The Info List - East Of England

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The East of England
is one of nine official regions of England
at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk
and Suffolk. Essex
has the highest population in the region. Its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000.[1] Bedford, Luton, Basildon, Peterborough, Southend-on-Sea, Norwich, Ipswich, Colchester, Chelmsford
and Cambridge
are the region's most populous towns. The southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt.


1 Geography

1.1 Historical use 1.2 East Anglia
East Anglia
and overlap with Home Counties

2 Climate 3 Demographics

3.1 Deprivation 3.2 Elections 3.3 Eurostat

4 Governance

4.1 Regional government

4.1.1 East of England

4.2 Local government

5 History

5.1 Civil War and the Protectorate 5.2 Second World War 5.3 Cold War 5.4 Scientific heritage 5.5 Industrial heritage

6 Economy

6.1 Hertfordshire 6.2 Bedfordshire 6.3 East Anglia 6.4 Essex/Greater London

7 Transport

7.1 Transport policy 7.2 Road 7.3 Rail 7.4 Sea 7.5 Air

8 Education

8.1 Universities

9 Sport

9.1 Football 9.2 Motorsport 9.3 Rafting

10 Media

10.1 Radio 10.2 Newspapers 10.3 Magazines

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Geography[edit] The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire
and the Essex
Coast have most of the around 5% of the region which is below 10 metres above sea level. The Fens
The Fens
are partly in North Cambridgeshire
which is notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres (9.0 ft) below mean sea level which was once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft (249 m), in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon
and Harlow
(Essex), with Stevenage
and Hemel Hempstead (Hertfordshire), were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there; three of these are on motorways, and fairly equidistant from London. In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh
in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead
in Hertfordshire and Foulness
in Essex
as a possible third airport for London. Historical use[edit]


This article is part of a series on the politics and government of England



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v t e

The East of England
succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia (excluding Essex, Hertfordshire
or Bedfordshire
then in the South East). The East of England
civil defence region was identical to today's region. East Anglia
East Anglia
and overlap with Home Counties[edit] England
between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester
has since post-Roman times (6th century) been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire. The inclusion of Essex
as part of East Anglia
East Anglia
is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons, previously formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire
and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties. The earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." then cited a list including these four. The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century.[2] Climate[edit] East Anglia
East Anglia
is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm. This is usually because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic
have lost a lot of their moisture over land (and therefore are usually a lot weaker) by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire
are prone to flooding should a strong system affect the area. Winter (mid November – mid March) is mostly cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic
or France. Northerly winds can also be cold but are not usually as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and, typically, wetter weather. Southerly winds usually bring mild air (if from the Atlantic
or North Africa) but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring (mid March – May) is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is usually warm by late-April/May. The weather at this time is often changeable (within each day) and occasionally showery. Summer (June – mid September) is usually warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High
Azores High
usually leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather. The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm usually coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn (mid September – mid November) is usually mild with some days being very unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer
Indian summer
where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season. Demographics[edit] Deprivation[edit] The most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
(58th in England), Norwich
(62nd), Luton
(87th), Peterborough
(90th) and Ipswich
(99th). At county level, after Luton
and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea
then Thurrock.[citation needed] The least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Uttlesford, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Brentwood, Rochford, Chelmsford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, Broadland, North Hertfordshire, Dacorum, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire
and Suffolk
Coastal. At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire
and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation, then Essex.[3] The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%.[citation needed] In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough, Ipswich
and Southend-on-Sea
on 4.7%.[4] Elections[edit]

General Election results in 2017

In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, and the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire
and Suffolk
is now Conservative. The region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours the dominant party in the region, and the Conservatives have 52, Labour 4 (Cambridge, Luton
South, Luton
North and Norwich South), UKIP 1 (Clacton) and 1 Liberal Democrat (North Norfolk).

v t e

Constituencies in the East of England

Conservative (50)

and Billericay Braintree Brentwood and Ongar Broadland Broxbourne Bury St Edmunds Castle Point Central Suffolk
and North Ipswich Chelmsford Clacton Colchester Epping Forest Great Yarmouth Harlow Harwich and North Essex Hemel Hempstead Hertford and Stortford Hertsmere Hitchin and Harpenden Huntingdon Maldon Mid Bedfordshire Mid Norfolk North East Bedfordshire North East Cambridgeshire North East Hertfordshire North West Cambridgeshire North West Norfolk Norwich
North Rayleigh and Wickford Rochford and Southend East Saffron Walden St Albans South Basildon
and East Thurrock South Cambridgeshire South East Cambridgeshire Southend West South Norfolk South Suffolk South West Bedfordshire South West Hertfordshire South West Norfolk Stevenage Suffolk
Coastal Thurrock Watford Waveney Welwyn
Hatfield West Suffolk Witham

Labour (6)

Bedford Cambridge Ipswich Luton
South Norwich
South Peterborough

Liberal Democrats (1)

North Norfolk

Independent (1)


East of England
European constituency: Conservative (3) Labour (1) UKIP (3)

NUTS[edit] In the Eurostat
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), the East of England
is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKH", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code

East of England UKH East Anglia UKH1 Peterborough UKH11


Norfolk UKH13

Suffolk UKH14

and Hertfordshire UKH2 Luton UKH21


Bedford UKH24

Central Bedfordshire UKH25

Essex UKH3 Southend-on-Sea UKH31

Thurrock UKH32


Governance[edit] Regional government[edit] An East of England
Regional Strategy Board exists to co-ordinate the work of the local councils in the area and provides other functions. It is based in Flempton
on the A1101 north-west of Bury St Edmunds. The Government shut the Government office for the East of England
in 2011, the East of England
Development Agency is being closed also. The East of England
also elects MEPs for the East of England
(European Parliament constituency). East of England
Plan[edit] The current version of the East of England
Plan, a revision of the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, was published on 12 May 2008. It was revoked on 3 January 2013[5] Local government[edit] The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Map Ceremonial county Shire county / unitary Districts

Essex 1.  Thurrock

2.  Southend-on-Sea

3. Essex a) Harlow, b) Epping Forest, c) Brentwood, d) Basildon, e) Castle Point, f) Rochford, g) Maldon, h) Chelmsford, i) Uttlesford, j) Braintree, k) Colchester, l) Tendring

4. Hertfordshire a) Three Rivers, b) Watford, c) Hertsmere, d)  Welwyn
Hatfield, e) Broxbourne, f) East Hertfordshire, g) Stevenage, h) North Hertfordshire, i) St Albans, j) Dacorum

Bedfordshire 5.  Luton

6.  Bedford

7. Central Bedfordshire

Cambridgeshire 8. Cambridgeshire a) Cambridge, b) South Cambridgeshire, c) Huntingdonshire, d) Fenland, e) East Cambridgeshire

