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East Timor
Timor
(/-ˈtiːmɔːr/ (listen)) or Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔːr ˈlɛʃteɪ/; Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste[11] (Portuguese: República Democrática de Timor-Leste,[12] Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste),[13] is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.[14] It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia
Australia
is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor
Timor
Sea. The country's size is about 15,007 km2 (5,794 sq mi).[7] East Timor
Timor
was colonised by Portugal
Portugal
in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
until 28 November 1975, when the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor
Timor
(Fretilin) declared the territory's independence. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by the Indonesian military, and was declared as the country's 27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Timor
was characterised by a highly violent, decades-long conflict between separatist groups (especially Fretilin) and the Indonesian military. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia
Indonesia
relinquished control of the territory. East Timor
Timor
became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on 20 May 2002 and joined the United Nations
United Nations
and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. In 2011, East Timor
Timor
announced its intention to become the eleventh member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).[15] It is one of only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines, as well as the only Asian country to be located completely in the Southern Hemisphere.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Classical era 2.3 Colonial era

2.3.1 Portuguese period (1769-1975) 2.3.2 Indonesian occupation (1975-1999)

2.4 Contemporary era

3 Politics and government 4 Administrative divisions 5 Foreign relations and military 6 Geography 7 Economy 8 Demographics

8.1 Languages 8.2 Education 8.3 Health 8.4 Religion

9 Culture

9.1 Arts 9.2 Cinema and TV drama 9.3 Cuisine 9.4 Sports

10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Etymology[edit] "Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian language, which became recorded as Timor
Timor
in Portuguese, thus resulting in the tautological toponym meaning "East East": In Portuguese Timor-Leste (Leste being the word for "east"); in Tetum
Tetum
Timór Lorosa'e (Lorosa'e being the word for "east" (literally "rising sun")). In Indonesian, the country is called Timor
Timor
Timur, thereby using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for "east", as adjectives in Indonesian are put after the noun. The official names under the Constitution are Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste in English,[16] República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese,[12] and Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste in Tetum.[13] The International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) official short form in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste (codes: TLS & TL), which has been adopted by the United Nations,[17] the European Union,[18] and the national standards organisations of France
France
(AFNOR), the United States (ANSI),[19] United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(BSI), Germany
Germany
(DIN), and Sweden (SIS), all diplomatic missions to the country by protocol and the CIA World Factbook.[20]

History[edit] Main article: History of East Timor Prehistory[edit] Humans first settled in East Timor
Timor
42,000 years ago.[21] Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to live in East Timor. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo- Australoid
Australoid
type. Around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo- Australoid
Australoid
peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior. Finally, proto-Malays arrived from south China
China
and north Indochina.[22] Hakka traders are among those descended from this final group.[23] Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed around the eastern end of Timor
Timor
arriving on land in the south. Some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra.[24] Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island.[citation needed]

Classical era[edit] See also: Greater India Before European colonialism, Timor
Timor
was included in Chinese and Indian trading networks, and in the 14th century was an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey, and wax. Since the 1500's, the Timorese people had military ties with the Luções
Luções
of present-day northern Philippines.[25][26] It was the relative abundance of sandalwood in Timor
Timor
that attracted European explorers to the island in the early 16th century.[27] During that time, European explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms.[citation needed]

Arms of Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(1935–1975)[28] Colonial era[edit] See also: Battle of Penfui Portuguese period (1769-1975)[edit] The Portuguese established outposts in Timor
Timor
and Maluku. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili
Dili
was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared.[29] A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
of 1914,[30] and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor
Timor
and Indonesia. For the Portuguese, East Timor
Timor
remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure, health, and education. Sandalwood
Sandalwood
remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. As was often the case, Portuguese rule was generally neglectful but exploitative where it existed.[31] At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, which was met with East Timorese resistance.[31] During World War II, first the Allies and later the Japanese occupied Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by East Timorese volunteers and Allied forces against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 East Timorese.[32] The Japanese eventually drove the last of the Australian and Allied forces out. However, following the end of World War II and Japanese surrender, Portuguese control was reinstated. Following the 1974 Portuguese revolution, Portugal
Portugal
effectively abandoned its colony on Timor
Timor
and civil war between East Timorese political parties broke out in 1975. The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor
Timor
(Fretilin) resisted a Timorese Democratic Union
Timorese Democratic Union
(UDT) coup attempt in August 1975,[33] and unilaterally declared independence on 28 November 1975. Fearing a communist state within the Indonesian archipelago, the Indonesian military launched an invasion of East Timor
Timor
in December 1975.[34] Indonesia
Indonesia
declared East Timor
Timor
its 27th province on 17 July 1976.[35] The UN Security Council opposed the invasion and the territory's nominal status in the UN remained as "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration".[36]

