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EAST PRUSSIA (German : _Ostpreußen_, pronounced (_ listen ); Polish : Prusy Wschodnie_; Lithuanian : _Rytų Prūsija_; Latin : _Borussia orientalis_; Russian : Восточная Пруссия) was a province of Prussia
Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and from 1878 to 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
Königsberg
(present-day Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
). East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia
Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast .

East Prussia
Prussia
enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians . During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights . The indigenous Balts who survived the conquest were gradually converted to Christianity
Christianity
. Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans
Germans
became the dominant ethnic group, while Poles
Poles
and Lithuanians formed minorities. From the 13th century, East Prussia
Prussia
was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights . After the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 it became a fief of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. In 1525, with the Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
, the province became the Duchy of Prussia
Prussia
. The Old Prussian language had become extinct by the 17th or early 18th century.

Because the duchy was outside of the core Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the prince-electors of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
were able to proclaim themselves King of Prussia
Prussia
beginning in 1701. After the annexation of most of western Royal Prussia
Prussia
in the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, eastern (ducal) Prussia
Prussia
was connected by land with the rest of the Prussian state and was reorganized as a province the following year (1773). Between 1829 and 1878, the Province of East Prussia
Prussia
was joined with West Prussia
Prussia
to form the Province of Prussia .

The Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire after its creation in 1871. However, the Treaty of Versailles following World War I
World War I
granted West Prussia
Prussia
to Poland
Poland
and made East Prussia
Prussia
an exclave of Weimar Germany (the new Polish Corridor separating East Prussia
Prussia
from the rest of Germany), while the Memel Territory was detached and was annexed by Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1923. Following Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
's defeat in World War II
World War II
in 1945, war-torn East Prussia was divided at Joseph Stalin 's insistence between the Soviet Union (the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast in the Russian SFSR and the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region in the Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
) and the People\'s Republic of Poland
Poland
(the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship ). The capital city Königsberg
Königsberg
was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in 1946. The German population of the province was largely evacuated during the war or expelled shortly thereafter in the expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II . An estimated 300,000 (around one fifth of the population) died either in war time bombings raids or in the battles to defend the province.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 2 History as a province

* 2.1 Kingdom of Prussia * 2.2 Napoleonic Wars * 2.3 German Empire
German Empire
* 2.4 World War I
World War I
* 2.5 Weimar Republic * 2.6 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* 2.7 World War II
World War II
* 2.8 Evacuation of East Prussia
Prussia

* 3 History after partition and annexation

* 3.1 Expulsion of Germans
Germans
from East Prussia
Prussia
after World War II
World War II
* 3.2 Southern part to Poland
Poland
* 3.3 Northern East Prussia
Prussia
to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* 3.4 Modern status

* 4 Administration

* 4.1 Upper Presidents of East Prussia
Prussia
and Prussia
Prussia
* 4.2 Elections to the provincial diets * 4.3 Land Directors and Land Captains of East Prussia
Prussia
* 4.4 City and towns

* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links

BACKGROUND

Ethnic settlement in East Prussia
Prussia
by the 14th century.

Upon the invitation of Duke Konrad I of Masovia , the Teutonic Knights took possession of Prussia
Prussia
in the 13th century and created a monastic state to administer the conquered Old Prussians . Local Old-Prussian (north) and Polish (south) toponyms were gradually Germanised. The Knights' expansionist policies, including occupation of Polish Pomerania with Gdańsk/Danzig and western Lithuania, brought them into conflict with the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and embroiled them in several wars, culminating in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War , whereby the united armies of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
, defeated the Teutonic Order at the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
(Tannenberg) in 1410. Its defeat was formalised in the Second Treaty of Thorn in 1466 ending the Thirteen Years\' War , and leaving the former Polish region Pomerania/ Pomerelia under Polish control. Together with Warmia
Warmia
it formed the province of Royal Prussia
Prussia
. Eastern Prussia
Prussia
remained under the Knights, but as a fief of Poland. 1466 and 1525 arrangements by kings of Poland
Poland
were not verified by the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as well as the previous gains of the Teutonic Knights were not verified.

The Teutonic Order lost eastern Prussia
Prussia
when Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach converted to Lutheranism and secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order in 1525. Albert established himself as the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
and a vassal of the Polish crown by the Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
. Walter von Cronberg , the next Grand Master, was enfeoffed with the title to Prussia
Prussia
after the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, but the Order never regained possession of the territory. In 1569 the Hohenzollern prince-electors of the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
became co-regents with Albert's son, the feeble-minded Albert Frederick .

The Administrator of Prussia, the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order Maximilian III , son of emperor Maximilian II died in 1618. When Maximilian died, Albert's line died out, and the Duchy of Prussia passed to the Electors of Brandenburg, forming Brandenburg- Prussia
Prussia
. Taking advantage of the Swedish invasion of Poland
Poland
in 1655, and instead of fulfilling his vassal's duties towards the Polish Kingdom, by joining forces with the Swedes and subsequent treaties of Wehlau , Labiau , and Oliva , Elector and Duke Frederick William succeeded in revoking the king of Poland's sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
in 1660. The absolutist elector also subdued the noble estates of Prussia.