9.  Peterborough

10. Norfolk a) Norwich, b) South Norfolk, c) Great Yarmouth, d) Broadland, e) North Norfolk, f) Breckland, g)  King's Lynn
King's Lynn
and West Norfolk

11. Suffolk a) Ipswich, b)  Suffolk
Coastal, c) Waveney, d) Mid Suffolk, e) Babergh, f) St. Edmundsbury, g) Forest Heath

History[edit] A mammoth skeleton found at West Runton, Norfolk, in 1990, is the most complete in the world. Fossilised footprints discovered on a nearby beach in 2010 at Happisburgh
are 900,000 years old, and the oldest evidence of early humans outside of Africa, known as Homo antecessor, with the earliest flint hand axe in north-west Europe.. Simon Sudbury, and Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
from 1375–81, introduced the Poll Tax in Sudbury in the 1300s and the subsequent Peasants' Revolt in Essex
in May 1381 was led by Wat Tyler. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, from Suffolk, qualified as Britain's first female doctor in 1865, and was the granddaughter of Richard Garrett, whose company produced some of the first steam-powered road vehicles. On 3 October 1959 postcodes were introduced in the UK at Norwich
only; Norwich
was the first main town in the UK to be pedestrianised in 1967. The Access credit card was introduced in October 1972 from Southend. King's Lynn was the first in the UK to install a town-centre CCTV system, from 1987. Britain's first self-service petrol station was opened on 24 March 1966 on Marshalswick
Lane in St Albans
St Albans
by Heron. Civil War and the Protectorate[edit] The East of England
was a major force and resource for Parliament, and in particular in the form of the Eastern Association. Oliver Cromwell came from Huntingdon. Second World War[edit] Norfolk, Suffolk
and Essex
played host to the American VIII Bomber Command and Ninth Air Force. The Imperial War Museum at Duxford has an exhibition, commemorating their participation and sacrifice, near to the M11 south of Cambridge. Stansted Airport was RAF Stansted Mountfitchet, home to the 344th Bombardment Group. The de Havilland Mosquito was mainly assembled at Hatfield and Leavesden, although much of the innovative wooden structure originated outside the region from the furniture industry of High Wycombe; the Mosquito entered service in 1942 with 105 Sqn at RAF Horsham St Faith. RAF Tempsford
RAF Tempsford
in Bedford
is the airfield from where SOE secret agents for Europe took off, with 138 Sqn which parachuted agents and equipment and 161 Sqn which landed and retrieved agents. 19 Sqn at Duxford was the first to be equipped with the Spitfire on 4 August 1938. Rudimentary drone technology was developed by the USAF at RAF Fersfield, to destroy the Fortress of Mimoyecques
Fortress of Mimoyecques
at Moyecques; a prototype drone aircraft of Operation Aphrodite, with John F. Kennedy's older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.
Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr.
aboard, exploded on 12 August 1944 over the Blyth estuary in Suffolk. A magnetic mine found in 1939 at Shoeburyness, now in Southend, allowed the German magnetic mine threat to be subdued, with work done at HMS Vernon in Portsmouth. Cold War[edit] See also: United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa
United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa
and United States Air Force
United States Air Force
in the United Kingdom The 81st Tactical Fighter Wing were at RAF Bentwaters
RAF Bentwaters
from January 1952, and also at RAF Woodbridge; in the late 1980s some of the aircraft went to RAF Alconbury. Alconbury closed in 1992, and Bentwaters closed in 1993, with the American air forces being in the area for 42 years; the USAF aircraft subsequently moved to Spangdahlem Air Base in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. At RAF Marham
RAF Marham
in west Norfolk, 214 Sqn with the Vickers Valiant developed the RAF's refuelling system; later the squadron would be equipped with the Handley Page
Handley Page
Victor. Work on refuelling had also taken place at RAF Tarrant Rushton
RAF Tarrant Rushton
in Dorset. From the 1950s, RAF Wyton
RAF Wyton
was an important reconnaissance base for the RAF, mainly 543 Sqn. The base is now home of the Defence Intelligence Fusion Centre, previously known as JARIC, or the Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre from 1956. Scientific heritage[edit] Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA
at Cambridge
on 28 February 1953. William Bateson, at Cambridge, invented the term genetics and co-discovered genetic linkage with Reginald Punnett.

GSK in Harlow
in August 2009

At the Bourn Hall Clinic
Bourn Hall Clinic
in Bourn, west of Cambridge, in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was first achieved in 1978. Smith, Kline and French developed Tagamet in the 1970s at the Frythe, north of Welwyn; the site was sold by GSK in December 2010, and in World War II was home to Station IX, which made sabotage equipment for secret agents. Tagamet was for many years the world's best-selling prescription drug - for stomach ulcers; the team had been led by C. Robin Ganellin, Graham Durant and John Emmett. In 1912 in Cambridge
Frederick Gowland Hopkins discovered vitamins, gaining the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929. Under Sir David Jack, Allen & Hanburys at Ware (part of Glaxo Group Research since 1958, next to Chauncy School) developed Ventolin (for asthma) in the late 1960s and Zantac (for peptic ulcers) in the late 1970s; Zantac was the first pharmaceutical to sell more than $1bn per year; more recently Seretid (also for asthma) was developed there and the site is now part of GSK, which has a separate manufacturing site there. In 1975 at Cambridge
César Milstein
César Milstein
and Georges J. F. Köhler
Georges J. F. Köhler
separated monoclonal antibodies at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, and gained the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine; the MRC LMB has had many Nobel prizes for Medicine. Adalimumab, known as Humira, the world's best-selling drug, was partly developed in Cambridge
by Cambridge
Antibody Technology. Smith & Nephew Research was based at Gilston
Park House, in Gilston, north of Harlow.

Sanger Institute and Hinxton
Hall, off the Stump Cross Interchange of the M11 (J9), home of the Wellcome Genome Campus and the European Bioinformatics Institute, which houses the European Nucleotide Archive