A demonstration for independence from Indonesia
Indonesia
held in Australia during September 1999 Indonesian occupation (1975-1999)[edit] Indonesia's occupation of East Timor
Timor
was marked by violence and brutality. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor
Timor
cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 "excess" deaths from hunger and illness, with an estimated figure based on Portuguese, Indonesian and Catholic Church data of approximately 200,000 deaths.[37] The East Timorese guerrilla force (Forças Armadas da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste, Falintil) fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975 to 1998.[citation needed]

José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, second President of East Timor The 1991 Dili
Dili
Massacre was a turning point for the independence cause and an East Timor
Timor
solidarity movement grew in Portugal, the Philippines, Australia, and other Western countries. Following the resignation of Indonesian President Suharto, a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Portugal
Portugal
allowed for a UN-supervised popular referendum in June 1998. A clear vote for independence was met with a punitive campaign of violence by East Timorese pro-integration militia with the support of elements of the Indonesian military. With Indonesian permission, an Australian-led multi-national peacekeeping force (INTERFET) was deployed until order was restored. On 5 June 1998, the administration of East Timor
Timor
was taken over by the UN through the United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Administration in East Timor
Timor
(UNTAET).[38] The INTERFET deployment ended in February 2000 with the transfer of military command to the UN.[39]

Contemporary era[edit] Xanana Gusmão, the third East Timorese President. On 30 August 2001, the East Timorese voted in their first election organised by the UN to elect members of the Constituent Assembly.[16][40] On 22 March 2002, the Constituent Assembly approved the Constitution.[16] By May 2002, over 205,000 refugees had returned.[41] On 20 May 2002, the Constitution of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of East Timor
Timor
came into force and East Timor
Timor
was recognised as independent by the UN.[40][42] The Constituent Assembly was renamed the National Parliament and Xanana Gusmão
Xanana Gusmão
was sworn in as the country's first President. On 27 September 2002, East Timor
Timor
was renamed to Timor-Leste, using the Portuguese language, and was admitted as a member state by the UN.[43] The following year, Gusmão declined another presidential term, and in the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were renewed outbreaks of violence. José Ramos-Horta
José Ramos-Horta
was elected President in the May 2007 election,[44] while Gusmão ran in the parliamentary elections and became Prime Minister. Ramos-Horta was critically injured in an attempted assassination in February 2008. Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped unharmed. Australian reinforcements were immediately sent to help keep order.[45] In 2006, the United Nations
United Nations
sent in security forces to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 15 percent of the population (155,000 people) to flee their homes. In March 2011, the UN handed over operational control of the police force to the East Timor
Timor
authorities. The United Nations
United Nations
ended its peacekeeping mission on 31 December 2012.[46] East Timor
Timor
became a state party to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Convention on 31 January 2017.[47]

Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics of East Timor The head of state of East Timor
Timor
is the President of the Republic, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although their executive powers are somewhat limited, the President does have the power to appoint the Prime Minister and veto government legislation. Following elections, the President usually appoints the leader of the majority party or coalition as Prime Minister of East Timor
Prime Minister of East Timor
and the cabinet on the proposal of the latter. As head of government, the Prime Minister presides over the cabinet.[4][5]

Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace
Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace
in Dili. The National Parliament of East Timor East Timor's Attorney General's Office The unicameral East Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions. Government departments include the Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste (police), East Timor
Timor
Ministry for State and Internal Administration, Civil Aviation Division of Timor-Leste, and Immigration Department of Timor-Leste.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Municipalities of East Timor, Administrative posts of East Timor, and Sucos of East Timor The thirteen municipalities of East Timor East Timor
Timor
is divided into thirteen municipalities, which in turn are subdivided into 65 administrative posts, 442 sucos (villages), and 2,225 aldeias (hamlets).[48][49]

Oecusse Liquiçá Dili Manatuto Baucau Lautém Bobonaro Ermera Aileu Viqueque Cova Lima Ainaro Manufahi Foreign relations and military[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "East Timor" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Foreign relations of East Timor
Timor
and Timor
Timor
Leste Defence Force F-FDTL soldiers standing in formation East Timor
Timor
is a full member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language. East Timor
Timor
sought membership in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2007, and a formal application was submitted in March 2011.[50] Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines
Philippines
support East Timor's bid to join ASEAN.

The Casa Europa
Casa Europa
in Dili, the European Union's representation in East Timor Indonesia-East Timor
Timor
border in Mota'ain The East Timor
Timor
Defence Force (Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste, F-FDTL) is the military body responsible for the defence of East Timor. The F-FDTL was established in February 2001 and comprised two small infantry battalions, a small naval component, and several supporting units. The F-FDTL's primary role is to protect East Timor
Timor
from external threats. It also has an internal security role, which overlaps with that of the National Police of East Timor
Timor
(Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste, PNTL). This overlap has led to tensions between the services, which have been exacerbated by poor morale and lack of discipline within the F-FDTL. The F-FDTL's problems came to a head in 2006 when almost half the force was dismissed following protests over discrimination and poor conditions. The dismissal contributed to a general collapse of both the F-FDTL and PNTL in May and forced the government to request foreign peacekeepers to restore security. The F-FDTL is being rebuilt with foreign assistance and has drawn up a long-term force development plan.

