold War Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance
Alliance
and Mutual Assistance Eastern Bloc Cominform Greek Civil War 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin split Berlin Blockade Comecon 1950 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
legislative election 19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Korean War

Concepts

Stalinism Neo-Stalinism Korenizatsiya Socialism in One Country Great Break Socialist
Socialist
realism Stalinist architecture Aggravation of class struggle under socialism Five-year plans Great Construction Projects of Communism Engineers of the human soul 1936 Soviet Constitution New Soviet man Stakhanovite Transformation of nature

Controversies

National delimitation in the Soviet Union Demolition of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour Great Purge Holodomor Gulag Decossackization Dekulakization Population transfer (Nazi–Soviet) Forced settlement Great Break Tax on trees Hitler Youth Conspiracy Hotel Lux Wittorf affair Soviet war crimes Rootless cosmopolitan Night of the Murdered Poets Doctors' plot Moscow Trials Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization Allegations of antisemitism NKVD
NKVD
prisoner massacres Murder of Sergey Kirov Katyń massacre Medvedev Forest massacre 1937 Soviet Census Deportations ( Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina Koreans) Operation "North" Georgian Affair Mingrelian Affair Leningrad Affair Relationship with Shostakovich Lysenkoism Japhetic theory Suppressed research in the Soviet Union Censorship of images Operation "Lentil" in the Caucasus Operation "Priboi" Vinnytsia massacre Kurapaty 1946–1947 Soviet famine Nazino affair 1941 Red Army
Red Army
purge 1906 Bolshevik raid on the Tsarevich Giorgi 1907 Tiflis bank robbery Soviet offensive plans controversy

Works

"Marxism and the National Question" "The Principles of Leninism" "Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia" "Ten Blows" speech Alleged 19 August 1939 speech Falsifiers of History Stalin Note The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Bolsheviks) 1936 Soviet Constitution Stalin's poetry Dialectical and Historical Materialism Order No. 227 Order No. 270 "Marxism and Problems of Linguistics"

De-Stalinization

20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Pospelov Commission Rehabilitation Khrushchev Thaw On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences Gomulka thaw (Polish October) Soviet Nonconformist Art Shvernik Commission 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Era of Stagnation

Criticism and opposition

Stalin Epigram Lenin's Testament Ryutin Affair Anti-Stalinist left Trotskyism True Communists Russian Liberation Movement (Russian Liberation Army Russian Corps) Ukrainian Liberation Army Darkness at Noon Animal Farm Nineteen Eighty-Four Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism The Soviet Story

Remembrance

How the Steel Was Tempered Friends of the Soviet Union Iosif Stalin tank Iosif Stalin locomotive Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Stalin statues Pantheon, Moscow 1956 Georgian demonstrations Stalin Monument in Budapest Stalin Monument in Prague Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Museum, Gori Batumi Stalin Museum Places named after Stalin Yanks for Stalin Stalin Prize Stalin Peace Prize Stalin Society Stalin Bloc – For the USSR Name of Russia

Family

Besarion Jughashvili
Besarion Jughashvili
(father) Keke Geladze
Keke Geladze
(mother) Kato Svanidze
Kato Svanidze
(first wife) Yakov Dzhugashvili
Yakov Dzhugashvili
(son) Konstantin Kuzakov (son) Artyom Sergeyev (adopted son) Nadezhda Alliluyeva (second wife) Vasily Dzhugashvili
Vasily Dzhugashvili
(son) Svetlana Alliluyeva
Svetlana Alliluyeva
(daughter) Yevgeny Dzhugashvili (grandson) Galina Dzhugashvili (granddaughter) Joseph Alliluyev (grandson) Sergei Alliluyev (second father-in-law) Alexander Svanidze
Alexander Svanidze
(brother-in-law) Yuri Zhdanov (son-in-law) William Wesley Peters (son-in-law)

Friends

Ioseb Iremashvili Kamo (Bolshevik) Kliment Voroshilov Vyacheslav Molotov Lazar Kaganovich Grigory Ordzhonikidze Anastas Mikoyan

Residences

Tiflis Spiritual Seminary Kuntsevo Dacha Mayakovskaya (Moscow Metro) Sochi Dacha Blizhnyaya Dacha

Category Commons Brezhnev Era template Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Communism
Communism
portal

v t e

National media in the former Eastern Bloc

Overview

Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
information dissemination Broadcasting in the Soviet Union Mass media in Communist Czechoslovakia

Newspapers

Central newspapers of the Soviet Union Pravda
Pravda
(Russian SFSR) Zvyazda
Zvyazda
(Belarus) Rabotnichesko Delo (Bulgaria) Rudé právo
Rudé právo
(Czechoslovakia) Pravda
Pravda
(Slovakia) Laiko Vima
Laiko Vima
(Albania) Mladá fronta DNES
Mladá fronta DNES
(Czechoslovakia) Neues Deutschland
Neues Deutschland
(East Germany) Rahva Hääl
Rahva Hääl
(Estonia) Neuvosto-Karjala (Karelia) Sovetskaya Latviya
Sovetskaya Latviya
(Latvia) Czerwony Sztandar (Lithuania) Tiesa (Lithuania) Zëri i Popullit
Zëri i Popullit
(Albania) Népszabadság
Népszabadság
(Hungary) Esti Budapest
Esti Budapest
(Hungary) Trybuna Ludu
Trybuna Ludu
(Poland) Scînteia
Scînteia
(Romania) Komsomolskaya Pravda
Pravda
(Russian SFSR) Pionerskaya Pravda
Pravda
(Russian SFSR) Trud (Russian SFSR) Borba (Yugoslavia)