*

The fortress _Ordensburg Marienburg _, founded in 1274, the world’s largest brick castle and the Teutonic Order 's headquarters on the River Nogat . *

Teutonic Knights castle ruin _Burg Schönberg_

HISTORY AS A PROVINCE

_ New Map of the Kingdom of Prussia_, John Cary 1799, split into the eastern regions of Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor (green), Natangia (yellow), Sambia and Warmia
Warmia
(pink), the western _Oberland_ territories with Marienwerder (blue), West Prussian Marienburg (yellow) and Danzig (green)

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA

Although Brandenburg
Brandenburg
was a part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, the Prussian lands were not within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and were with the administration by the Teutonic Order grandmasters under jurisdiction of the Emperor. In return for supporting Emperor Leopold I in the War of the Spanish Succession , Elector Frederick III was allowed to crown himself "King in Prussia
Prussia
" in 1701. The new kingdom ruled by the Hohenzollern dynasty became known as the Kingdom of Prussia . The designation " Kingdom of Prussia " was gradually applied to the various lands of Brandenburg-Prussia. To differentiate from the larger entity, the former Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
became known as _Altpreußen_ ("Old Prussia"), the province of Prussia, or "East Prussia".

Approximately one-third of East Prussia\'s population died in the plague and famine of 1709–1711, including the last speakers of Old Prussian. The plague, probably brought by foreign troops during the Great Northern War , killed 250,000 East Prussians, especially in the province's eastern regions. Crown Prince Frederick William I led the rebuilding of East Prussia, founding numerous towns. Thousands of Protestants expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg were allowed to settle in depleted East Prussia. The province was overrun by Imperial Russian troops during the Seven Years\' War .

In the 1772 First Partition of Poland , the Prussian king Frederick the Great annexed neighboring Royal Prussia
Prussia
, i.e., the Polish voivodeships of Pomerania ( Gdańsk Pomerania or Pomerelia ), Malbork
Malbork
, Chełmno and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia
Warmia
, thereby connecting his Prussian and Farther Pomeranian lands and cutting the rest of from the Baltic Coast. The territory of Warmia
Warmia
was incorporated into the lands of former Ducal Prussia, which, by administrative deed of 31 January 1773 were named _East Prussia_. The former Polish Pomerelian lands beyond the Vistula
Vistula
River together with Malbork
Malbork
and Chełmno Land formed the Province of West Prussia
Prussia
with its capital at Marienwerder (Kwidzyn). The Polish Partition Sejm ratified the cession on 30 September 1773, whereafter Frederick officially went on to call himself a King "of" Prussia.

The former Ducal Prussian districts of Eylau (Iława), Marienwerder, Riesenburg (Prabuty) and Schönberg (Szymbark) passed to West Prussia. Until the Prussian reforms of 1808, the administration in East Prussia was transferred to the General War and Finance Directory in Berlin
Berlin
, represented by two local chamber departments:

* German chamber department at Königsberg
Königsberg
with the districts of:

* Brandenburg
Brandenburg
* Neidenburg * Rastenburg * Samland * Tapiau
Tapiau
* Braunsberg (Ermland) * Heilsberg (Ermland) * Mohrungen (Ermland)

* Lithuanian chamber department at Gumbinnen (Gusev) with the districts of:

* Gumbinnen * Insterburg * Memel * Olecko
Olecko
* Ragnit * Seehesten ( Sensburg ) * Tilsit

On 31 January 1773, King Frederick II announced that the newly annexed lands were to be known as the Province of West Prussia
Prussia
, while the former Duchy of Prussia
Duchy of Prussia
and Warmia
Warmia
became the Province of East Prussia
Prussia
.

NAPOLEONIC WARS

After the disastrous defeat of the Prussian Army at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806, Napoleon
Napoleon
occupied Berlin
Berlin
and had the officials of the Prussian General Directory swear an oath of allegiance to him, while King Frederick William III and his consort Louise fled via Königsberg
Königsberg
and the Curonian Spit to Memel. The French troops immediately took up pursuit but were delayed in the Battle of Eylau on 9 February 1807 by an East Prussian contingent under General Anton Wilhelm von L\'Estocq . Napoleon
Napoleon
had to stay at the Finckenstein Palace , but in May, after a siege of 75 days, his troops led by Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre were able to capture the city Danzig , which had been tenaciously defended by General Count Friedrich Adolf von Kalkreuth . On 14 June, Napoleon
Napoleon
ended the War of the Fourth Coalition with his victory at the Battle of Friedland . Frederick William and Queen Louise met with Napoleon
Napoleon
for peace negotiations, and on 9 July the Prussian king signed the Treaty of Tilsit .

The succeeding Prussian reforms instigated by Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein and Karl August von Hardenberg included the implementation of an _ Oberlandesgericht _ appellation court at Königsberg, a municipal corporation , economic freedom as well as emancipation of the serfs and Jews . In the course of the Prussian restoration by the 1815 Congress of Vienna , the East Prussian territories were re-arranged in the _Regierungsbezirke _ of Gumbinnen and Königsberg
Königsberg
. From 1905, the southern districts of East Prussia formed the separate _Regierungsbezirk_ of Allenstein . East and West Prussia
Prussia
were first united in personal union in 1824, and then merged in a real union in 1829 to form the Province of Prussia . The united province was again split into separate East and West Prussian provinces in 1878. Map of the province of East Prussia
Prussia
in 1881

GERMAN EMPIRE

From 1824–1878, East Prussia
Prussia
was combined with West Prussia
Prussia
to form the Province of Prussia , after which they were reestablished as separate provinces. Along with the rest of the Kingdom of Prussia, East Prussia
Prussia
became part of the German Empire
German Empire
during the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871.