Demonstration against Australia
Australia
on December 2013 Since the discovery of petroleum in the Timor
Timor
Sea in the 1970s, there have been disputes surrounding the rights to ownership and exploitation of the resources situated in a part of the Timor
Timor
Sea known as the Timor
Timor
Gap, which is the area of the Timor
Timor
Sea which lies outside the territorial boundaries of the nations to the north and south of the Timor
Timor
Sea.[51] These disagreements initially involved Australia
Australia
and Indonesia, although a resolution was eventually reached in the form of the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty. After declaration of East Timor's nationhood in 1999, the terms of the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty were abandoned and negotiations commenced between Australia
Australia
and East Timor, culminating in the Timor
Timor
Sea Treaty. Australia's territorial claim extends to the bathymetric axis (the line of greatest sea-bed depth) at the Timor
Timor
Trough. It overlaps East Timor's own territorial claim, which follows the former colonial power Portugal
Portugal
and the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea in claiming that the dividing line should be midway between the two countries. It was revealed in 2013 that the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) planted listening devices to listen to the East Timorese government during negotiations over the Greater Sunrise oil and gasfields. This is known as the Australia–East Timor
Timor
spying scandal.[52]

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of East Timor

Ilha de Jaco, Lautém, East Timor

Dili
Dili
Coast

Matebian, Baucau, Timor-Leste

Paitchau
Paitchau
range, East Timor

Loi-Huno, Viqueque, East Timor

Mundo Perdido, Timor-Leste

Aldeia de Berau, Atauro, East Timor

Located in Southeast Asia,[53] the island of Timor
Timor
is part of Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. To the north of the island are the Ombai Strait, Wetar Strait, and the greater Banda Sea. The Timor
Timor
Sea separates the island from Australia
Australia
to the south, and the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara
lies to East Timor's west. The total land size is 14,919 km2 (5,760 sq mi). East Timor
Timor
has an exclusive economic zone of 70,326 km2 (27,153 sq mi).[54] Much of the country is mountainous, and its highest point is Tatamailau
Tatamailau
(also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 metres (9,721 ft).[55] The climate is tropical and generally hot and humid. It is characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city, and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau. East Timor
Timor
lies between latitudes 8° and 10°S, and longitudes 124° and 128°E. The easternmost area of East Timor
Timor
consists of the Paitchau
Paitchau
Range and the Lake Ira Lalaro
Ira Lalaro
area, which contains the country's first conservation area, the Nino Konis Santana National Park.[56] It contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated.[57] The northern coast is characterised by a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk.[58]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of East Timor East Timor
Timor
export treemap, 2010 Fractional coins "centavos" Coffee
Coffee
plantations in Aileu East Timor
Timor
has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, petroleum, and sandalwood.[59] East Timor's economy grew by about 10% in 2011 and at a similar rate in 2012.[60] East Timor
Timor
now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but little of it has gone to develop villages, which still rely on subsistence farming.[61] Nearly half the population lives in extreme poverty.[61] The Timor-Leste Petroleum
Petroleum
Fund was established in 2005, and by 2011 it had reached a worth of US$8.7 billion.[62] East Timor
Timor
is labelled by the International Monetary Fund as the "most oil-dependent economy in the world".[63] The Petroleum
Petroleum
Fund pays for nearly all of the government's annual budget, which has increased from $70 million in 2004 to $1.3 billion in 2011, with a $1.8 billion proposal for 2012.[62] East-Timor's income from oil and gas stands to significantly increase after its announcement to cancel a controversial agreement with Australia, which has given Australia
Australia
half of the income from oil and gas since 2006.[64]

Shopping mall
Shopping mall
in Dili The economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser extent, assistance from foreign donors.[65] Private sector development has lagged due to human capital shortages, infrastructure weakness, an incomplete legal system, and an inefficient regulatory environment.[65] After petroleum, the second largest export is coffee, which generates about $10 million a year.[65] Starbucks
Starbucks
is a major purchaser of East Timorese coffee.[66]