TV

ČST (Czechoslovakia) DFF (East Germany) DFF2 (East Germany) ETV (Estonian SSR) LTV1 (Latvian SSR) Lietuvos Televizija (Lithuanian SSR) Televizioni Shqiptar (Albania) Bulgarian National Television Efir 2
Efir 2
(Bulgaria) m1 (Hungary) m2 (Hungary) TVP1
TVP1
(Poland) TVP2
TVP2
(Poland) TVR1 (Romania) TVR2 (Romania) AzTV (Azerbaijani SSR) Soviet Central Television
Soviet Central Television
(Russian SFSR) Soviet TV Channel 1 (Russian SFSR) Moscow Channel (Russian SFSR) Leningrad Television (Russian SFSR) Belarus Television (Byelorussian SSR) Canalul 1 (Moldavian SSR) UT1 (Ukrainian SSR) First Channel (Georgian SSR) Armenia 1
Armenia 1
(Armenian SSR)

Radio

Rundfunk der DDR Berliner Rundfunk
Berliner Rundfunk
(East Germany) Deutschlandsender
Deutschlandsender
(East Germany) Radio DDR 1
Radio DDR 1
(East Germany) Radio DDR 2
Radio DDR 2
(East Germany) DT64 (East Germany) Radio Berlin International Eesti Raadio (Estonian SSR) Latvijas Radio
Latvijas Radio
1 (Latvian SSR) Lietuvos radijas (Lithuanian SSR) Radio Tirana (Albania) Radio Bulgaria Horizont (Bulgaria) Magyar Rádió (Hungary) Kossuth Rádió (Hungary) Radio Polonia Program 1 Polskiego Radia (Poland) Radio România Actualităţi (Romania) Radio România Cultural (Romania) Radio3Net (Romania) Radio Moscow
Radio Moscow
(Russian SFSR) Public Radio of the Armenian SSR Radio Belarus (Byelorussian SSR) Radio Georgia (Georgian SSR)

Misc

TASS ( Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
wire service) RIA Novosti
RIA Novosti
( Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
press agency) Gosteleradio ( Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
TV/Radio) Belarusian Telegraph Agency ( Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
wire service) ELTA
ELTA
( Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
wire service) Soviet Information Bureau

v t e

Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies

Economies

Economy of East Germany Economy of Communist Czechoslovakia Economy of the Soviet Union Goulash (Hungarian) Communism Economy of the People's Republic of Poland Economy of Lithuania Economy of Latvia Economy of Moldavia Economy of SFR Yugoslavia

Collectivization

Collectivization in the People's Republic of Poland Collectivization in Hungary Collectivization in the Soviet Union Battle for trade (Poland) Collectivization in Ukraine Dekulakization Three Year Plan (Poland) Collectivization in Romania Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union Systematization (Romania)

Pre-dissolution reforms

New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy
(Soviet Union, 1920s) Wage reform in the Soviet Union, 1956–1962 New Course (GDR, 1950s) Kosygin reform (Soviet Union, 1960s) New Economic Mechanism (Hungary, 1960s) New Economic System (GDR, 1960s) Economic System of Socialism (GDR, 1970s) Perestroika
Perestroika
(Soviet Union, 1980s)

Related concepts

Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Shortage economy Sovkhoz Stakhanovite Comecon

v t e

Ruling communist parties of the Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union: Communist Party of the Soviet Union Ukraine: Communist Party of Ukraine Byelorussia: Communist Party of Byelorussia

   

Afghanistan

People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan

Albania

Party of Labour of Albania

Angola

People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola

Benin

People's Revolutionary Party of Benin

Bulgaria

Bulgarian Communist Party

Cambodia (DK)

Communist Party of Kampuchea

Cambodia (PRK)

Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party

China

Communist Party of China

Congo

Congolese Party of Labour

Cuba

Communist Party of Cuba

Czechoslovakia

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

East Germany

Socialist
Socialist
Unity Party of Germany

Ethiopia

Derg, COPWPE, Workers' Party of Ethiopia

Grenada

New Jewel Movement

Hungary

Hungarian Working People's Party, Hungarian Socialist
Socialist
Workers' Party

Mongolia

Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party

Mozambique

FRELIMO

North Korea

Workers' Party of Korea

Laos

Lao People's Revolutionary Party

Poland

Polish United Workers' Party

Romania

Romanian Communist Party

Somalia

Supreme Revolutionary Council, Somali Revolutionary Socialist
Socialist
Party

South Yemen

Yemeni Socialist
Socialist
Party

Tuva

Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party

North Vietnam, Vietnam

Communist Party of Vietnam

Yugoslavia

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

List of communist parties Communist state Comecon Cominform Comintern Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237256

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