From 1885 to 1890 Berlin
Berlin
's population grew by 20%, Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and the Rhineland
Rhineland
gained 8.5%, Westphalia 10%, while East Prussia
Prussia
lost 0.07% and West Prussia
Prussia
0.86%. This stagnancy in population despite a high birth surplus in eastern Germany
Germany
was because many people from the East Prussian countryside moved westward to seek work in the expanding industrial centres of the Ruhr Area and Berlin
Berlin
(see _ Ostflucht _).

The population of the province in 1900 was 1,996,626 people, with a religious makeup of 1,698,465 Protestants , 269,196 Roman Catholics , and 13,877 Jews . The Low Prussian dialect predominated in East Prussia, although High Prussian
High Prussian
was spoken in Warmia
Warmia
. The numbers of Masurians , Kursenieki
Kursenieki
and Prussian Lithuanians decreased over time due to the process of Germanization . The Polish-speaking population concentrated in the south of the province ( Masuria
Masuria
and Warmia) and all German geographic atlases at the start of 20th century showed the southern part of East Prussia
Prussia
as Polish with the number of Poles estimated at the time to be 300,000. Kursenieki
Kursenieki
inhabited the areas around the Curonian lagoon, while Lithuanian-speaking Prussians concentrated in the northeast in ( Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor ). The Old Prussian ethnic group became completely Germanized over time and the Old Prussian language died out in the 18th century.

WORLD WAR I

At the beginning of World War I, East Prussia
Prussia
became a theatre of war when the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
invaded the country. The Russian Army encountered at first little resistance because the bulk of the German Army had been directed towards the Western Front according to the Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
. Despite early success and the capture of the towns of Rastenburg and Gumbinnen , in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 and the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes in 1915, the Russians
Russians
were decisively defeated and forced to retreat. The Russians
Russians
were followed by the German Army advancing into Russian territory.

After the Russian army's first invasion the majority of the civilian population fled westwards, while several thousand remaining civilians were deported to Russia. Treatment of civilians by both armies was mostly disciplined, although 74 civilians were killed by Russian troops in the Abschwangen massacre . The region had to be rebuilt because of damage caused by the war.

WEIMAR REPUBLIC

Inter-war East Prussia
Prussia
(from 1923 to 1939)

With the forced abdication of Emperor William II in 1918, Germany became a republic . Most of West Prussia
Prussia
and the former Prussian Province of Posen , territories annexed by Prussia
Prussia
in the 18th century Partitions of Poland
Poland
, were ceded to the Second Polish Republic according to the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
. East Prussia
Prussia
became an exclave , being separated from mainland Germany. The Memelland was also separated from the province. Because most of West Prussia
Prussia
became part of the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
as the Polish Corridor , the formerly West Prussian Marienwerder region became part of East Prussia
Prussia
(as _ Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Westpreußen_). Also Soldau district in Allenstein region was part of Second Polish Republic. The Seedienst Ostpreußen was established to provide an independent transport service to East Prussia.

On 11 July 1920, amidst the backdrop of the Polish-Soviet War , the East Prussian plebiscite in eastern West Prussia
Prussia
and southern East Prussia
Prussia
was held under Allied supervision to determine if the areas should join the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
or remain in Weimar Germany Province of East Prussia. 96.7% of the people voted to remain within Germany
Germany
(97.89% in the East Prussian plebiscite district).

The Klaipėda Territory , a League of Nations mandate since 1920, was occupied by Lithuanian troops in 1923 and was annexed without giving the inhabitants a choice by the ballot.

NAZI GERMANY

East Prussia
Prussia
in 1945

Erich Koch headed the East Prussian Nazi party from 1928. He led the district from 1932. This period was characterized by efforts to collectivize the local agriculture and ruthlessness in dealing with his critics inside and outside the Party. He also had long-term plans for mass-scale industrialization of the largely agricultural province. These actions made him unpopular among the local peasants. In 1932 the local paramilitary SA had already started to terrorise their political opponents. On the night of 31 July 1932 there was a bomb attack on the headquarters of the Social Democrats in Königsberg, the Otto-Braun-House . The Communist politician Gustav Sauf was killed; the executive editor of the Social Democrat _"Königsberger Volkszeitung"_, Otto Wyrgatsch, and the German People\'s Party politician Max von Bahrfeldt were severely injured. Members of the Reichsbanner were attacked and the local Reichsbanner Chairman of Lötzen , Kurt Kotzan, was murdered on 6 August 1932.

Through publicly funded emergency relief programs concentrating on agricultural land-improvement projects and road construction, the " Erich Koch Plan" for East Prussia
Prussia
allegedly made the province free of unemployment ; on August 16, 1933 Koch reported to Hitler
Hitler
that unemployment had been banished entirely from East Prussia, a feat that gained admiration throughout the Reich . Koch's industrialization plans led him into conflict with R. Walther Darré , who held the office of the Reich Peasant Leader (_Reichsbauernführer_) and Minister of Agriculture. Darré, a neopaganist rural romantic, wanted to enforce his vision of an agricultural East Prussia. When his "Land" representatives challenged Koch's plans, Koch had them arrested.