At Papworth Hospital
Papworth Hospital
the UK's first heart transplant took place in January 1979, being operated by Sir Terence English
Terence English
and Sir Roy Calne, on 44-year-old Charles McHugh. The world's first heart, lung and liver transplant was performed there on 17 December 1986. The world's first long-term artificial heart was implanted (and connected) on 26 August 1994 - by Dr John Wallwork; the patient lived for 9 months; John Wallwork had performed Europe's first heart–lung transplant there in 1984; such transplants are often carried out on people with cystic fibrosis. Ben Milstein conducted Britain's first open-heart surgery there in September 1958 on a woman with an atrial septal defect, known as a hole in the heart. John Ray
John Ray
was an important naturalist from Essex, and the first to distinguish flowering plants between monocotyledons and dicotyledons in his 1682 book Methodus Plantarum Nova. Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, of Raynham Hall
Raynham Hall
in Norfolk, introduced crop rotation to Britain (which had originated in Holland) in the early 1700s using wheat, turnips, barley and clover. The Maris Piper disease-resistant potato was developed by the Plant Breeding Institute in Trumpington in 1966. At the Rothamsted Experimental Station, near Harpenden in Hertfordshire, 2,4-D was discovered, under Juda Hirsch Quastel; this is the most widely used herbicide in the world; later at the station, the pyrethroid insecticide was developed, under Michael Elliott, which is now the most common insecticide on the domestic market. William Gilbert (astronomer)
William Gilbert (astronomer)
from Colchester
was an important early physicist; the Gilbert was a former unit of magnetization. Radar
was developed in around Chelmsford
in the late 1930s and at Bawdsey Manor on the Suffolk
coast; on 24 July 1935 at Orfordness was the first detection on a CRT screen of tracking a plane on radar - a Westland Wallace. Earlier radio had been developed around Chelmsford
by the Marconi Company; much of Britain's electronics industry was derived from Marconi, later to be GEC and now BAE Systems. In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell at Cambridge
discovered his electromagnetic wave equation, part of his Maxwell's equations. CSR (previously Cambridge
Silicon Radio) has made much technology for Bluetooth.

British Antarctic Survey
British Antarctic Survey
in Cambridge

William Hyde Wollaston, a chemist from Norfolk, discovered palladium in 1802 and rhodium in 1804, and in 1802 discovered the features of the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum, known as Fraunhofer lines, allowing the chemical composition of the Sun
to be determined. In 1938 at Cambridge, Mary Cartwright
Mary Cartwright
developed chaos theory with John Edensor Littlewood; Edward Norton Lorenz, a meteorologist from the USA, would mainly develop chaos theory in 1963, and the butterfly effect in 1969. In the 1960s at Cambridge, the scanning electron microscope was developed by Sir Charles Oatley, and first made by the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company in 1965. In 1966, Cambridge geophysicists Frederick Vine
Frederick Vine
and Drummond Matthews proved the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift; plate tectonics was first suggested at Cambridge
by Dan McKenzie; continental drift had first been proposed, though not extensively proved, by the German Alfred Wegener in 1912. In 1985, Norwich's Joe Farman discovered the hole in the Ozone layer, when part of Cambridge's British Antarctic Survey. John Cockcroft
John Cockcroft
and Ernest Walton, using a particle-accelerator with a Cockcroft–Walton generator
Cockcroft–Walton generator
performed the first artificial nuclear disintegration on 14 April 1932, with a proton beam on lithium (producing helium) at the Cavendish Laboratory; using this work on 12 September 1933 the Hungarian Leó Szilárd
Leó Szilárd
would conceive the idea of the nuclear chain reaction whilst standing at a set of traffic lights on Southampton Row
Southampton Row
in Bloomsbury, returning from a lecture by Ernest Rutherford which discussed H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
1914 book The World Set Free, that overtly prophecised nuclear weapons. The Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
has 29 Nobel prize winners, more than anywhere else, and many Western countries. Industrial heritage[edit]

is the birthplace of radio

Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies of Ipswich
built the first engine-powered commercial lawnmower in 1902. The firm would later own Mountfield. The Chorleywood bread process
Chorleywood bread process
from 1961 changed bread production all over world. John Dickinson Stationery
John Dickinson Stationery
of Hertfordshire was the first company to produce gummed envelopes in 1850, and windowed envelopes in 1929 (in production quantities). The Thursford Collection in Norfolk
is the country's biggest collection of steam engines. See also: History of radio
History of radio
and History of broadcasting The Marconi Company's New Street Works on the B1008 in Chelmsford
was the world's first radio factory in 1912; on 15 June 1920, Britain's first radio broadcast was made by Dame Nellie Melba. The first radio broadcast in UK was in December 1919 from Marconi in Chelmsford, broadcasting news for the first time in December 1920. The world's first scheduled broadcast from the 2MT
(Two Emma Toc) Marconi transmitter at Writtle
was from 14 February 1922, only on Tuesday evenings. The world's first real-time computer (Type 152) with memory store (Williams tubes) was built in 1947 by the Elliott Brothers Research Laboratories at Borehamwood; the site became Marconi Avionics in 1978 and GEC Avionics in 1984, and also had GEC Computers.

Part of the Solar Orbiter
Solar Orbiter
being built at Stevenage
by Airbus Defence and Space (former Astrium) in March 2015; Hertfordshire
built the UK's rockets, with Stevenage
being the main home of the UK's spacecraft

