Timor (/-ˈtiːmɔːr/ (listen)) or Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔːr
ˈlɛʃteɪ/; Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic
Republic of Timor-Leste (Portuguese: República
Democrática de Timor-Leste, Tetum: Repúblika
Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime
Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the
island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse,
an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by
Indonesian West Timor.
Australia is the country's southern neighbour,
separated by the
Timor Sea. The country's size is about
15,007 km2 (5,794 sq mi).
Timor was colonised by
Portugal in the 16th century, and was
Portuguese Timor until 28 November 1975, when the
Revolutionary Front for an Independent East
Timor (Fretilin) declared
the territory's independence. Nine days later, it was invaded and
occupied by the Indonesian military, and was declared as the country's
27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East
Timor was characterised by a highly violent, decades-long conflict
between separatist groups (especially Fretilin) and the Indonesian
In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of
Indonesia relinquished control of the territory.
Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on
20 May 2002 and joined the
United Nations and the Community of
Portuguese Language Countries. In 2011, East
Timor announced its
intention to become the eleventh member of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It is one of only two
predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the
Philippines, as well as the only Asian country to be located
completely in the Southern Hemisphere.
2.2 Classical era
2.3 Colonial era
2.3.1 Portuguese period (1769-1975)
2.3.2 Indonesian occupation (1975-1999)
2.4 Contemporary era
3 Politics and government
4 Administrative divisions
5 Foreign relations and military
9.2 Cinema and TV drama
10 See also
13 External links
"Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian
language, which became recorded as
Timor in Portuguese, thus resulting
in the tautological toponym meaning "East East": In Portuguese
Timor-Leste (Leste being the word for "east"); in
Lorosa'e (Lorosa'e being the word for "east" (literally "rising
sun")). In Indonesian, the country is called
Timor Timur, thereby
using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for
"east", as adjectives in Indonesian are put after the noun.
The official names under the Constitution are Democratic
Timor-Leste in English, República Democrática de
Timor-Leste in Portuguese, and Repúblika Demokrátika
Timór-Leste in Tetum.
International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) official
short form in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste (codes:
TLS & TL), which has been adopted by the United
Nations, the European Union, and the national
standards organisations of
France (AFNOR), the United States
United Kingdom (BSI),
Germany (DIN), and Sweden
(SIS), all diplomatic missions to the country by protocol and the CIA
Main article: History of East Timor
Humans first settled in East
Timor 42,000 years ago.
Descendants of at least three waves of migration are believed still to
live in East Timor. The first is described by anthropologists as
people of the Veddo-
Australoid type. Around 3000 BC, a second
migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo-
withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior. Finally,
proto-Malays arrived from south
China and north Indochina.
Hakka traders are among those descended from this final
group. Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed
around the eastern end of
Timor arriving on land in the south. Some
stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula
or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra. Austronesians
migrated to Timor, and are thought to be associated with the
development of agriculture on the island.
See also: Greater India
Before European colonialism,
Timor was included in Chinese and Indian
trading networks, and in the 14th century was an exporter of aromatic
sandalwood, slaves, honey, and wax. Since the 1500's, the Timorese
people had military ties with the
Luções of present-day northern
Philippines. It was the relative abundance of
Timor that attracted European explorers to the island in
the early 16th century. During that time, European
explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or
Portuguese Timor (1935–1975)
See also: Battle of Penfui
Portuguese period (1769-1975)
The Portuguese established outposts in
Timor and Maluku. Effective
European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769,
when the city of
Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor
declared. A definitive border between the Dutch-colonised
western half of the island and the Portuguese-colonised eastern half
of the island was established by the
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration of
1914, and it remains the international boundary between
the successor states East
Timor and Indonesia. For the Portuguese,
Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until
the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in
infrastructure, health, and education.
Sandalwood remained the main
export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the
mid-nineteenth century. As was often the case, Portuguese rule was
generally neglectful but exploitative where it existed.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy
prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies,
which was met with East Timorese resistance.
During World War II, first the Allies and later the Japanese occupied
Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla
campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by East Timorese
volunteers and Allied forces against the Japanese, the struggle
resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 East
Timorese. The Japanese eventually drove the last of the
Australian and Allied forces out. However, following the end of World
War II and Japanese surrender, Portuguese control was reinstated.
Following the 1974 Portuguese revolution,
abandoned its colony on
Timor and civil war between East Timorese
political parties broke out in 1975.