After the Nazis
Nazis
took power in Germany, opposition politicians were persecuted and newspapers were banned. The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned and became the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture opponents. Walter Schütz , a communist member of the Reichstag , was murdered here.

In 1938 the Nazis
Nazis
altered about one-third of the toponyms of the area, eliminating, Germanizing, or simplifying a number of Old Prussian names, as well as those Polish or Lithuanian names originating from colonists and refugees to Prussia
Prussia
during and after the Protestant Reformation . More than 1,500 places were ordered to be renamed by 16 July 1938 following a decree issued by Gauleiter and Oberpräsident Erich Koch and initiated by Adolf Hitler
Hitler
. Many who would not cooperate with the rulers of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
were sent to concentration camps and held prisoner there until their death or liberation.

After the 1939 Invasion of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
opening World War II , the borders of East Prussia
Prussia
were revised. Regierungsbezirk Westpreußen became part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia
Prussia
, while Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Zichenau was added to East Prussia. Originally part of the Zichenau region, the Sudauen district in Sudovia was later transferred to the Gumbinnen region.

WORLD WAR II

In 1939 East Prussia
Prussia
had 2.49 million inhabitants, 85% of them ethnic Germans, the others Poles
Poles
in the south who, according to Polish estimates numbered in the interwar period around 300,000-350,000, the Latvian speaking Kursenieki
Kursenieki
, and Lietuvininkai who spoke Lithuanian in the northeast. Most German East Prussians, Masurians, Kursieniki, and Lietuvininkai were Lutheran, while the population of Ermland was mainly Roman Catholic due to the history of its bishopric. The East Prussian Jewish Congregation declined from about 9,000 in 1933 to 3,000 in 1939, as most fled from Nazi rule. Those who remained were later deported and killed in the Holocaust
Holocaust
.

In 1939 the Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Zichenau was annexed by Germany
Germany
and incorporated into East Prussia. Parts of it were transferred to other regions, e.g. Suwałki to Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Gumbinnen and Soldau to Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
Allenstein . Despite Nazi propaganda presenting all of the regions annexed as possessing significant German populations that wanted reunification with Germany, the Reich's statistics of late 1939 show that only 31,000 out of 994,092 people in this territory were ethnic Germans.

East Prussia
Prussia
was only slightly affected by the war until January 1945, when it was devastated during the East Prussian Offensive . Most of its inhabitants became refugees in bitterly cold weather during the Evacuation of East Prussia
Prussia
.

EVACUATION OF EAST PRUSSIA

Main article: Evacuation of East Prussia
Prussia

In 1944 the medieval city of Königsberg
Königsberg
, which had never been severely damaged by warfare in its 700 years of existence, was almost completely destroyed by two RAF Bomber Command raids — the first on the night of 26/27 August 1944, with the second one three nights later, overnight on 29/30 August 1944. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(_The Second World War_, Book XII) had erroneously believed it to be "a modernized heavily defended fortress " and ordered its destruction.

Gauleiter Erich Koch protracted the evacuation of the German civilian population until the Eastern Front approached the East Prussian border in 1944. The population had been systematically misinformed by _ Endsieg _ Nazi propaganda about the real state of military affairs. As a result, many civilians fleeing westward were overtaken by retreating Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
units and the rapidly advancing Red Army
Red Army
.

Reports of Soviet atrocities in the Nemmersdorf massacre of October 1944 and organized rape spread fear and desperation among the civilians. Thousands lost their lives during the sinkings (by Soviet submarine) of the refugee ships _Wilhelm Gustloff _, the _Goya _, and the _General von Steuben _. Königsberg
Königsberg
surrendered on 9 April 1945, following the desperate four-day Battle of Königsberg
Königsberg
. The number of civilians killed is estimated to be at least 300,000.

However, most of the German inhabitants, which then consisted primarily of women, children and old men, did manage to escape the Red Army as part of the largest exodus of people in human history: "A population which had stood at 2.2 million in 1940 was reduced to 193,000 at the end of May 1945."

HISTORY AFTER PARTITION AND ANNEXATION

Following Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
's defeat in World War II
World War II
in 1945, East Prussia
Prussia
was partitioned between Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
according to the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
. Southern East Prussia
Prussia
was placed under Polish administration, while northern East Prussia
Prussia
was divided between the Soviet republics of Russia
Russia
(the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast ) and Lithuania (the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region ). The city of Königsberg
Königsberg
was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
in 1946. Most of the German population of the province had left during the evacuation at the end of the war, but several hundreds of thousands died during the years 1944–46 and the remainder were subsequently expelled .

EXPULSION OF GERMANS FROM EAST PRUSSIA AFTER WORLD WAR II

Main article: Expulsion of Germans
Germans
after World War II
World War II

Shortly after the end of the war in May 1945, Germans
Germans
who had fled in early 1945 tried to return to their homes in East Prussia. An estimated number of 800,000 Germans
Germans
were living in East Prussia
Prussia
during the summer of 1945. Many more were prevented from returning, and the German population of East Prussia
Prussia
was almost completely expelled by the communist regimes. During the war and for some time thereafter 45 camps were established for about 200,000-250,000 forced labourers, the vast majority of whom were deported to the Soviet Union, including the Gulag camp system. The largest camp with about 48,000 inmates was established at Deutsch Eylau (Iława). Orphaned children who were left behind in the zone occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were referred to as Wolf children
Wolf children
.