Glues for the Mosquito wooden airframe were developed by Norman de Bruyne at his Duxford-based Aero Research Limited, which invented Araldite; the site is now owned by Hexcel. The Mosquito fuselage was made from two halves of balsawood (Ochroma) from Ecuador, and Canadian Birch, which had a Madapolam
fabric over the surface; the wings were made from plywood and spruce. De Havilland built the Comet (the world's first jet airliner, first flying in July 1949 when piloted by John Cunningham, powered by DH jet engines, and designed by R.E. Bishop) at Hatfield, and built the Blue Streak rocket launcher at its Stevenage
base; by the end of WWII the DH Goblin, designed by Frank Halford, was the world's most powerful jet engine. Ball bearings for the Merlin engine came from Hoffman of Chelmsford; its former site is now the Rivermead university campus. The first autoland system demonstrated on an airliner was with a BEA Trident at RAE Bedford
in March 1964, with a system developed by Smiths Industries with similar work also done for the RAF at RAF Martlesham Heath; Plessey was a world leader in instrument landing systems (ILS). Rex Pierson
Rex Pierson
from Norfolk, was the main designer for Vickers until the 1950s, designing the Vickers Vimy
Vickers Vimy
(which crossed the Atlantic
in June 1919) to the Vickers Viscount, both pioneering aircraft. From 1945 to 1992, Rolls-Royce designed and built its helicopter (turboshaft) engines at its Small Engine Division at Leavesden, now a film set, these engines are now built by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca
Rolls-Royce Turbomeca
(from 1966). Britain's first satellite constructed in the UK - Ariel 3
Ariel 3
(originally titled UK-3) - was built at BAC's Guided Weapon Division in Stevenage
in the mid-1960s, later launched in May 1967. The Europa (rocket)
Europa (rocket)
was initially mostly British-led by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics
Hawker Siddeley Dynamics
at Stevenage and test-fired at Woomera Test Range
Woomera Test Range
in Australia, but later the subsequent Ariane (rocket family)
Ariane (rocket family)
would be mostly French-built and launched at Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
in French Guiana; Arianespace
is 64% French and 20% German by ownership, and has no British share of ownership. The Rapier (missile)
Rapier (missile)
was developed by BAC (guided weapons division) at Stevenage
(former English Electric). The first transition from hover to free flight of the Hawker Siddeley P.1127 took place on 8 September 1961 at RAE Bedford, with its first conventional flight also there on 13 March 1961; the Harrier was first delivered to RAF Wittering
RAF Wittering
on 18 April 1969 to 1 Squadron; the next squadron to have the Harrier was 4 Sqn at RAF Wildenrath. In June 1954, the first Hunting Percival Jet Provost flew from Luton
Airport; it was the world's first-designed jet trainer aircraft. On 30 April 1958, the Buccaneer first flew from RAE Bedford. The Hybrid Air Vehicles HAV-3, unveiled in 2014 at Cardington, is the longest aircraft in the world. The Comet G-ALYP was the first to enter commercial service for a jet, on 2 May 1952, on a flight from London Airport to Johannesburg; flying back from Rome to London, on a flight from Singapore on 10 January 1954, the aircraft was the second Comet to crash in-flight on BOAC Flight 781, and maybe the first to show structural failure; 114 Comets were made. The British Aerospace 125 (DH.125) was the world's first business jet, when it first flew in August 1962 at Hatfield, later mostly built at Chester (Broughton); later it evolved into the Hawker 800, made in Wichita, Kansas, and the design is the world's best selling business jet, with over 1,000 built. The Airbus A300, which entered service in 1974, started life as the Hawker Siddeley/Breguet/Nord HBN 100, with much of the initial design produced by Hawker Siddeley from its HS.134 design; the wings were developed from the Trident supercritical design (designed in the late 1950s). Of the companies involved with Airbus at the beginning, only Hawker Siddeley (former De Havilland) at Hatfield had designed anything as large with jet engines; the company may have consequently been headquartered at Hatfield and not Toulouse. Today's Airbus wings are all made at Broughton in Flintshire, and all the undercarriage is made in Cheltenham
(Messier-Bugatti-Dowty). In 1951 on an EDSAC computer at Cambridge, Sandy Douglas made the world's first computer game with a digital graphical display - a version of Noughts and Crosses; the LEO (computer), the world's first commercial computer developed by John Simmons at J. Lyons and Co., was a Cambridge
EDSAC. Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
was based in Cambridge, as was its competitor in the 1980s, Acorn Computers. Sinclair invented the (£80 current value) Sinclair Executive
Sinclair Executive
in 1972, the world's first slimline pocket calculator; then it invented the world's first digital quartz watch, the Black Watch
(which had technical problems) in 1975. Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow, then owned by ITT, is where fibre-optic communications as we know today, are recognised as beginning, when developed by George Hockham and Sir Charles K. Kao (they received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009); the first trial cable was laid between Hitchin and Stevenage
in 1978. The first optical fibre that was part of a public switched telephone network was laid between Martlesham and Ipswich
in 1978.[6] Acorn successfully tested its first chip on 26 April 1985 (made in the USA by VLSI Technology), leading to the Acorn Archimedes
Acorn Archimedes
in 1987, powered by its chip design. Acorn RISC Machines Ltd was formed in 1990, becoming ARM Holdings in 1998, and its chip designs went into all Nokia phones, and on Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
chips (the Sitara processor); currently there are now over 20 billion ARM chips in mobile phones. Vaughan Programming Services founded by Dina St Johnston in 1959 in Hertfordshire
was Britain's first software house. Sizewell B is Britain's only pressurised water reactor (PWR), and is near Leiston
in Suffolk
with enough power for two million homes; Sizewell A had opened in 1966 and Bradwell had opened in 1962. Sir Christopher Cockerell
Christopher Cockerell
(born in Cambridge) developed the hovercraft on Oulton Broad, Suffolk
in 1956. Shell Haven, now in Thurrock, was where bitumen was first ever produced there in 1920; the refinery closed in 1999. Charles Wallace Chapman of Perkins Engines
Perkins Engines
invented the high speed diesel engine, first building an experimental version (the Vixen) in December 1932 on Queen Street in Peterborough. The world's first diesel-engined car, a Hillman Wizard
Hillman Wizard
fitted with the engine in March 1933, was tested around Peterborough; the first production engine would be the Perkins Wolf, with the innovative Perkins Aeroflow combustion system; the Perkins Engines
Perkins Engines
company developed mainly from this engine.[7] In 1808 Henry Fourdrinier
Henry Fourdrinier
developed a process at St Neots
St Neots
to produce continuous rolls of paper, as made today - the Fourdrinier Machine, developed with Bryan Donkin. John Crosfield
John Crosfield
in Hemel Hempstead invented the colour scanner in 1958. Great Yarmouth's Malcolm Sayer designed the Jaguar E-Type
Jaguar E-Type
and initial plans of the Jaguar XJS. Captain George William Manby
George William Manby
of Norfolk
invented the first portable fire extinguisher in 1813. Economy[edit] The former electricity company for the area, Eastern Electricity, has the area's distribution now looked after by UK Power Networks
UK Power Networks
at Fore Hamlet in Ipswich. UK Power Networks
UK Power Networks
also looks after London and most of the South-East. Business Link
Business Link
in the East of England
is next door to the headquarters of T-Mobile UK in Hatfield, at the roundabout of the A1057 and the A1001 on the Bishops Square Business Park.[8][9] The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service is at Melbourn
in Cambridgeshire, off the A10 and north of Royston.[10] UKTI for the region is in Histon[11] with its international trade team based next to Magdalene College. NHS East of England, which was the strategic health authority for the area until the abolition of these areas in 2013, is on Capital Park, next to Fulbourn
Tesco, Fulbourn
Hospital, and the Cambridge-Ipswich railway, on the eastern edge of Cambridge. The East of England Ambulance Service is on Cambourne
Business Park on Cambourne, off the A428 (the former A45) west of Cambridge. The East Anglian Air Ambulance operates from Cambridge
Airport and Norwich
Airport; Essex Air Ambulance operates from Boreham. Hertfordshire[edit]

is based in Watford
near Watford
Junction railway station

The Greater Watford
area is home to British Waterways, Vinci UK (which bought Taylor Woodrow Construction
Taylor Woodrow Construction
in 2008), the UK of the international firm Total Oil, retailers TK Maxx, Bathstore, Majestic Wine, Mothercare, Costco
UK, and Smiths Detection, Iveco
UK, BrightHouse (at Abbots Langley), Leavesden Film Studios, Sanyo
UK, Europcar
UK, Olympus UK, Kenwood and Beko
electronic goods manufacturers, Wetherspoons
pub chains, the European HQ of the Hilton hotel group and Nestlé
Waters; in Garston is the UK headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, on the A412, and the Building Research Establishment. Comet Group
Comet Group
and Camelot Group
Camelot Group
(owners of the National Lottery), on the A4145, are in Rickmansworth. Ferrero UK (maker of Nutella
and Kinder Chocolate) is in Croxley Green. Renault UK and Skanska
UK (construction) are in Maple Cross. In Elstree
and Borehamwood
(close to the A1 motorway) are the Elstree Studios, where the Star Wars films were made and more recently Big Brother; and Hasselblad
UK is based in Elstree. Borehamwood
is also home to BBC Elstree
and Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
UK. The Boy's Brigade, Dixons Retail (owners of Currys) and PC World), Sir Robert McAlpine
Sir Robert McAlpine
and Bourne Leisure are based in Hemel Hempstead, where 3Com, Epson UK, Steria (formerly Bull and Honeywell), Alcon
UK, and Kodak
have their UK bases. Henkel
UK makes (Loctite) industrial adhesives off the A4147, next to Dixons. Pure Digital
Pure Digital
(DAB radios) is in Kings Langley, with its parent company Imagination Technologies which is a world-leading designer of microprocessors. The town was formerly the home of Ovaltine
until 2002. Noble Foods on the B488 in Tring is the UK's biggest producer of eggs.