The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East
Timorese Democratic Union
Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) coup attempt in August
1975, and unilaterally declared independence on 28
November 1975. Fearing a communist state within the Indonesian
archipelago, the Indonesian military launched an invasion of East
Timor in December 1975.
Indonesia declared East
27th province on 17 July 1976. The UN Security Council
opposed the invasion and the territory's nominal status in the UN
remained as "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese
A demonstration for independence from
Indonesia held in Australia
during September 1999
Indonesian occupation (1975-1999)
Indonesia's occupation of East
Timor was marked by violence and
brutality. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission
for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East
Timor cited a minimum
bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999,
namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 "excess" deaths from
hunger and illness, with an estimated figure based on Portuguese,
Indonesian and Catholic Church data of approximately 200,000
deaths. The East Timorese guerrilla force (Forças Armadas
da Libertação Nacional de Timor-Leste, Falintil) fought a campaign
against the Indonesian forces from 1975 to 1998.[citation
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, second President
of East Timor
Dili Massacre was a turning point for the independence cause
and an East
Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, the
Philippines, Australia, and other Western countries.
Following the resignation of Indonesian President Suharto, a
UN-sponsored agreement between
Portugal allowed for a
UN-supervised popular referendum in June 1998. A clear vote for
independence was met with a punitive campaign of violence by East
Timorese pro-integration militia with the support of elements of the
Indonesian military. With Indonesian permission, an Australian-led
multi-national peacekeeping force (INTERFET) was deployed until order
was restored. On 5 June 1998, the administration of East
taken over by the UN through the
United Nations Transitional
Administration in East
Timor (UNTAET). The INTERFET
deployment ended in February 2000 with the transfer of military
command to the UN.
Xanana Gusmão, the third East Timorese President.
On 30 August 2001, the East Timorese voted in their first election
organised by the UN to elect members of the Constituent
Assembly. On 22 March 2002, the Constituent
Assembly approved the Constitution. By May 2002, over
205,000 refugees had returned. On 20 May 2002, the
Constitution of the Democratic
Republic of East
Timor came into force
Timor was recognised as independent by the
UN. The Constituent Assembly was renamed the
National Parliament and
Xanana Gusmão was sworn in as the country's
first President. On 27 September 2002, East
Timor was renamed to
Timor-Leste, using the Portuguese language, and was admitted as a
member state by the UN.
The following year, Gusmão declined another presidential term, and in
the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were
renewed outbreaks of violence.
José Ramos-Horta was elected President
in the May 2007 election, while Gusmão ran in the
parliamentary elections and became Prime Minister. Ramos-Horta was
critically injured in an attempted assassination in February 2008.
Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped
unharmed. Australian reinforcements were immediately sent to help keep
order. In 2006, the
United Nations sent in security forces
to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 15 percent
of the population (155,000 people) to flee their homes. In March 2011,
the UN handed over operational control of the police force to the East
Timor authorities. The
United Nations ended its peacekeeping mission
on 31 December 2012.
Timor became a state party to the
UNESCO World Heritage
Convention on 31 January 2017.
Politics and government
Main article: Politics of East Timor
The head of state of East
Timor is the President of the Republic, who
is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although their
executive powers are somewhat limited, the President does have the
power to appoint the Prime Minister and veto government legislation.
Following elections, the President usually appoints the leader of the
majority party or coalition as
Prime Minister of East Timor
Prime Minister of East Timor and the
cabinet on the proposal of the latter. As head of government, the
Prime Minister presides over the cabinet.
Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace
Nicolau Lobato Presidential Palace in Dili.
The National Parliament of East Timor
East Timor's Attorney General's Office
The unicameral East Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or
Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a
five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of
fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five. The East Timorese constitution
was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process
of building its administration and governmental institutions.
Government departments include the Polícia Nacional de Timor-Leste
Timor Ministry for State and Internal Administration,
Civil Aviation Division of Timor-Leste, and Immigration Department of
Main articles: Municipalities of East Timor, Administrative posts of
East Timor, and Sucos of East Timor
The thirteen municipalities of East Timor
Timor is divided into thirteen municipalities, which in turn are
subdivided into 65 administrative posts, 442 sucos (villages), and
2,225 aldeias (hamlets).
Foreign relations and military
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Main articles: Foreign relations of East
Timor Leste Defence
F-FDTL soldiers standing in formation
Timor is a full member state of the Community of Portuguese
Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the
an international organization and political association of Lusophone
nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official
Timor sought membership in the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2007, and a formal application was submitted
in March 2011.