*

An illustration of the changing borders in Eastern Europe before, during, and after World War II
World War II
(Map is written in German ) *

Changes in Germany
Germany
's borders as a result of both World Wars , with the partition of East Prussia.

SOUTHERN PART TO POLAND

Main article: Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship

Representatives of the Polish government officially took over the civilian administration of the southern part of East Prussia
Prussia
on 23 May 1945. Subsequently, Polish expatriates from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as well as Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Lemkos
Lemkos
from southern Poland, expelled in Operation Vistula
Vistula
in 1947, were settled in the southern part of East Prussia, now the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship . In 1950 the Olsztyn Voivodeship counted 689,000 inhabitants, 22.6% of them coming from areas annexed by the Soviet Union, 10% Ukrainians, and 18.5% of them pre-war inhabitants. The remaining pre-war population was treated as Germanized Poles
Poles
and a policy of re-Polonization was pursued throughout the country Most of these " Autochthones " chose to emigrate to West Germany
Germany
from the 1950s through 1970s (between 1970 and 1988 55,227 persons from Warmia
Warmia
and Masuria
Masuria
moved to Western Germany). Local toponyms were Polonised by the Polish Commission for the Determination of Place Names .

NORTHERN EAST PRUSSIA TO THE SOVIET UNION

Main article: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle , 1895 "Königsberg" licence plate holder, 2009

In April 1946, northern East Prussia
Prussia
became an official province of the Russian SFSR as the "_Kyonigsbergskaya Oblast_", with the Memel Territory becoming part of the Lithuanian SSR
Lithuanian SSR
. In June 1946 114,070 German and 41,029 Soviet citizens were registered in the Oblast, with an unknown number of disregarded unregistered persons. In July of that year, the historic city of Königsberg
Königsberg
was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
to honour Mikhail Kalinin and the area named the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast . Between 24 August and 26 October 1948 21 transports with in total 42,094 Germans
Germans
left the Oblast to the Soviet Occupation Zone (which became East Germany). The last remaining Germans
Germans
left in November 1949 (1,401 persons) and January 1950 (7 persons).

The Prussian Lithuanians also experienced the same fate.

A similar fate befell the Curonians who lived in the area around the Curonian Lagoon . While many fled from the Red Army
Red Army
during the evacuation of East Prussia, Curonians that remained behind were subsequently expelled by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Only 219 lived along the Curonian Spit in 1955. Many had German names such as Fritz or Hans, a cause for anti-German discrimination. The Soviet authorities considered the Curonians fascists . Because of this discrimination, many immigrated to West Germany
Germany
in 1958, where the majority of Curonians now live.

After the expulsion of the German population ethnic Russians
Russians
, Belarusians
Belarusians
, and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were settled in the northern part. In the Soviet part of the region, a policy of eliminating all remnants of German history was pursued. All German place names were replaced by new Russian names. The exclave was a military zone , which was closed to foreigners; Soviet citizens could only enter with special permission. In 1967 the remnants of Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle were demolished on the orders of Leonid Brezhnev to make way for a new "House of the Soviets".

MODERN STATUS

Since the fall of Communism in 1991 , some German groups have tried to help settle the Volga Germans
Germans
from eastern parts of Russia
Russia
in the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast . This effort was only a small success, however, as most impoverished Volga Germans
Germans
preferred to emigrate to the richer Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
, where they could become German citizens through the right of return .

Although the 1945–1949 expulsion of Germans
Germans
from the northern part of former East Prussia
Prussia
was often conducted in a violent and aggressive way by Soviet officials, the present Russian inhabitants of the Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast have much less animosity towards Germans. German names have been revived in commercial Russian trade and there is sometimes talk of reverting Kaliningrad's name to its historic name of Königsberg. The city centre of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
was completely rebuilt, as British bombs in 1944 and the Soviet siege in 1945 had left it in nothing but ruins.

The borders of the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland correspond closely to those of southern East Prussia.

ADMINISTRATION

The Prussian central government appointed for every province an _Oberpräsident_ ("Upper President") carrying out central prerogatives on the provincial level and supervising the implementation of central policy on the lower levels of administration.

Since 1875, with the strengthening of self-rule, the urban and rural districts (_Kreise_) within each province (sometimes within each governorate ) formed a corporation with common tasks and assets (schools, traffic installations, hospitals, cultural institutions, jails etc.) called the Provinzialverband (provincial association). Initially the assemblies of the urban and rural districts elected representatives for the provincial diets (_Provinziallandtage _), which were thus indirectly elected. As of 1919 the provincial diets (or as to governorate diets, the so-called Kommunallandtage) were directly elected by the citizens of the provinces (or governorates, respectively). These parliaments legislated within the competences transferred to the provincial associations. The provincial diet of East Prussia
Prussia
elected a provincial executive body (government), the provincial committee (_Provinzialausschuss_), and a head of province, the _Landeshauptmann _ ("Land Captain"; till the 1880s titled Landdirektor, land director).