Port of Dili
Dili
9,000 tonnes of coffee, 108 tonnes of cinnamon and 161 tonnes of cocoa were harvested in 2012 making the country the 40th ranked producer of coffee, the 6th ranked producer of cinnamon and the 50th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide.[67] According to data gathered in the 2010 census, 87.7% of urban (321,043 people) and 18.9% of rural (821,459 people) households have electricity, for an overall average of 38.2%.[68] The agriculture sector employs 80% of the active population.[69] In 2009, about 67,000 households grew coffee in East Timor, with a large proportion being poor.[69] Currently, the gross margins are about $120 per hectare, with returns per labour-day of about $3.70.[69] There were 11,000 households growing mungbeans as of 2009, most of them subsistence farmers.[69] The country was ranked 169th overall and last in the East Asia
Asia
and Pacific region by the Doing Business 2013 report by the World Bank. The country fared particularly poorly in the "registering property", "enforcing contracts" and "resolving insolvency" categories, ranking last worldwide in all three.[70] As regards telecommunications infrastructure, East Timor
Timor
is the second to last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI), with only Myanmar
Myanmar
falling behind it in southeast Asia. NRI is an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. East Timor
Timor
ranked number 141 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, down from 134 in 2013.[71] The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to the Australia-bound Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop petroleum and natural gas deposits in the waters southeast of Timor. However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976.[citation needed] The resources were divided between Indonesia
Indonesia
and Australia with the Timor
Timor
Gap Treaty in 1989.[72] East Timor
Timor
inherited no permanent maritime boundaries when it attained independence.[citation needed] A provisional agreement (the Timor
Timor
Sea Treaty, signed when East Timor
Timor
became independent on 20 May 2002) defined a Joint Petroleum
Petroleum
Development Area (JPDA) and awarded 90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East Timor
Timor
and 10% to Australia.[73] An agreement in 2005 between the governments of East Timor
Timor
and Australia
Australia
mandated that both countries put aside their dispute over maritime boundaries and that East Timor would receive 50% of the revenues from the resource exploitation in the area (estimated at A$26 billion, or about US$20 billion over the lifetime of the project)[74] from the Greater Sunrise development.[75] In 2013, East Timor
Timor
launched a case at the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
in The Hague
The Hague
to pull out of a gas treaty that it had signed with Australia, accusing the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) of bugging the East Timorese cabinet room in Dili
Dili
in 2004.[76] East Timor
Timor
is part of the Timor
Timor
Leste–Indonesia– Australia
Australia
Growth Triangle (TIA-GT).[77] There are no patent laws in East Timor.[78] A railway system has been proposed but the current government has yet to approve the proposal due to lack of funds and expertise. If established, the country's economy is projected to have an economic boom similar to that of Japan
Japan
almost a century ago. The Philippines has noted that if they finally finish their own railway system by 2022, they may send experts and aid to East Timor
Timor
for its railway ambitions.

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of East Timor An East Timorese in traditional dress Historical populationsYearPop.±%1980555,350—    1990747,557+34.6%2001787,340+5.3%2004923,198+17.3%20101,066,582+15.5%20151,167,242+9.4%Source: 2015 census[79] Population pyramid East Timor
Timor
demographic change between 1861 and 2010. East Timor
Timor
recorded a population of 1,167,242 in its 2015 census.[8] The CIA's World Factbook lists the English-language demonym for East Timor
Timor
as Timorese,[80] as does the Government of Timor-Leste's website.[81] Other reference sources list it as East Timorese.[82][83] The word Maubere,[84] formerly used by the Portuguese to refer to native East Timorese and often employed as synonymous with the illiterate and uneducated, was adopted by Fretilin
Fretilin
as a term of pride.[85] Native East Timorese consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Austronesian
Austronesian
and Melanesian/Papuan descent.[citation needed] The largest Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum[86] (100,000), primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambai (80,000), in the central mountains; the Tukudede
Tukudede
(63,170), in the area around Maubara
Maubara
and Liquiçá; the Galoli
Galoli
(50,000), between the tribes of Mambae and Makasae; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central Timor
Timor
island; and the Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante Macassar.[citation needed] The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak (84,000), in the central interior of Timor
Timor
island; the Fataluku (40,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos; and the Makasae
Makasae
(70,000), toward the eastern end of the island.[citation needed] As a result of interracial marriage which was common during the Portuguese era, there is a population of people of mixed East Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços. There is a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka.[87] Many Chinese left in the mid-1970s.[88]