Indonesia and the
Philippines support East
Timor's bid to join ASEAN.
Casa Europa in Dili, the European Union's representation in East
Timor border in Mota'ain
Timor Defence Force (Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste,
F-FDTL) is the military body responsible for the defence of East
Timor. The F-FDTL was established in February 2001 and comprised two
small infantry battalions, a small naval component, and several
The F-FDTL's primary role is to protect East
Timor from external
threats. It also has an internal security role, which overlaps with
that of the National Police of East
Timor (Polícia Nacional de
Timor-Leste, PNTL). This overlap has led to tensions between the
services, which have been exacerbated by poor morale and lack of
discipline within the F-FDTL.
The F-FDTL's problems came to a head in 2006 when almost half the
force was dismissed following protests over discrimination and poor
conditions. The dismissal contributed to a general collapse of both
the F-FDTL and PNTL in May and forced the government to request
foreign peacekeepers to restore security. The F-FDTL is being rebuilt
with foreign assistance and has drawn up a long-term force development
Australia on December 2013
Since the discovery of petroleum in the
Timor Sea in the 1970s, there
have been disputes surrounding the rights to ownership and
exploitation of the resources situated in a part of the
known as the
Timor Gap, which is the area of the
Timor Sea which lies
outside the territorial boundaries of the nations to the north and
south of the
Timor Sea. These disagreements initially
Australia and Indonesia, although a resolution was eventually
reached in the form of the
Timor Gap Treaty. After declaration of East
Timor's nationhood in 1999, the terms of the
Timor Gap Treaty were
abandoned and negotiations commenced between
Australia and East Timor,
culminating in the
Timor Sea Treaty.
Australia's territorial claim extends to the bathymetric axis (the
line of greatest sea-bed depth) at the
Timor Trough. It overlaps East
Timor's own territorial claim, which follows the former colonial power
Portugal and the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in
claiming that the dividing line should be midway between the two
It was revealed in 2013 that the Australian Secret Intelligence
Service (ASIS) planted listening devices to listen to the East
Timorese government during negotiations over the Greater Sunrise oil
and gasfields. This is known as the Australia–East
Main article: Geography of East Timor
Ilha de Jaco, Lautém, East Timor
Matebian, Baucau, Timor-Leste
Paitchau range, East Timor
Loi-Huno, Viqueque, East Timor
Mundo Perdido, Timor-Leste
Aldeia de Berau, Atauro, East Timor
Located in Southeast Asia, the island of
Timor is part of
Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the
Lesser Sunda Islands. To the north of the island are the Ombai Strait,
Wetar Strait, and the greater Banda Sea. The
Timor Sea separates the
Australia to the south, and the Indonesian Province of
East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara lies to East Timor's west. The total land size is
14,919 km2 (5,760 sq mi). East
Timor has an exclusive
economic zone of 70,326 km2 (27,153 sq mi).
Much of the country is mountainous, and its highest point is
Tatamailau (also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 metres
(9,721 ft). The climate is tropical and generally hot
and humid. It is characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The
capital, largest city, and main port is Dili, and the second-largest
city is the eastern town of Baucau. East
Timor lies between latitudes
8° and 10°S, and longitudes 124° and 128°E.
The easternmost area of East
Timor consists of the
Paitchau Range and
Ira Lalaro area, which contains the country's first
conservation area, the Nino Konis Santana National Park.
It contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the
country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is
sparsely populated. The northern coast is characterised by
a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at
Main article: Economy of East Timor
Timor export treemap, 2010
Fractional coins "centavos"
Coffee plantations in Aileu
Timor has a market economy that used to depend upon exports of a
few commodities such as coffee, marble, petroleum, and
sandalwood. East Timor's economy grew by about 10% in 2011
and at a similar rate in 2012.
Timor now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but
little of it has gone to develop villages, which still rely on
subsistence farming. Nearly half the population lives in
Petroleum Fund was established in 2005, and by 2011 it
had reached a worth of US$8.7 billion. East
labelled by the International Monetary Fund as the "most oil-dependent
economy in the world". The
Petroleum Fund pays for nearly
all of the government's annual budget, which has increased from $70
million in 2004 to $1.3 billion in 2011, with a $1.8 billion proposal
for 2012. East-Timor's income from oil and gas stands to
significantly increase after its announcement to cancel a
controversial agreement with Australia, which has given
of the income from oil and gas since 2006.