UPPER PRESIDENTS OF EAST PRUSSIA AND PRUSSIA

1765–1791: Johann Friedrich von Domhardt , president of the _ Gumbinnen and Königsberg
Königsberg
War and Demesnes Chambers_ 1791–1808: Friedrich Leopold von Schrötter , president of the _ Gumbinnen and Königsberg
Königsberg
War and Demesnes Chambers_, as of 1795 Minister for East and New East Prussia
Prussia
1808–1814: vacancy? 1814–1824: Hans Jakob von Auerswald , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1824–1842: Heinrich Theodor von Schön , upper president of Prussia
Prussia
, merged from East and West Prussia, since 1816 already upper president of West Prussia 1842–1848: Carl Wilhelm von Bötticher , upper president of Prussia 1848–1849: Rudolf von Auerswald , upper president of Prussia 1849–1850: Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell (1786–1865), upper president of Prussia
Prussia
1850–1868: Franz August Eichmann , upper president of Prussia
Prussia
1868–1869: vacancy 1869–1882: Carl Wilhelm Heinrich Georg von Horn , upper president of Prussia, after 1878 of East Prussia
Prussia
1882–1891: Albrecht Heinrich von Schlieckmann , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1891–1895: Count Udo zu Stolberg-Wernigerode , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1895–1901: Count Bill von Bismarck-Schönhausen , upper president of East Prussia 1901–1903: Hugo Samuel von Richthofen , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1903–1907: Count Friedrich von Moltke , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1907–1914: Ludwig von Windheim , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1914–1916: Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1916–1918: Friedrich von Berg , upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1918–1919: Adolf Tortilowicz von Batocki-Friebe, upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1919–1920: August Winnig (SPD ), upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1920–1932: Ernst Siehr (DDP ), upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1932–1933: Wilhelm Kutscher (DNVP ), upper president of East Prussia
Prussia
1933–1945: Erich Koch ( NSDAP
NSDAP
), upper president of East Prussia
Prussia

ELECTIONS TO THE PROVINCIAL DIETS

e • d SUMMARY OF THE EAST PRUSSIAN PROVINCIAL DIET DIRECT ELECTION RESULTS PARTIES % 1921 +/- 1921 Seats 1921 +/- 1921 % 1925 +/- 1925 Seats 1925 +/- 1925 % 1929 +/- 1929 Seats 1929 +/- 1929 % 1933 +/- 1933 Seats 1933 +/- 1933

SPD 24.1

20

24.8 +0.7 (-) 22 +2 (-4) 26 +1.2 23 +1 13.6 -12.4 12 -11

USPD

6 +6 merged in SPD

DNVP 13.4 +13.4 11 +11 45.6

40 (+4) 31.2 (+17.8) 27 (+16) 12.7 -18.5 11 -16

DVP 3.6 +3.6 4 +4 8.7 (+5.1) 8 (+4)

0 -8

BWA

16 +16

0 -16

0 0

0 0

Zentrum 9.3

8 +8 6.9 -2.4 6 -2 8.1 +1.2 7 +1 7 -1.1 7 0

KPD 7 +7 6 +6 6.9 -0.1 6 0 8.6 +1.7 8 +2 6 -2.6 6 -2

BWW

6 +6

0 -6

0 0

0 0

PARTIES % 1921 +/- 1921 Seats 1921 +/- 1921 % 1925 +/- 1925 Seats 1925 +/- 1925 % 1929 +/- 1929 Seats 1929 +/- 1929 % 1933 +/- 1933 Seats 1933 +/- 1933

DDP 5.7 +5.7 6 +6 3.6 -2.1 3 -3 2.8 -0.8 3 0

0 -3

NSDAP
NSDAP
not run not run not run not run

4.3

4 +4 58.2 +53,9 51 +47

LL /WP

2 +2 4.2 +4.2 4 +2 4 -1.2 4 0

0 -4

DFP not run not run not run not run 4.2 +4.2 4 +4

0 -4

0 0

CSVD not run not run not run not run not run not run not run not run 3 +3 3 +3

0 -3

AuA not run not run not run not run

2 +2

0 -2

0 0

FOW

2 +2

0 -2

0 0

0 0

Poles\' Party

1 +1

0 -1

0 0

0 0

Others

2 +?

0 -2

0 0

0 0

Total 1921 85

Total 1925 87

Total 1929 87

Total 1933 87

LAND DIRECTORS AND LAND CAPTAINS OF EAST PRUSSIA

1876–1878: Heinrich Rickert (NLP , later DFP ), titled land director 1878–1884: Kurt von Saucken-Tarputschen (Fortschritt , later DFP ), titled land director 1884–1888: Alfred von Gramatzki (DKP ), titled land director 1888–1896: Klemens von Stockhausen , titled land director 1896–1909: Rudolf von Brandt , titled land captain 1909–1916: Friedrich von Berg , titled land captain 1916–1928: Manfred Graf von Brünneck-Bellschwitz , titled land captain 1928–1936: Paul Blunk , titled land captain 1936–1941: Helmuth von Wedelstädt ( NSDAP
NSDAP
), titled land captain 1941–1945: vacancy 1941–1945: Reinhard Bezzenberger , first land councillor, per pro

CITY AND TOWNS

Main article: List of cities and towns in East Prussia
Prussia

CITY/TOWN DISTRICT (_KREIS_) POP. IN 1939 CURRENT NAME CURRENT ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT

Allenburg Landkreis Wehlau 2 694 Druzhba Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast ( Russia
Russia
)