Languages[edit] Main article: Languages of East Timor Major language groups in East Timor
Timor
by suco East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. English and Indonesian are sometimes used.[89] Tetum
Tetum
belongs to the Austronesian
Austronesian
family of languages spoken throughout Southeast Asia.[90] The 2010 census found that the most commonly spoken mother tongues were Tetum
Tetum
Prasa (mother tongue for 36.6% of the population), Mambai (12.5%), Makasai
Makasai
(9.7%), Tetum
Tetum
Terik (6.0%), Baikenu (5.9%), Kemak (5.9%), Bunak
Bunak
(5.3%), Tokodede
Tokodede
(3.7%), and Fataluku (3.6%). Other indigenous languages largely accounted for 10.9%, while Portuguese was spoken natively by the remainder.[91] Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned, and even criminalized with the death penalty[92] and only Indonesian was allowed to be used in government offices, schools and public business.[93] During the Indonesian occupation, Tetum
Tetum
and Portuguese were important unifying elements for the East Timorese people in opposing Javanese culture.[94] Portuguese was adopted as one of the two official languages upon independence in 2002 for this reason and as a link to Lusophone nations in other parts of the world. It is now being taught and promoted with the help of Brazil, Portugal, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.[95] According to the observatory of the Portuguese language, the East Timorese literacy rate was 77.8% in Tetum, 55.6% in Indonesian, and 39.3% in Portuguese, and that the primary literacy rate increased from 73% in 2009 to 83% in 2012.[92] Indonesian and English are defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date. In 2012, 35% could speak, read, and write Portuguese, which is up significantly from less than 5% in the 2006 UN Development Report. Portuguese is recovering as it is now been made the main official language of Timor, and is being taught in most schools.[89][96] It is estimated that English is understood by 31.4% of the population. East Timor
Timor
is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth) and of the Latin Union.[97] Aside from Tetum, Ethnologue
Ethnologue
lists the following indigenous languages: Adabe, Baikeno, Bunak, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idaté, Kairui-Midiki, Kemak, Lakalei, Makasae, Makuv'a, Mambae, Nauete, Tukudede, and Waima'a.[98] According to the Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, there are six endangered languages in East Timor: Adabe, Habu, Kairui-Midiki, Maku'a, Naueti, and Waima'a.[99]

Education[edit] Escola Portuguesa Ruy Cinatti, the Portuguese School of Díli. East Timor's adult literacy rate in 2010 was 58.3%, up from 37.6% in 2001.[100] Illiteracy was at 95% at the end of Portuguese rule.[101] The National University of East Timor
Timor
is the country's main university. There are also four colleges.[102] Since independence, both Indonesian and Tetum
Tetum
have lost ground as media of instruction, while Portuguese has increased: in 2001 only 8.4% of primary school and 6.8% of secondary school students attended a Portuguese-medium school; by 2005 this had increased to 81.6% for primary and 46.3% for secondary schools.[103] Indonesian formerly played a considerable role in education, being used by 73.7% of all secondary school students as a medium of instruction, but by 2005 it was used by most schools in Baucau, Manatuto, as well as the capital district. The Philippines
Philippines
has sent Filipino teachers to East Timor
Timor
to teach English, so that a program between the two countries can begin, where deserving English-knowledgeable East Timorese nationals will be granted university scholarships in the Philippines.[103]

Health[edit] See Health in East Timor

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in East Timor See also: Catholic Church in East Timor The Church of Santo António de Motael, Dili According to the 2010 census, 96.9% of the population is Roman Catholic; 2.2% Protestant; 0.3% Muslim; and 0.5% practice some other or no religion.[1] A 2016 survey conducted by the Demographic and Health Survey programme showed that Catholics made up 98.3% of the population, Protestants 1.2%, and Muslims 0.3%.[104] The number of churches has grown from 100 in 1974 to over 800 in 1994,[102] with Church membership having grown considerably under Indonesian rule as Pancasila, Indonesia's state ideology, requires all citizens to believe in one God and does not recognise traditional beliefs. East Timorese animist belief systems did not fit with Indonesia's constitutional monotheism, resulting in mass conversions to Christianity. Portuguese clergy were replaced with Indonesian priests and Latin and Portuguese mass was replaced by Indonesian mass.[105] While just 20% of East Timorese called themselves Catholics at the time of the 1975 invasion, the figure surged to reach 95% by the end of the first decade after the invasion.[105][106] In rural areas, Roman Catholicism is syncretized with local animist beliefs.[107] With over 95% Catholic population, East Timor
Timor
is currently one of the most densely Catholic countries in the world.[108]