Shopping mall in Dili
The economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser
extent, assistance from foreign donors. Private sector
development has lagged due to human capital shortages, infrastructure
weakness, an incomplete legal system, and an inefficient regulatory
environment. After petroleum, the second largest export is
coffee, which generates about $10 million a year.
Starbucks is a major purchaser of East Timorese coffee.
Dili 9,000 tonnes of coffee, 108 tonnes of cinnamon and 161
tonnes of cocoa were harvested in 2012 making the country the 40th
ranked producer of coffee, the 6th ranked producer of cinnamon and the
50th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide.
According to data gathered in the 2010 census, 87.7% of urban (321,043
people) and 18.9% of rural (821,459 people) households have
electricity, for an overall average of 38.2%.
The agriculture sector employs 80% of the active
population. In 2009, about 67,000 households grew coffee
in East Timor, with a large proportion being poor.
Currently, the gross margins are about $120 per hectare, with returns
per labour-day of about $3.70. There were 11,000
households growing mungbeans as of 2009, most of them subsistence
The country was ranked 169th overall and last in the East
Pacific region by the Doing Business 2013 report by the World Bank.
The country fared particularly poorly in the "registering property",
"enforcing contracts" and "resolving insolvency" categories, ranking
last worldwide in all three.
As regards telecommunications infrastructure, East
Timor is the second
to last ranked Asian country in the World Economic Forum's Network
Readiness Index (NRI), with only
Myanmar falling behind it in
southeast Asia. NRI is an indicator for determining the development
level of a country's information and communication technologies. East
Timor ranked number 141 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, down from 134
The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to the
Australia-bound Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop petroleum
and natural gas deposits in the waters southeast of Timor. However,
this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976.[citation
needed] The resources were divided between
Indonesia and Australia
Timor Gap Treaty in 1989. East
Timor inherited no
permanent maritime boundaries when it attained
independence. A provisional agreement (the
Timor Sea Treaty, signed when East
Timor became independent on 20 May
2002) defined a Joint
Petroleum Development Area (JPDA) and awarded
90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East
10% to Australia. An agreement in 2005 between the
governments of East
Australia mandated that both countries
put aside their dispute over maritime boundaries and that East Timor
would receive 50% of the revenues from the resource exploitation in
the area (estimated at A$26 billion, or about US$20 billion over the
lifetime of the project) from the Greater Sunrise
development. In 2013, East
Timor launched a case at the
Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration in
The Hague to pull out of a gas
treaty that it had signed with Australia, accusing the Australian
Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) of bugging the East Timorese
cabinet room in
Dili in 2004. East
Timor is part of the
Australia Growth Triangle
There are no patent laws in East Timor.
A railway system has been proposed but the current government has yet
to approve the proposal due to lack of funds and expertise. If
established, the country's economy is projected to have an economic
boom similar to that of
Japan almost a century ago. The Philippines
has noted that if they finally finish their own railway system by
2022, they may send experts and aid to East
Timor for its railway
Main article: Demographics of East Timor
An East Timorese in traditional dress
Timor demographic change between 1861 and 2010.
Timor recorded a population of 1,167,242 in its 2015
The CIA's World Factbook lists the English-language demonym for East
Timor as Timorese, as does the Government of Timor-Leste's
website. Other reference sources list it as East
The word Maubere, formerly used by the Portuguese to refer
to native East Timorese and often employed as synonymous with the
illiterate and uneducated, was adopted by
Fretilin as a term of
pride. Native East Timorese consist of a number of
distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed
Melanesian/Papuan descent. The largest
Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum (100,000),
primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambai (80,000), in
the central mountains; the
Tukudede (63,170), in the area around
Maubara and Liquiçá; the
Galoli (50,000), between the tribes of
Mambae and Makasae; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central
Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante
The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak
(84,000), in the central interior of
Timor island; the Fataluku
(40,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos; and the
Makasae (70,000), toward the eastern end of the island.[citation
needed] As a result of interracial marriage which was common
during the Portuguese era, there is a population of people of mixed
East Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços.
There is a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka.
Many Chinese left in the mid-1970s.
Main article: Languages of East Timor
Major language groups in East
Timor by suco
East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. English
and Indonesian are sometimes used.
Tetum belongs to the
Austronesian family of languages spoken throughout Southeast
The 2010 census found that the most commonly spoken mother tongues
Tetum Prasa (mother tongue for 36.6% of the population), Mambai
Tetum Terik (6.0%),
Baikenu (5.9%), Kemak
Tokodede (3.7%), and Fataluku (3.6%). Other
indigenous languages largely accounted for 10.9%, while Portuguese was
spoken natively by the remainder.
Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned, and even
criminalized with the death penalty and only Indonesian
was allowed to be used in government offices, schools and public
business. During the Indonesian occupation,
Portuguese were important unifying elements for the East Timorese
people in opposing Javanese culture. Portuguese was
adopted as one of the two official languages upon independence in 2002
for this reason and as a link to
Lusophone nations in other parts of
the world. It is now being taught and promoted with the help of
Brazil, Portugal, and the Community of Portuguese Language
According to the observatory of the Portuguese language, the East
Timorese literacy rate was 77.8% in Tetum, 55.6% in Indonesian, and
39.3% in Portuguese, and that the primary literacy rate increased from
73% in 2009 to 83% in 2012. Indonesian and English are
defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and
Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date. In 2012, 35%
could speak, read, and write Portuguese, which is up significantly
from less than 5% in the 2006 UN Development Report. Portuguese is
recovering as it is now been made the main official language of Timor,
and is being taught in most schools. It is
estimated that English is understood by 31.4% of the population. East
Timor is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(also known as the
Lusophone Commonwealth) and of the Latin
Aside from Tetum,
Ethnologue lists the following indigenous languages:
Adabe, Baikeno, Bunak, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun, Idaté, Kairui-Midiki,
Kemak, Lakalei, Makasae, Makuv'a, Mambae, Nauete, Tukudede, and
Waima'a. According to the Atlas of the World's Languages
in Danger, there are six endangered languages in East Timor: Adabe,
Habu, Kairui-Midiki, Maku'a, Naueti, and Waima'a.
Escola Portuguesa Ruy Cinatti, the Portuguese School of Díli.
East Timor's adult literacy rate in 2010 was 58.3%, up from 37.6% in
2001. Illiteracy was at 95% at the end of Portuguese
The National University of East
Timor is the country's main
university. There are also four colleges.
Since independence, both Indonesian and
Tetum have lost ground as
media of instruction, while Portuguese has increased: in 2001 only
8.4% of primary school and 6.8% of secondary school students attended
a Portuguese-medium school; by 2005 this had increased to 81.6% for
primary and 46.3% for secondary schools. Indonesian
formerly played a considerable role in education, being used by 73.7%
of all secondary school students as a medium of instruction, but by
2005 it was used by most schools in Baucau, Manatuto, as well as the
capital district. The
Philippines has sent Filipino teachers to East
Timor to teach English, so that a program between the two countries
can begin, where deserving English-knowledgeable East Timorese
nationals will be granted university scholarships in the
See Health in East Timor
Main article: Religion in East Timor
See also: Catholic Church in East Timor
The Church of Santo António de Motael, Dili
According to the 2010 census, 96.9% of the population is Roman
Catholic; 2.2% Protestant; 0.3% Muslim; and 0.5% practice some other
or no religion. A 2016 survey conducted by the Demographic
and Health Survey programme showed that Catholics made up 98.3% of the
population, Protestants 1.2%, and Muslims 0.3%.
The number of churches has grown from 100 in 1974 to over 800 in
1994, with Church membership having grown considerably
under Indonesian rule as Pancasila, Indonesia's state ideology,
requires all citizens to believe in one God and does not recognise
traditional beliefs. East Timorese animist belief systems did not fit
with Indonesia's constitutional monotheism, resulting in mass
conversions to Christianity. Portuguese clergy were replaced with
Indonesian priests and Latin and Portuguese mass was replaced by
Indonesian mass. While just 20% of East Timorese called
themselves Catholics at the time of the 1975 invasion, the figure
surged to reach 95% by the end of the first decade after the
invasion. In rural areas, Roman Catholicism
is syncretized with local animist beliefs. With over 95%
Catholic population, East
Timor is currently one of the most densely
Catholic countries in the world.