Allenstein Landkreis Allenstein 50 396 Olsztyn Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship ( Poland
Poland
)

Angerburg Landkreis Angerburg 10 922 Węgorzewo (Węgobork ) Warmia-Masuria

Arys Landkreis Johannisburg 3 553 Orzysz
Orzysz
Warmia-Masuria

Barten Landkreis- Rastenburg 1 541 Barciany Warmia-Masuria

Bartenstein Landkreis Bartenstein 12 912 Bartoszyce Warmia-Masuria

Bischofsburg Landkreis Rößel

Biskupiec Warmia-Masuria

Bischofstein (Ostpreußen) Rößel 3 200 Bisztynek Warmia-Masuria

Braunsberg Landkreis Braunsberg 21 142 Braniewo
Braniewo
Warmia-Masuria

Darkehmen / Angerapp Landkreis Darkehmen

Ozyorsk Kaliningrad

Domnau Bartenstein

Domnovo Kaliningrad

Elbing
Elbing
Stadtkreis 85 952 Elbląg Warmia-Masuria

Eydtkuhnen Landkreis Stallupönen 4 922 Chernyshevskoye Kaliningrad

Fischhausen Landkreis Samland 3 879 Primorsk Kaliningrad

Frauenburg (Ostpreußen) Braunsberg 2 951 Frombork Warmia-Masuria

Friedland (Ostpreußen) Bartenstein

Pravdinsk Kaliningrad

Gehlenburg Johannisburg

Biała Piska Warmia-Masuria

Gerdauen Landkreis Gerdauen 5 118 Zheleznodorozhny Kaliningrad

Gilgenburg Landkreis Osterode 1 700 Dąbrówno Warmia-Masuria

Goldap Landkreis Goldap 12 786 Gołdap Warmia-Masuria

Gumbinnen Landkreis Gumbinnen 24 534 Gusev Kaliningrad

Guttstadt Landkreis Heilsberg

Dobre Miasto Warmia-Masuria

Heiligenbeil Landkreis Heiligenbeil 12 100 Mamonovo Kaliningrad

Heilsberg Heilsberg

Lidzbark Warmiński Warmia-Masuria

Heydekrug Landkreis Heydekrug 4 836 Šilutė Klaipėda County ( Lithuania
Lithuania
)

Hohenstein Osterode

Olsztynek Warmia-Masuria

Insterburg Landkreis Insterburg 48 711 Chernyakhovsk Kaliningrad

Johannisburg Johannisburg

Pisz (Jańsbork ) Warmia-Masuria

Königsberg
Königsberg
(Preußen) Stadtkreis 372 000 Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad

Kreuzburg (Ostpreußen) Landkreis Preußisch Eylau

Slavskoye Kaliningrad

Labiau Landkreis Labiau 6 527 Polessk Kaliningrad

Landsberg in Ostpreußen Preußisch Eylau

Górowo Iławeckie Warmia-Masuria

Liebemühl Osterode

Miłomłyn Warmia-Masuria

Liebstadt Landkreis Mohrungen 2 742 Miłakowo Warmia-Masuria

Lötzen Landkreis Lötzen 13 000 Giżycko (Lec ) Warmia-Masuria

Lyck Landkreis Lyck 16 482 Ełk (Łęg ) Warmia-Masuria

Marggrabowa / Treuburg Landkreis Oletzko /Treuburg

Olecko
Olecko
Warmia-Masuria

Marienburg in Westpreußen Landkreis Marienburg (Westpr.)

Malbork
Malbork
Pomeranian Voivodeship (Poland)

Mehlsack Braunsberg

Pieniężno ( Melzak ) Warmia-Masuria

Memel Stadtkreis 41 297 Klaipėda Klaipėda

Mohrungen Mohrungen 5 500 Morąg Warmia-Masuria

Mühlhausen Landkreis Preußisch Holland

Młynary Warmia-Masuria

Neidenburg Landkreis Neidenburg 9 201 Nidzica ( Nibork ) Warmia-Masuria

Nikolaiken Landkreis Sensburg

Mikołajki Warmia-Masuria

Nordenburg Gerdauen 3 173 Krylovo Kaliningrad

Ortelsburg Landkreis Ortelsburg 14 234 Szczytno Warmia-Masuria

Osterode (Ostpreußen) Osterode 19 519 Ostróda Warmia-Masuria

Passenheim Ortelsburg 2 431 Pasym
Pasym
Warmia-Masuria

Peterswalde Osterode

Piertzwald Warmia-Masuria

Pillau Samland 12 000 Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Kaliningrad