EE's headquarters are located in Hatfield, Hertfordshire

In Welwyn
Garden City are PayPoint, the former headquarters of First Quench Retailing until 2009 (formerly the Thresher Group), Hostelling International, the UK headquarters of Xerox, Cereal Partners, DBC Foodservice, and Hoffmann–La Roche. Shredded Wheat
and Shreddies were manufactured in the town by Nestlé
(Cereal Partners) until April 2008, which has its UK headquarters at the A1000/B195 junction. DuPont UK and a plant of GSK are in Stevenage. EADS Astrium
EADS Astrium
UK, with Paradigm Secure Communications (a satellite operator) (which has made parts for the ExoMars
mission, Gaia (spacecraft), ADM-Aeolus, and LISA Pathfinder) and MBDA
UK (formerly de Havilland Propellers, then BAe Dynamics) are near the A1(M) bypass opposite each other on the A1072. Tesco
and Crompton Lighting are based in Cheshunt. Computacenter, Denso
UK and EE are in Hatfield; Veolia Water Central Limited
Veolia Water Central Limited
and the HQ of Ocado
are next to each other on the A1001. Polaroid UK (near the railway bridge over the A1081), Burton's Biscuit Company (on the B691) and Premier Foods
Premier Foods
are in St Albans; also Murphy Oil
Murphy Oil
Corp's USA, UK subsidiary, Murco Petroleum Ltd; The Cloud (wifi hotspots, owned by BSkyB), is next to the railway station. Viglen
is on the A5183 (the former A5) next to the M25 and railway at Ventura Park, the former site of Handley Page
Handley Page
at Colney Street (St Stephen). Johnson Matthey
Johnson Matthey
(materials for catalytic converters) has its main operations in Royston. Royde & Tucker in Hitchin, Hertfordshire
is the UK's leading manufacturer of door hinges, and William Ransom & Son makes pharmaceuticals and natural remedies. Cash Converters
Cash Converters
UK is in Thundridge
near Ware. News International
News International
has the world's largest printing press at Broxbourne
(Waltham Cross). Harlow
has Pearson Education, the main research division of GlaxoSmithKline
(on a former BP site), the European headquarters of Pitney Bowes, Synthomer (polymers), and the main manufacturing plant of Raytheon
UK. Rexel
UK (electrical supplies) is based at the A111/A1000 junction in Potters Bar. Bedfordshire[edit]

Samuel Whitbread
began his brewery in Bedfordshire
in 1742

Moto Hospitality
Moto Hospitality
has its headquarters at Toddington in Bedfordshire (at the service station). Luton
is home to EasyJet, Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines
(both based at the airport), Hain Celestial Group
Hain Celestial Group
UK (which makes Linda McCartney Foods, and is based on the B579 in Biscot), Eurolines
(UK office), Thomson UK (based at Wigmore on the eastern edge of the town), and Chevrolet
UK (at Griffin House, the Vauxhall
head office). At the 85-acre Capability Green
Capability Green
off the A1081 and junction 10a of the M1, is the Stonegate Pub Company
Stonegate Pub Company
(owner of Scream Pubs, Yates's, Slug and Lettuce and Hogshead), InBev UK (which bought most of Whitbread's beer brands), Chargemaster (electric vehicle network under the POLAR brand), AstraZeneca's UK Marketing Company division, and Alexon Group (ladies clothing). Vauxhall
produced its last Vauxhall
Vectra in March 2002 at the plant near the A6/A505 roundabout, and now makes vans (Vivaro/ Renault
Trafic) at the former Bedford
Vehicles plant, based in the north of the town at the GM Manufacturing Luton
plant. Near Luton railway station, Comau
Estil is a manufacturing systems integrator for car manufacturers. Elster Metering makes gas and electricity meters, and is based in the north of Luton
on the opposite side of the railway to Vauxhall. GKN Aerospace Transparency Systems (formerly Pilkington Aerospace before 2003), the world's leading manufacturer of military aircraft canopies, which also makes ice protection systems, is at Luton
Airport. ArjoHuntleigh, based on the A505 in Luton
near the M1, is a leading medical equipment manufacturer, and nearby, Certwood made the plastic seats for London's Olympic Stadium. Premier Inn
Premier Inn
(owned by Whitbread) is headquartered, with the UK headquarters of Electrolux (owner of AEG
and Zanussi), in Leagrave, north Luton. Its neighbour in Dunstable
is home to Whitbread
and Polestar, a main magazine printers.

Wigmore House in Luton, home of TUI UK, and Thomson Airways, the world's largest charter airline

is home to Fujifilm
UK and Wells & Young's Brewery (formerly Charles Wells). Danfoss
Randall makes heating controls on the A6 next to Bedford
St Johns railway station, and boxclever is south of the town on the A6. Autoglass
is in nearby Cardington. Hunter Engineering UK (defence) is at Ampthill. Amazon UK has its main distribution centre for England
(its first in the UK, established in May 1999)[12] at the ProLogis
Marston Gate[13] site at Brogborough near junction 13 of the M1 (A421) next to Ridgmont railway station. Hanson Building Products was the largest producer of aggregates in the world, being taken over by HeidelbergCement
in August 2007, and has always been based at Stewartby off the A421 south of Bedford
next to the railway station. Kier Group
Kier Group
and the RSPB are in Sandy. Connells and UltraVision are in Leighton Buzzard. Leisure Connection is in Wyboston, towards St Neots. Jordans (cereal), AMG Systems (electronics) and Liebherr Group
Liebherr Group
UK are in Biggleswade. Trafficmaster Europe and Saab Great Britain
Great Britain
are at Cranfield University. Unilever has its main food research site (where low fat spreads were invented) at Colworth Science Park
Colworth Science Park
near Sharnbrook. East Anglia[edit]

Flag of East Anglia

Great Witchingham
Great Witchingham
Hall, the headquarters of Bernard Matthews Farms, north-west of Norwich
at Great Witchingham
Great Witchingham
on the A1067