Igreja da Imaculada Conceição church, in Viqueque The number of Protestants and Muslims declined significantly after September 1999 because these groups were disproportionately represented among supporters of integration with Indonesia
Indonesia
and among the Indonesian civil servants assigned to work in the province from other parts of Indonesia, many of whom left the country in 1999.[109] There are also small Protestant
Protestant
and Muslim communities.[109] The Indonesian military forces formerly stationed in the country included a significant number of Protestants, who played a major role in establishing Protestant
Protestant
churches in the territory.[109] Fewer than half of those congregations existed after September 1999, and many Protestants were among those who remained in West Timor.[109] The Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God
is the largest and most active of the Protestant
Protestant
denominations.[109] While the Constitution of East Timor
Timor
enshrines the principles of freedom of religion and separation of church and state in Section 45 Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble (although this has no legal value).[110] Upon independence, the country joined the Philippines
Philippines
to become the only two predominantly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
states in Asia, although nearby parts of eastern Indonesia
Indonesia
such as West Timor
Timor
and Flores
Flores
also have Roman Catholic majorities. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church divides East Timor
Timor
into three dioceses: the Diocese of Díli, the Diocese of Baucau, and the Diocese of Maliana, all of which have friendly ties with the hundreds of dioceses in the Philippines.[111]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of East Timor Sacred house (lee teinu) in Lospalos The culture of East Timor
Timor
reflects numerous influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Indonesian, on Timor's indigenous Austronesian
Austronesian
and Melanesian cultures. East Timorese culture is heavily influenced by Austronesian
Austronesian
legends. For example, East Timorese creation myth has it that an aging crocodile transformed into the island of Timor
Timor
as part of a debt repayment to a young boy who had helped the crocodile when it was sick.[112][113] As a result, the island is shaped like a crocodile and the boy's descendants are the native East Timorese who inhabit it. The phrase "leaving the crocodile" refers to the pained exile of East Timorese from their island. East Timor
Timor
is currently finalizing its dossiers needed for nominations in the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network, UNESCO
UNESCO
Global Geoparks Network, and UNESCO
UNESCO
Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere Reserve
Network. The country currently has one document in the UNESCO
UNESCO
Memory of the World Register, namely, On the Birth of a Nation: Turning points.[114]

Arts[edit] Traditional Timorese dancers There is also a strong tradition of poetry in the country.[115] Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet, earning the moniker "poet warrior".[116] Architecturally, Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. These are known as uma lulik ("sacred houses") in Tetum
Tetum
and lee teinu ("legged houses") in Fataluku.[citation needed] Craftsmanship and the weaving of traditional scarves (tais) is also widespread.[citation needed] An extensive collection of Timorese audiovisual material is held at the National Film and Sound Archive
National Film and Sound Archive
of Australia. These holdings have been identified in a document titled The NFSA Timor-Leste Collection Profile, which features catalogue entries and essays for a total of 795 NFSA-held moving image, recorded sound and documentation works that have captured the history and culture of East Timor
Timor
since the early 20th century.[117] The NFSA is working with the East Timorese government to ensure that all of this material can be used and accessed by the people of that country.[118]

Cinema and TV drama[edit] In 2009 and 2010, East Timor
Timor
was the setting for the Australian film Balibo and the South Korean film A Barefoot Dream. In 2013, the first East Timorese feature film, Beatriz's War, was released.[119] Two further feature-length films, Abdul & José and Ema Nudar Umanu, were respectively released on July 30, 2017 through the television network of RTTF[120][121] and on August 16, 2018 at the Melbourne International Film Festival.[122] In 2010, the first East Timorese TV drama, Suku Hali was released.

Cuisine[edit] The cuisine of East Timor
Timor
consists of regional popular foods such as pork, fish, basil, tamarind, legumes, corn, rice, root vegetables, and tropical fruit. East Timorese cuisine has influences from Southeast Asian cuisine and from Portuguese dishes from its colonisation by Portugal. Flavours and ingredients from other former Portuguese colonies can be found due to the centuries-old Portuguese presence on the island. Due to the East and West combination of East Timor's cuisine, it developed features related to Filipino cuisine, which also experienced an East-West culinary combination.

Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in East Timor Sports organisations joined by East Timor
Timor
include the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the International Badminton Federation (IBF), the Union Cycliste Internationale, the International Weightlifting Federation, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), the International Basketball Federation (FIBA), and East Timor's national football team joined FIFA. East Timorese athletes competed in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics
Paralympics
Games, East Timor
Timor
won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, East Timorese athletes participated in athletics, weightlifting and boxing. East Timor
Timor
won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games. East Timor
Timor
competed in the first Lusophony Games
Lusophony Games
and, in October 2008, the country earned its first international points in a FIFA
FIFA
football match with a 2–2 draw against Cambodia.[123] East Timor
Timor
competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics. Thomas Americo was the first East Timorese fighter to fight for a world boxing title. He was murdered in 1999, shortly before the Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Timor
ended.[124]

See also[edit]

East Timor
Timor
portal Outline of East Timor Index of East Timor-related articles

References[edit]

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Contemporary Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
series, 27. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415778862. Rudolph, Joseph R. Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Westport: Greenwood P, 2003. 101–106. Shelton, Dinah. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Thompson Gale. Taylor, John G. (1999). East Timor: The Price of Freedom. Australia: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-1-85649-840-1. Viegas, Susana de Matos; Feijó, Rui Graça, eds. (2017). Transformations in Independent Timor-Leste: Dynamics of Social and Cultural Cohabitations. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781315534992. East Timor: a bibliography, a bibliographic reference, Jean A. Berlie, launched by PM Xanana Gusmão, Indes Savantes editor, Paris, France, published in 2001. ISBN 978-2-84654-012-4, ISBN 978-2-84654-012-4. East Timor, politics and elections (in Chinese)/ 东帝汶政治与选举 (2001–2006): 国家建设及前景展望, Jean A. Berlie, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies of Jinan University editor, Jinan, China, published in 2007. Mats Lundahl and Fredrik Sjöholm. 2019. The Creation of the East Timorese Economy. Springer. External links[edit]