Igreja da Imaculada Conceição church, in Viqueque
The number of Protestants and Muslims declined significantly after
September 1999 because these groups were disproportionately
represented among supporters of integration with
Indonesia and among
the Indonesian civil servants assigned to work in the province from
other parts of Indonesia, many of whom left the country in
1999. There are also small
Protestant and Muslim
communities. The Indonesian military forces formerly
stationed in the country included a significant number of Protestants,
who played a major role in establishing
Protestant churches in the
territory. Fewer than half of those congregations existed
after September 1999, and many Protestants were among those who
remained in West Timor. The
Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God is the
largest and most active of the
While the Constitution of East
Timor enshrines the principles of
freedom of religion and separation of church and state in Section 45
Comma 1, it also acknowledges "the participation of the Catholic
Church in the process of national liberation" in its preamble
(although this has no legal value). Upon independence,
the country joined the
Philippines to become the only two
Roman Catholic states in Asia, although nearby parts of
Indonesia such as West
Flores also have Roman
Roman Catholic Church divides East
Timor into three dioceses: the
Diocese of Díli, the Diocese of Baucau, and the Diocese of Maliana,
all of which have friendly ties with the hundreds of dioceses in the
Main article: Culture of East Timor
Sacred house (lee teinu) in Lospalos
The culture of East
Timor reflects numerous influences, including
Roman Catholic and Indonesian, on Timor's indigenous
Austronesian and Melanesian cultures. East Timorese culture is heavily
Austronesian legends. For example, East Timorese
creation myth has it that an aging crocodile transformed into the
Timor as part of a debt repayment to a young boy who had
helped the crocodile when it was sick. As a
result, the island is shaped like a crocodile and the boy's
descendants are the native East Timorese who inhabit it. The phrase
"leaving the crocodile" refers to the pained exile of East Timorese
from their island. East
Timor is currently finalizing its dossiers
needed for nominations in the
UNESCO World Heritage List, UNESCO
Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists,
UNESCO Creative Cities Network,
UNESCO Global Geoparks Network, and
Biosphere Reserve Network.
The country currently has one document in the
UNESCO Memory of the
World Register, namely, On the Birth of a Nation: Turning
Traditional Timorese dancers
There is also a strong tradition of poetry in the
country. Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a
distinguished poet, earning the moniker "poet warrior".
Architecturally, Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with
the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. These are known as
uma lulik ("sacred houses") in
Tetum and lee teinu ("legged houses")
in Fataluku. Craftsmanship and the weaving of
traditional scarves (tais) is also widespread.[citation
An extensive collection of Timorese audiovisual material is held at
National Film and Sound Archive
National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. These holdings have
been identified in a document titled The NFSA Timor-Leste Collection
Profile, which features catalogue entries and essays for a total of
795 NFSA-held moving image, recorded sound and documentation works
that have captured the history and culture of East
Timor since the
early 20th century. The NFSA is working with the East
Timorese government to ensure that all of this material can be used
and accessed by the people of that country.
Cinema and TV drama
In 2009 and 2010, East
Timor was the setting for the Australian film
Balibo and the South Korean film A Barefoot Dream. In 2013, the first
East Timorese feature film, Beatriz's War, was released.
Two further feature-length films, Abdul & José and Ema Nudar
Umanu, were respectively released on July 30, 2017 through the
television network of RTTF and on August 16,
2018 at the Melbourne International Film Festival. In
2010, the first East Timorese TV drama, Suku Hali was released.
The cuisine of East
Timor consists of regional popular foods such as
pork, fish, basil, tamarind, legumes, corn, rice, root vegetables, and
tropical fruit. East Timorese cuisine has influences from Southeast
Asian cuisine and from Portuguese dishes from its colonisation by
Portugal. Flavours and ingredients from other former Portuguese
colonies can be found due to the centuries-old Portuguese presence on
the island. Due to the East and West combination of East Timor's
cuisine, it developed features related to Filipino cuisine, which also
experienced an East-West culinary combination.
Main article: Sport in East Timor
Sports organisations joined by East
Timor include the International
Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Association of Athletics
Federations (IAAF), the International Badminton Federation (IBF), the
Union Cycliste Internationale, the International Weightlifting
Federation, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), the
International Basketball Federation (FIBA), and East Timor's national
football team joined FIFA. East Timorese athletes competed in the 2003
Southeast Asian Games held 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN
Timor won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, East
Timorese athletes participated in athletics, weightlifting and boxing.
Timor won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian
Timor competed in the first
Lusophony Games and, in
October 2008, the country earned its first international points in a
FIFA football match with a 2–2 draw against Cambodia.
Timor competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Thomas Americo was the first East Timorese fighter to fight for a
world boxing title. He was murdered in 1999, shortly before the
Indonesian occupation of East
Outline of East Timor
Index of East Timor-related articles
^ a b "Volume 2: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas"
(PDF). Population and Housing Census of Timor-Leste, 2010. Timor-Leste
Ministry of Finance. p. 21..mw-parser-output cite.citation
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^ Hicks, David (15 September 2014). Rhetoric and the Decolonization
and Recolonization of East Timor. Routledge. ISBN 9781317695356
– via Google Books.