The economy in Norfolk, Cambridgeshire
and Suffolk
is traditionally mostly agricultural. Norfolk
is the UK's biggest producer of potatoes. Nationally known companies include the RAC, Archant
(publishing), Virgin Money and Aviva
(formerly Norwich
Union) in Norwich. In Carrow, to the east of the city, Colman's
makes a wide range of mustards, and Britvic
makes Robinsons squash, which was owned by Colman's
until 1995. Across the River Yare
River Yare
near the A47/A146 junction in Trowse
with Newton is May Gurney, the construction company. Bernard Matthews Farms has a large turkey farm on the former RAF Attlebridge
RAF Attlebridge
in Weston Longville. Campbell Soup was made in Kings Lynn
Kings Lynn
until 2008, and on the Hardwick Industrial Estate at the A47/A149 junction is PinguinLutosa UK, which packs frozen vegetables, and Caithness Crystal. Foster Refrigerator is the UK's leading manufacturer of commercial refrigerators and blast chillers, owned by Illinois Tool Works, based on the industrial estate; with Multitone Electronics, which has a manufacturing plant there, and which invented the pager in 1956, for St Thomas' Hospital; and Snap-on
Diagnostics makes diagnostic tools for garages. Linda McCartney sausages are made by Hain Celestial Frozen Foods at Fakenham, where Kinnerton Confectionery produces around 6000 tonnes of chocolate each year, which is mostly private label (supermarket) products. British Sugar's Wissington is the world's largest sugar beet factory in Methwold, on the B1160 near the River Wissey. Lotus Cars
Lotus Cars
and Team Lotus
Team Lotus
are on the eastern edge of the former RAF Hethel, east of Wymondham
(A11) at Hethel
(Bracon Ash). Jeyes Group makes household chemicals in Thetford, off the A134; Multiyork
makes furniture and Baxter Healthcare has a manufacturing plant in the south of the town. Aunt Bessie
Aunt Bessie
vegetable products (roast potatoes) are made by Heinz UK at Westwick, in a factory built by Ross Group.

ARM CPU designed in Cambridge

Around Cambridge
on numerous science parks, are high technology (electronics and biochemistry) companies, such as ARM Holdings
ARM Holdings
on Peterhouse Technology Park in the south-east of the town, Adder Technology (KVM switches) at Bar Hill
Bar Hill
at the A14/B1050 junction north of the town, Monsanto
UK, Play.com
on the Cambridge
Business Centre. The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus
Wellcome Trust Genome Campus
has the European Bioinformatics Institute at Hinxton
east of Duxford near the M11 spur for the A11. These form the so-called Silicon Fen. Marshall Aerospace
Marshall Aerospace
is at Cambridge
Airport on the A1303 in the east of the town, towards Teversham. South of the airport, Carl Zeiss NTS makes scanning electron microscopes in Cherry Hinton. Syngenta
UK is to the east of Cambridge, on Capital Park at Fulbourn. Premier Foods
Premier Foods
has a large plant in Histon and Impington
Histon and Impington
making Robertson's
and Hartley's jam, Gale's honey, Smash instant potato, and Rose's marmalade. Addenbrooke's Hospital
Addenbrooke's Hospital
is a pioneering hospital in the UK, based at Cambridge
Bio-Medical Campus. On the Cambridge
Science Park (in Milton), the first science park in Europe (when founded in 1970 by Trinity College), near the junction of the A14 and A10 (A1309) and on the western side of the A1309 in South Cambridgeshire, are WorldPay (payment service provider), Jagex
(RuneScape), the European HQ of Accelrys, Cambridge
Consultants, Astex (biotechnology), Kodak's European R&D centre, and Broadcom
UK. On Cambridge
Business Park, on the eastern side of the A1309 (formerly the A10) and inside the district of Cambridge, are Autonomy Corporation, an FTSE-100 company, Red Gate Software, CSR plc, and NEC Unified Solutions
NEC Unified Solutions
UK (unified communications). On the 200-acre Granta Park
Granta Park
at Great Abington
Great Abington
near the A1307/A11 junction south of Cambridge
is MedImmune
(formerly Cambridge
Antibody Technology, now owned by AstraZeneca) which researches antibodies. The Welding Institute, Pfizer Regenerative Medicine, Gilead Sciences
Gilead Sciences
and PPD are nearby. The science park has its own cricket pitch. Cambridgeshire
has a few RAF bases. Subway UK (restaurants) is in Great Shelford. Unwins Seeds is in Alconbury Weston
Alconbury Weston
next to the A1. Avanquest UK, the home software company which bought EMME (which bought GSP in 2000) in 2007, is in St Ives, off the A1096. Nestlé Purina PetCare makes petfood at its South Brink factory in Wisbech, with another in Sudbury, Suffolk. Princes (formerly owned by Premier Foods before February 2011) can vegetables and baked beans, and makes Loyd Grossman
Loyd Grossman
cooking sauces in the town. Lamb Weston (potato products) is on the Weasanham Lane Ind Estate in the south of Wisbech, and next door Del Monte can fruit. On the Middle Level Main Drain at Marshland St James, south of Wisbech, Herbert Engineering is Britain's main producer of potato graders. The main water company for the area, AWG plc and International Audio Group are based in Huntingdon. JDR Cable Systems makes underwater cables at the A10/A1101 roundabout at Littleport. McCain Foods
McCain Foods
has a factory (which was the largest frozen food factory in the world when it opened in 1976, processing 200,000 tonnes of potatoes annually) on the A605 and railway, near London Brick, at Whittlesey, towards Peterborough.

Thomas Cook headquarters, next to the East Coast Main Line in Bretton, Peterborough

RAF Wittering
RAF Wittering
was the home of the Harrier from August 1969 until December 2010, and now houses Army personnel, along with the RAF Regiment. British Sugar, Silver Spoon and the Billington Food Group are based near each other in Peterborough, as is Perkins Engines (diesel engines). News International
News International
has a main office there and Indesit
(owner of Hotpoint, previously owned by GEC before 2007) has its UK headquarters in Woodston. Next door is Applied Energy Products (part of Glen Dimplex), which owns Redring, Credair and Xpelair. The N&P Building Society (since November 2011 part of the Yorkshire Building Society) is in Orton Northgate. Bauer Radio and Bauer Consumer Media (formerly EMAP
Consumer Media) are headquartered on Lincoln Road. EMAP
has its magazine headquarters off the A605 in Orton Wistow; and BGL Group (Compare The Market) is in Orton Southgate next to the Peterborough
services. Ronart Cars
Ronart Cars
and Radical Sportscars develop sports cars at Westwood. Baker Perkins makes food processing equipment next to the Paston Parkway (A15) in Gunthorpe.