East Timorat's sister projects

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Government

Timor-Leste official government website Timor-Leste official tourism website Chief of State and Cabinet Members General information

"Timor-Leste". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. East Timor
Timor
from UCB Libraries GovPubs Timor-Leste at Curlie East Timor
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East Timor

vteEast Timor articlesHistory Timeline Pre-colonial Timor Portuguese rule Colonial governors Japanese invasion Indonesian invasion Indonesian occupation Indonesian rule Dili
Dili
massacre 1999 referendum 1999 crisis Peacekeeping efforts Transition to independence Tribunals 2006 crisis 2008 crisis Geography Cities, towns and villages Municipalities Islands Protected areas Rivers Administrative posts Sucos Tatamailau Timor Wildlife Politics Constitution Elections Foreign aid Foreign relations Human rights LGBT Law enforcement Military Parliament Political parties President Prime Minister United Nations
United Nations
mission Economy Centavo coins Foreign aid Poverty Telecommunications Transport Society Cuisine Culture Demographics Languages Literature Music Notable people Religion Sports Smoking Symbols Anthem Coat of arms Flag OutlineIndex Category Portal Related articles vteMunicipalities of East Timor Aileu Ainaro Baucau Bobonaro Cova Lima Dili Ermera Lautém Liquiçá Manatuto Manufahi Oecusse
Oecusse
(SAR) Viqueque

vteCapitals of Municipalities of East Timor Aileu Ainaro Baucau Dili Gleno Liquiçá Lospalos Maliana Manatuto Pante Macassar Same Suai Viqueque

vteAdministrative posts of East TimorAileu Aileu Laulara Lequidoe Remexio Ainaro Ainaro Hato-Udo Hatu-Builico Maubisse Baucau Baguia Baucau Laga Quelicai Vemasse Venilale Bobonaro Atabae Balibó Bobonaro Cailaco Lolotoi Maliana Cova Lima Fatululique Fatumean Fuorém Maucatar Suai Tilomar Zumulai Dili Atauro Cristo Rei Dom Aleixo Metinaro Nain Feto Vera Cruz Ermera Atsabe Ermera Hatólia Letefuó Railaco Lautém Iliomar Lautém Lospalos Luro Tutuala Liquiçá Bazartete Liquiçá Maubara Manatuto Barique-Natarbora Laclo Laclubar Laleia Manatuto Soibada Manufahi Alas Fatuberliu Same Turiscai Oecusse Nitibe Oesilo Pante Macassar Passabe Viqueque Lacluta Ossu Uatolari Uato Carabau Viqueque

vteSucos of East Timor Aisirimou Bandudatu Betano Fahiria Fatisi Fatubosa Funar Hoholau Lahae Lausi Lifau Liurai Malere Mape Matai Saboria Seloi Craic Seloi Malere

vteCountries and dependencies of AsiaSovereign states Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen States with limited recognition Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan Dependencies and specialadministrative regionsAustralia Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands China Hong Kong Macau United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

Book Category Asia
Asia
portal

vteCountries and other territories in Southeast AsiaSovereign states Brunei Cambodia East Timor Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Dependent territories Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

vteCountries of the Malay Archipelago Brunei East Timor Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Papua New Guinea

vte Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
(PIF)Members Australia Cook Islands Fiji French Polynesia Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru New Zealand Niue Palau Papua New Guinea New Caledonia Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Associate members Tokelau Observers American Samoa East Timor Guam Northern Mariana Islands Wallis and Futuna Observer Organisations African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States Asian Development Bank Commonwealth of Nations International Organization for Migration United Nations Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) World Bank Dialogue partners Canada China Cuba European Union France Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea Malaysia Philippines Spain Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Meetings 45th

vteAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsPolitics Charter Customs union Date of Establishment Organisations Secretariat Treaty of Amity and Cooperation Visa policies Symbols Anthem Emblem Flag Hymn Membership Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Observer and Candidate for Member Papua New Guinea East Timor EventsSummits ASEAN Summit East Asia
Asia
Summit Other ASEAN Plus Three Asian Monetary Unit ASEAN Regional Forum Asia–Europe Meeting Chiang Mai Initiative Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Competitions SEA Games ASEAN University Games ASEAN School Games ASEAN Para Games ASEAN Football Championship ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet Related ASEAN Football Federation ASEAN Free Trade Area ASEAN– China
China
Free Trade Area ASEAN– India
India
Free Trade Area Common Time Economy

vteEast Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS) First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Thirteenth