^ Adelman, Howard (28 June 2011). No Return, No Refuge: Rites and
Rights in Minority Repatriation. Columbia University Press.
ISBN 9780231526906 – via Google Books.
^ a b Shoesmith, Dennis (March – April 2003). "Timor-Leste: Divided
Leadership in a Semi-Presidential System" (PDF). Asian Survey. 43 (2):
231–252. doi:10.1525/as.2003.43.2.231. ISSN 0004-4687.
OCLC 905451085. Retrieved 25 August 2017. The semi-presidential
system in the new state of Timor-Leste has institutionalized a
political struggle between the president, Xanana Gusmão, and the
prime minister, Mari Alkatiri. This has polarized political alliances
and threatens the viability of the new state. This paper explains the
ideological divisions and the history of rivalry between these two key
political actors. The adoption of Marxism by
Fretilin in 1977 led to
Gusmão's repudiation of the party in the 1980s and his decision to
remove Falintil, the guerrilla movement, from
Fretilin control. The
power struggle between the two leaders is then examined in the
transition to independence. This includes an account of the
politicization of the defense and police forces and attempts by
Minister of Internal Administration Rogério Lobato to use disaffected
Falintil veterans as a counterforce to the Gusmão loyalists in the
army. The December 4, 2002,
Dili riots are explained in the context of
this political struggle.
^ a b Neto, Octávio Amorim; Lobo, Marina Costa (2010). "Between
Constitutional Diffusion and Local Politics: Semi-Presidentialism in
Portuguese-Speaking Countries" (PDF). APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper.
SSRN 1644026. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
^ Beuman, Lydia M. (2016). Political Institutions in East Timor:
Semi-Presidentialism and Democratisation. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
ISBN 978-1317362128. LCCN 2015036590. OCLC 983148216.
Retrieved 18 August 2017 – via Google Books.
^ a b http://www.easttimorgovernment.com/geography.htm
^ a b "2015 Census shows population growth moderating". Government of
Timor-Leste. 25 October 2015. Archived from the original on 7 February
2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
Retrieved 4 May 2019.
^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update"
United Nations Development Programme. 15 September 2018.
Retrieved 15 September 2018.
^ "UNGEGN list of country names" (PDF).
United Nations Group of
Experts on Geographical Names. 2–6 May 2011. Retrieved 14 August
^ a b "Constituição da República Democrática de Timor" (PDF).
Government of Timor-Leste. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
^ a b "Konstituisaun Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste" (PDF).
Government of Timor-Leste. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
^ CIA (29 November 2012). "East and Southeast Asia:Timor-Leste". The
World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved
16 December 2012.
Timor Bid to Join ASEAN Wins 'Strong Support', Bangkok Post,
date: 31 January 2011.
^ a b c "Constitution of the Democratic
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^ Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie
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East Timor". Journal of Human Evolution (Submitted manuscript). 101:
45–64. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2016.09.004. PMID 27886810.
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.tl About Timor-Leste Archived 29 October 2008 at the
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Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 378.
^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) . "First voyage round the world".
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Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 A.D., SOURCE:
Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de
Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos
que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de
Oriente , Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott,
Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon
City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
^ Leibo, Steven (2012), East and
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^ "United Nations". United Nations. Archived from the original on 2
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^ Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries,
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^ Norwegian energy and Water Resources Directorate (NVE) (2004),
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^ de Brouwer, Gordon (2001), Hill, Hal; Saldanha, João M. (eds.),
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^ "Timor-Leste's Economy Remains Strong, Prospects for Private Sector
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^ a b Schonhardt, Sara (19 April 2012). "Former Army Chief Elected
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^ a b "Observers divided over oil fund investment". IRIN Asia. 18
^ "Article IV Consultation with the Democratic
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^ "Highlights of the 2010 Census Main Results in Timor-Leste" (PDF).
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^ a b c d "Expanding
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^ "Doing Business in Timor-Leste". World Bank. Retrieved 13 February
^ "NRI Overall Ranking 2014" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Retrieved 28
^ "TIMOR GAP TREATY between
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^ Geoff A. McKee. "McKee: How much is Sunrise really worth?: True
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^ "Prime Minister and Cabinet, Timor-Leste Government – Media
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^ Australian Broadcasting Corporation (5 December 2013). "East Timor
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^ "Boosting Growth through the Growth Triangle « Government of
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^ "Maubere" article at the German.
^ Fox, James J.; Soares, Dionisio Babo (2000). Out of the Ashes:
Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor. C. Hurst. p. 60.