Gate guard at RAF Lakenheath

The United States Air Force
United States Air Force
still has bases in Suffolk. Johnsons and Mr Fothergill's produce seeds in Kentford, off the A14. In Newmarket is the base of the British horse racing industry and the National Horseracing Museum. CLAAS
UK, is based on the side of the A14 just west of Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds
at The Saxhams, Zetor
Tractors UK is in Downham Market, and New Holland UK (and also the UK base of Fiat-owned CNH Global) is in Basildon
where there is a large tractor factory. The RAF Regiment
RAF Regiment
is based at RAF Honington, between the A1088 and A134, south of Thetford, partly in Fakenham
Magna. The 100th Air Refueling Wing, which flies the KC-135 is at RAF Mildenhall. Silverline is a main maker of steel office furniture (filing cabinets and tambour desks) in Mildenhall, next to the airfield. Greene King
Greene King
and Branston Pickle are in Bury St Edmunds, and British Sugar makes all its icing sugar and caster sugar there. Helmsman is the UK's leading manufacturer of changing room cubicles and lockers, based on the A1101 at Fornham All Saints, north of Bury St Edmunds. Vinten
makes camera supports next to the A14, and is part of the Vitec Group. BT Research has had its main labs at Adastral Park
Adastral Park
near Martlesham Heath, off the A12, since 1975. This site now claims to be the largest software development centre in Europe. Essfoods is based at Rendlesham Hall
Rendlesham Hall
off the A1152, near the former RAF Bentwaters. BOCM Pauls is in Wherstead just south of Ipswich. Ransomes Jacobsen (part of Textron) makes sit-down lawn mowers on the Ransomes Europark near the A14/A1189 junction. The Port of Felixstowe
Port of Felixstowe
is the UK's busiest container terminal and the 28th busiest in the world. Birds Eye, now no longer part of Unilever, now has its main factories in Lowestoft
near Ness Point, and LEC Marine makes switchboards. SLP Engineering makes gas platforms for the North Sea. Adnams Brewery
Adnams Brewery
is on the Suffolk
coast at Southwold. The electricity supplier Haven Power is based in Ipswich. Thompson and Morgan
Thompson and Morgan
produces seeds, west of Ipswich
just off the A14 at Sproughton. Becker Acroma (part of Sherwin-Williams) makes wood finishes off the A1017 in Haverhill, and on the same industrial estate International Flavors & Fragrances makes fragrances, and Marchant Manufacturing makes polythene (retail) bags. Essex/Greater London[edit]

Ford of Europe's Dunton Technical Centre

The Scout Association
The Scout Association
is headquartered in Gilwell Park
Gilwell Park
in south Essex. Konica Minolta
Konica Minolta
Business Solutions (UK), Muddy Fox (mountain bikes) and SELEX Galileo
SELEX Galileo
(formerly BAE Systems
BAE Systems
Avionics) are in Basildon, and MK Electric makes circuit protection systems, and is based at Cranes near the A127/A132 junction, with a factory at Southend. Britvic
is on the A1016 in Chelmsford, which is the historic home of the Marconi Company now run by BAE Systems
BAE Systems
at Great Baddow. Federal Express Europe Inc is at Stansted Airport. Clarke International, which makes electrical power equipment and tools, is on the B1393 (formerly the A11) in Epping. Clinton Cards
Clinton Cards
is in Loughton, where De La Rue
De La Rue
has a banknote printing factory next to junction 5 of the M11, printing notes for the Bank of England
and other countries. Countrywide plc
Countrywide plc
is in Witham, Essex. The army has a large base in Colchester, which is the home of the Parachute Regiment and 16 Air Assault Brigade. In the east of Colchester, off the A134 is MAN Diesel & Turbo UK, formerly owned by Paxmans, which built the diesel engines for most UK trains, and further south in the town at Hythe there is Chandos Records.[citation needed] Transport[edit] See also: Transport in East Anglia Transport policy[edit]

M11 near Cambridge

As part of the transport planning system the Regional Assembly is under statutory requirement to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency
Highways Agency
and Network Rail.[14] Within the region the local transport authorities carry out transport planning through the use of a Local Transport Plan (LTP) which outlines their strategies, policies and implementation programme.[15] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006-11. In the East of England
region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Bedfordshire,[16] Cambridgeshire,[17] Essex,[18] Hertfordshire,[19] Luton
U.A.,[20] Norfolk,[21] Peterborough
U.A.,[22] Southend-on-Sea
U.A.,[23] Suffolk,[24] Thurrock
U.A.[25] Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Bedfordshire
was split into two unitary councils,[26] the Bedfordshire
transport authority has ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area. Road[edit]

The Orwell Bridge

The East of England
region is covered by the Highways Agency operational area 6 and part of area 8. Major roads servicing these areas include the M1 London to Milton Keynes, M11 London to Cambridge, M25 through Hertfordshire
and Essex, A1 London to Peterborough, A5 St. Albans to Milton Keynes, A11 London to Norwich, A12 London to Great Yarmouth, A14 Felixstowe to Rugby via Cambridge, A47 Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
to Nuneaton and the A120 Harwich to Stansted. There are a number of proposed road developments throughout the region. Britain's first main motorway, the M1, opened at Toddington on 2 November 1959. Milton Ernest
Milton Ernest
in Bedfordshire, on the A6 north of Bedford, was the first UK place in December 2012 to have the Siemens SafeZone
average speed cameras (similar to SPECS, with much-reduced infrastructure) using Sicore ANPR cameras. Rail[edit] The region is serviced by Network Rail
Network Rail
Route 5 West Anglia and Route 7 Great Eastern as well as parts of Route 6 North London Line and Thameside, Route 8 East Coast Main Line and Route 18 West Coast Main Line. Major rail lines run London to Norwich, London to Cambridge
and King's Lynn, and London to Southend with a number of rural branch lines servicing the wider region. A major freight route also runs between the Port of Felixstowe
Port of Felixstowe
and London. Colchester
railway station has the longest railway platform in the UK - around 620 metres, with Gloucester railway station
Gloucester railway station
second at 600m. The Sunshine Coast Line
Sunshine Coast Line
was the first to be electrified in the country with 25kV AC overhead wires, with the first service from Colchester
to Great Bentley in April 1959. Shippea Hill railway station, on the Breckland Line
Breckland Line
east of Ely at the crossing of the A1101, is the quietest railway station (by passengers) in the UK. Buckenham railway station
Buckenham railway station
on the Wherry Lines
Wherry Lines
east of Norwich
on the Norfolk
Broads is the 9th quietest railway station in the UK. Sea[edit]