 Australia  Brunei  Cambodia  China  India  Indonesia  Japan  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  New Zealand  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  South Korea  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

vteNon-Aligned MovementMembers List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement StructureOrganizations NAM News Network Principles Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence Summits Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement Founders Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) People Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

vteWorld Trade OrganizationSystem Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events Issues Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore
Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause Agreements General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package MinisterialConferences 1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015) 11th (2017) People Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa Members Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
Republic
of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria North Macedonia Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

vte Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP)MembershipMembers Angola Brazil Cape Verde Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Portugal São Tomé and Príncipe Timor-Leste Observers Andorra Argentina Chile France Czech Republic Georgia Hungary Italy Japan Luxembourg Mauritius Organization of Ibero-American States Namibia Senegal Slovakia Serbia Turkey United Kingdom Uruguay Organization Executive Secretariat Flag of the CPLP TV CPLP CPLP Games CPLP Summits I – Lisbon II – Praia III – Maputo IV – Brasília V – São Tomé VI – Bissau VII – Lisbon VIII – Luanda IX – Maputo X – Díli XII – Brasília XII – Ilha do Sal Culture Portuguese language Portuguese literature Lusophone Lusitanic Lusophone music

ACOLOP Lusophony Games Countries with Portuguese as an official language International organizations with Portuguese as an official languages Category

vtePortuguese overseas empireNorth Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta
Ceuta
1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir) 1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah) 1471–1662 Tangier 1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1487–16th century Ouadane
Ouadane
1488–1541 Safim (Safi) 1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir) 1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira) 1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima) 1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida) 1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour) 1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya) 1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim 1462–1975 Cape Verde
Cape Verde
1470–1975 São Tomé1 1471–1975 Príncipe1 1474–1778 Annobón 1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko) 1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina) 1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast 1508–15472 Madagascar3 1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi
Malindi
1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique
Mozambique
1502–1659 Saint Helena
Saint Helena
1503–1698 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa) 1506–1511 Socotra
Socotra
1557–1578 Accra
Accra
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola 1588–1974 Cacheu4 1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor
Ziguinchor
1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá 1687–1974 Bissau4 18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa) 1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe 19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753.2 Or 1600.3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.4 Part of Portuguese Guinea from 1879.5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Angola
from the 1920s.Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas) 1507–1643 Sohar
Sohar
1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus) 1515–1648 Quriyat 1515–? Qalhat
Qalhat
1515–1650 Muscat 1515?–? Barka 1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah) 1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama) 1521–1529? Qatif 1521?–1551? Tarut Island 1550–1551 Qatif
Qatif
1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan
Khor Fakkan
1621?–? As Sib 1621–1622 Qeshm
Qeshm
1623–? Khasab
Khasab
1623–? Libedia 1624–? Kalba
Kalba
1624–? Madha
Madha
1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn
Dibba Al-Hisn
1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545 Laccadive Islands(Lakshadweep) 16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)  • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)  • 1502–1658 1659–1661 Quilon(Coulão / Kollam)  • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)  • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)  • 1510–1961 Goa
Goa
 • 1512–1525 1750 Calicut(Kozhikode)  • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)  • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)  • 1523–1662 Mylapore  • 1528–1666 Chittagong(Porto Grande De Bengala)  • 1531–1571 Chaul
Chaul
 • 1531–1571 Chalé  • 1534–1601 Salsette Island  • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)  • 1535 Ponnani
Ponnani
 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)  • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)  • 1540–1612 Surat
Surat
 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)  • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu  • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)  • 1579–1632Hugli  • 1598–1610Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam) 1518–1521 Maldives
Maldives
1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka) 1558–1573 Maldives 17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore 18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia
Asia
and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia] 1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]  • 1522–1575  Ternate  • 1576–1605  Ambon  • 1578–1650   Tidore
Tidore
1512–1665 Makassar 1557–1999 Macau
Macau
[China] 1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan] 17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane
Coloane
 • 1851–1999 Taipa
Taipa
 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde 20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira
Madeira
1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland) 1500–1579? Labrador 1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil
Brazil
 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil
Brazil
 • 1549–1572   Brazil
Brazil
 • 1572–1578  Bahia  • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro  • 1578–1607   Brazil
Brazil
 • 1621–1815   Brazil
Brazil
1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão 1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento 18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão 1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro 1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay) 1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá) 1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Armorial of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Nusantara Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

Authority control GND: 4075765-1 LCCN: n2002021667 MusicBrainz: 738aed7d-cc30-3a90-af20-21477ba1e8cc NARA: 10044822 NDL: 00936307 NKC: ge131391 NLA: 50180159 NLI: 001063696 SELIBR: 161041 VIAF: 261956400 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

.