^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. Yale
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^ Berlie, J. (2015), "Chinese of East Timor", HumaNetten,
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^ Constâncio Pinto; Matthew Jardine (1997). East Timor's Unfinished
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^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New
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^ "Table 13: Population distribution by mother tongue, Urban Rural and
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II – Praia
III – Maputo
IV – Brasília
V – São Tomé
VI – Bissau
VII – Lisbon
VIII – Luanda
IX – Maputo
X – Díli
XII – Brasília
XII – Ilha do Sal
Countries with Portuguese as an official language
International organizations with Portuguese as an official languages
vtePortuguese overseas empireNorth Africa
Ceuta 1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)
1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah) 1471–1662 Tangier 1485–1550 Mazagan
(El Jadida) 1487–16th century
Ouadane 1488–1541 Safim (Safi) 1489
1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir) 1506–1525 Mogador
(Essaouira) 1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima) 1506–1769 Mazagan (El
Jadida) 1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour) 1515–1541 São João da Mamora
(Mehdya) 1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)
1455–1633 Anguim 1462–1975
Cape Verde 1470–1975 São Tomé1
1471–1975 Príncipe1 1474–1778 Annobón 1478–1778 Fernando Poo
Elmina (São Jorge da Mina) 1482–1642 Portuguese
Gold Coast 1508–15472 Madagascar3 1498–1540 Mascarene Islands
Malindi 1501–1975 Portuguese
Saint Helena 1503–1698
Zanzibar 1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)
Accra 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola
1588–1974 Cacheu4 1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)
Ziguinchor 1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá
1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa) 1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and
Portuguese Guinea 1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5
1 Part of
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe from 1753.2 Or 1600.3 A factory
(Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases.4 Part of Portuguese
Guinea from 1879.5 Part of Portuguese
Angola from the 1920s.Middle
East [Persian Gulf]
1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas) 1507–1643
Sohar 1515–1622 Hormuz
(Ormus) 1515–1648 Quriyat 1515–?
Qalhat 1515–1650 Muscat
1515?–? Barka 1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah) 1521–1602
Bahrain (Muharraq • Manama) 1521–1529? Qatif
1521?–1551? Tarut Island 1550–1551
Qatif 1588–1648 Matrah
Khor Fakkan 1621?–? As Sib 1621–1622
Khasab 1623–? Libedia 1624–?
Dibba Al-Hisn 1624?–? Bandar-e Kong
1498–1545 Laccadive Islands(Lakshadweep)
• 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)
• 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)
• 1502–1658 1659–1661
Quilon(Coulão / Kollam) • 1502–1661
Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima) • 1507–1657 Negapatam
(Nagapatnam) • 1510–1961
1512–1525 1750 Calicut(Kozhikode)
• 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)
• 1521–1740 Chaul
(Portuguese India) • 1523–1662 Mylapore
• 1528–1666 Chittagong(Porto Grande De Bengala)
Chaul • 1531–1571
Chalé • 1534–1601 Salsette Island
• 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai) • 1535
Ponnani • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)
• 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)
Surat • 1548–1658
Tuticorin (Thoothukudi) • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu
• 1568–1659 Mangalore
(Portuguese India) • 1579–1632Hugli
• 1598–1610Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)
Portuguese Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
• 1687–1749 Mylapore
• 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Asia and Oceania
Portuguese Malacca [Malaysia] 1512–1621 Maluku
[Indonesia] • 1522–1575 Ternate
• 1576–1605 Ambon
Tidore 1512–1665 Makassar
Macau [China] 1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]
Portuguese Timor (East Timor)1
Coloane • 1851–1999
Taipa • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde
• 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)
1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and
subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence
was fully recognized.North America & North Atlantic
15th century [Atlantic islands]
Madeira 1432 Azores
16th century [Canada]
1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland) 1500–1579? Labrador
1516–1579? Nova Scotia
South America & Antilles
Brazil • 1534–1549 Captaincy Colonies
Brazil • 1549–1572
1572–1578 Bahia • 1572–1578 Rio de Janeiro
Brazil • 1621–1815
Brazil 1536–1620 Barbados
1621–1751 Maranhão 1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento
1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão 1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio
Negro 1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí
Cisplatina (Uruguay) 1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana
Upper Peru (Bolivia)
Armorial of Portuguese colonies
Evolution of the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese colonial architecture
Portuguese colonialism in Nusantara
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia
WorldCat Identities (via