The East of England
has one international ferry port, Harwich International Port, which together with the Port of Felixstowe, the UK's largest container port, and the Port of Ipswich
forms the Haven ports group. The London Gateway
London Gateway
container port on the Essex
side of the Thames Estuary was developed on the old Shell Haven
Shell Haven
site and will have, when fully complete, 6 deep-water berths capable of docking the next generation of ultra large container ships.[27][28] The Port of Tilbury is also located on the Thames Estuary, to the west of London Gateway. The East of England
coast also holds a number of traditional fishing ports including the King's Lynn
King's Lynn
Docks, the Port of Lowestoft
and Wells Harbour. Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
Outer Harbour opened in 2010 and along with the Port of Lowestoft
provides support for the North Sea
North Sea
energy industry, including the growing off-shore wind energy sector. Air[edit]

Stansted is Ryanair's biggest hub with 108 routes

The region has four public international airports, London Luton Airport, London Southend Airport
London Southend Airport
(formerly RAF Rochford), London Stansted Airport (formerly RAF Stansted Mountfitchet) and Norwich International Airport (formerly RAF Horsham St Faith). It also includes a number of smaller local airfields that are licensed for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction; these include Beccles Airport, Cambridge
Airport, Clacton Airport, Duxford Aerodrome and Peterborough/Sibson Airport. Luton
Airport is the headquarters of easyjet. With Luton
and Stansted, the region has two of the best, if not the biggest, airline hubs in Europe. Stansted Airport, built in 1991, is the fourth busiest in the UK, with 17m passengers in 2012, and Luton
is the fifth busiest with 9m. Stansted has not had any success in attracting long-haul flight routes. Education[edit]

Clare College Bridge
Clare College Bridge
at the University of Cambridge

There are around 255,000 at the region's secondary schools. Essex
and Southend-on-Sea
LEAs have selective schools. In general, the region performs well at GCSE. The region overall has a low truancy rate. Within the region, Great Yarmouth
Great Yarmouth
has the highest truancy rate with 6.7% persistent truants, followed by Fenland
(Cambridgeshire) with 6.3%. St Edmundsbury
St Edmundsbury
(Suffolk) has the lowest persistent truancy rate with 2.0%.[when?] There are twenty seven FE colleges (FECs) in the region.[29] The largest FE college is Suffolk
New College. The YPLA[30] regional office is based in Stoke, Ipswich, off the A137 next to Cliff Quay. Universities[edit] The main university in the region (and also highly important in England
generally) is the University of Cambridge.[31] The university has been officially rated as the best in the world in 2010.[32] It has the second best medicine course in the world, and in 2010 became the only university outside of the USA to raise over £1 billion in charitable donations. There are eight universities in the region. Cambridge
hosts two universities: the University of Cambridge, which enjoys an international reputation, and Anglia Ruskin University, a vibrant, modern university with an impressive range of undergraduate Degrees, Masters and PhD courses (8 subject areas are rated as 'world-leading' or 'internationally excellent' by the government for their research). It is also the home of the Open University's East of England
branch. Norwich
also hosts two universities: the University of East Anglia
East Anglia
and Norwich
University of the Arts. There are also other towns and cities in the region which have universities including Bedford
and Luton (University of Bedfordshire), Colchester
(University of Essex) and Hatfield (University of Hertfordshire). Other higher education centres in the region include University Centre Peterborough, University of Suffolk
and Writtle
College. For England, the region has the highest proportion of post-graduate students—thanks mainly to those at Cambridge. Of those undergraduate students studying in the region, around 45% are native to the region—most go elsewhere, and the region is a net exporter of students. Around 40% of the region's students are from other regions. The University of Cambridge, due to the high calibre required for entrance, has a mix of students from all over the UK. Around 55% of students in the region come from either the East of England, the South East or London. Very few come from anywhere in the North of England, especially the North East (less than 1%—and most of those will be to Cambridge). Only around 3% come from the neighbouring East Midlands—a much higher proportion of East of England
native students go to study in the East Midlands
East Midlands

University of Essex
near Colchester

The University of Cambridge
receives almost three times as much funding as any other university in the region, due to its huge research grant—the largest in England
(and the UK). The next largest, by funding, is UEA in Norwich. The University of Essex
and Cranfield University
Cranfield University
also have moderately large research grants, but no other universities in the region do. The largest university by student numbers is ARU, and the next biggest is Cambridge. The smallest is Essex. For total income to universities, Cambridge
receives around £1 billion—around six times larger than any other university in the region. The University of Bedfordshire
receives the least income. Cambridge
has the lowest drop-out (discontinuation) rate in the region. Once graduated, over 50% of students stay in the region, with 25% going to London and 10% going to the South East. Very few go elsewhere—especially the North of England.

University of Cambridge University of East Anglia University of Essex University of Hertfordshire Anglia Ruskin University University of Bedfordshire

Sport[edit] Football[edit] The rules of football were largely drawn up by Trinity College, Cambridge
in 1848, known as the Cambridge
rules at Parker's Piece; Ebenezer Cobb Morley
Ebenezer Cobb Morley
of Barnes Rugby Football Club
Barnes Rugby Football Club
in London, also drew up some important rules in 1863, known as the Laws of the Game. East of England's top representatives in the English football league system today are Ipswich
Town, Norwich
City, Watford, and Luton
Town, who have competed in the top flight at various points. Motorsport[edit] iSport International is based at Carleton Rode, south of Norwich
in Norfolk. Super Nova Racing
Super Nova Racing
is in Griston, west of Norwich. Robert Huff of Cambridge
was the 2012 World Touring Car Championship
2012 World Touring Car Championship
champion. Rafting[edit] Lee Valley White Water Centre
Lee Valley White Water Centre
is off the A121 in Hertfordshire
near Waltham Cross
Waltham Cross
railway station. Peterborough
has Thorpe Meadows rowing lake. Media[edit] Radio[edit] Orfordness transmitting station
Orfordness transmitting station
broadcast the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
across Europe on 648 kHz until 2011. Newspapers[edit] The National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ, important for all journalists) is based near Newport railway station south of Saffron Walden. Roto Smeets Ltd (Dutch) is near Sawbridgeworth railway station, actually in Sheering
in Essex,and prints the Daily Express
Daily Express
and Daily Star magazines. Magazines[edit] Wyndeham Group have main magazine-printing works next to Peterborough Power Station and at Heybridge, Maldon. Polestar Colchester, off the A123 north of Colchester, formerly printed Nuts, Zoo and Front. See also[edit]

East of England
( European Parliament
European Parliament
constituency) East of England
Regional Strategy Board East of England
Development Agency Regions of England East Anglia


List of future transport developments in the East of England List of schools in the East of England


^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England
and Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  ^ Home counties#In official use ^ Communities and Local Government 2007 Archived 13 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Claimant count[permanent dead link] ^ "The East of England
Plan, the Revision to the Regional Spatial Strategy for the East of England, has been published today (12 May 2008)". Go East. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.  ^ Optical fibre ^ Perkins ^ Business Link
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Coordinates: 52°14′N 0°25′E / 52.24°N 0.41°