Preußisch Eylau Preußisch Eylau 7 485 Bagrationovsk Kaliningrad

Preußisch Holland Preußisch Holland

Pasłęk Warmia-Masuria

Ragnit Landkreis Tilsit- Ragnit 10 094 Neman Kaliningrad

Rastenburg Rastenburg 19 634 Kętrzyn ( Rastembork ) Warmia-Masuria

Rhein (Ostpreußen) Lötzen

Ryn Warmia-Masuria

Rößel Rößel 5 000 Reszel Warmia-Masuria

Saalfeld Mohrungen

Zalewo
Zalewo
Warmia-Masuria

Schippenbeil Bartenstein

Sępopol Warmia-Masuria

Schirwindt Landkreis Pillkallen

Kutuzovo Kaliningrad

Pillkallen-Schlossberg Pillkallen

Dobrovolsk Kaliningrad

Seeburg Rößel

Jeziorany (Zybork ) Warmia-Masuria

Sensburg Sensburg

Mrągowo ( Żądzbork ) Warmia-Masuria

Soldau Neidenburg 5 349 Działdowo Warmia-Masuria

Stallupönen Stallupönen 6 608 Nesterov
Nesterov
Kaliningrad

Tapiau
Tapiau
Wehlau 9 272 Gvardeysk
Gvardeysk
Kaliningrad

Tilsit Stadtkreis 59 105 Sovetsk Kaliningrad

Wartenburg (Ostpreußen) Allenstein 5 841 Barczewo (Wartembork ) Warmia-Masuria

Wehlau Wehlau 7 348 Znamensk Kaliningrad

Willenberg Ortelsburg 2 600 Wielbark Warmia-Masuria

Wormditt Braunsberg

Orneta Warmia-Masuria

Zinten Heiligenbeil

Kornevo Kaliningrad

SEE ALSO

* Lithuania
Lithuania
Minor * List of cities and towns in East Prussia
Prussia
* Drang nach Osten * East Colonisation * Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast * Kursenieki
Kursenieki
* Landsmannschaft Ostpreußen * Masuria
Masuria
* Teutonic Knights * Warmia
Warmia
* East Prussian State Museum

REFERENCES

* ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition (2008), East Prussia * ^ Schaitberger, L. "Ostpreußen: The Great Trek". Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_: Old-Prussian-language; Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.): Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 2005, Prussian * ^ tenn@owlnet.rice.edu. "Sarmatian Review XV.1: Davies". Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ A Treatise on Political Economy * ^ "LINGUISTIC PRINCIPLES OF THE RECOVERY OF OLD PRUSSIAN". Retrieved 8 December 2016. * ^ Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, and Analysis. Piotr Eberhardt,page 166, 2003 M E Sharpe Inc * ^ _A_ _B_ Robert S. Wistrich, _Who's who in Nazi Germany_, 2002, pp. 142-143. * ^ Matull, Wilhelm (1973). "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung: Abriß ihrer Geschichte, Leistung und Opfer" (PDF) (in German). Holzner Verlag. p. 350. * ^ Die aufrechten Roten von Königsberg
Königsberg
Spiegel.de, 28 June 2009 (in German) * ^ Dan P. Silverman (1993). "Fantasy and Reality in Nazi Work-Creation Programs, 1933-1936". _The Journal of Modern History_. 65 (1): 113–151. doi :10.1086/244609 . * ^ Richard Steigmann-Gall , _The Holy Reich - Nazi Conceptions of Christianity
Christianity
1919-1945_, 2004, p. 102. * ^ Matull, page 357 * ^ Neumärker, Uwe; et al. (2007). _"Wolfsschanze": Hitlers Machtzentrale im Zweiten Weltkrieg_ (in German) (3 ed.). Ch. Links Verlag. ISBN 3-86153-433-9 . * ^ Szkolnictwo polskie w Niemczech 1919-1939, Henryk Chałupczak Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej,page9 1996 * ^ Rademacher, Michael. . Retrieved 8 December 2016. replacement character in title= at position 36 (help ) * ^ Beevor, Antony, _Berlin: The Downfall 1945_, Penguin Books (2002). ISBN 0-670-88695-5 * ^ Beevor, Antony, _Berlin: The Downfall 1945_, chapters 1-8, Penguin Books (2002). ISBN 0-670-88695-5 * ^ Andreas Kossert, Damals in Ostpreussen, p. 168, München 2008 ISBN 978-3-421-04366-5 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ther, Philipp; Siljak, Anna (2001). _Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948_. Rowman&Littlefield Publishers. p. 109. ISBN 0-7425-1094-8 . * ^ Ethnic Germans
Germans
in Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic:A Comparative Evaluation by Karl Cordell and Stefan Wolff * ^ Andreas Kossert, Ostpreussen - Geschichte und Mythos, p.352, ISBN 3-88680-808-4 * ^ The Polish toponymic guidelines (p.9) * ^ Andreas Kossert, Damals in Ostpreussen, p. 179-183, München 2008 ISBN 978-3-421-04366-5 * ^ In some Prussian provinces the same office continued to be called Landesdirektor also thereafter. Cf. article: "Landesdirektor", in: _Der Große Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens in zwanzig Bänden_: 21 vols.; Leipzig: Brockhaus, 151928–1935; vol. 11 (1932), p. 71. * ^ _A_ _B_ In 1933 the DNVP ran under the list KFSWR, also including the Stahlhelm and the LB . * ^ DVP and DNVP formed the united list called Prussian Block (PB, Preußenblock). * ^ In 1921 the party was named United Communist Party of Germany, VKPD. * ^ In 1921 the Landliste (LL, Rural List) gained two seats, in 1926 the LL formed a united list with the WP and the East Prussian Farmers' Federation (OBB), in 1929 they all ran as part of the WP.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Publications in English

* Baedeker , Karl, _Northern Germany_, 14th revised edition, London, 1904. * Beevor, Antony (2002). "chapters 1-8". _Berlin: The Downfall 1945_. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-88695-5 . (on the years 1944/45) * Alfred-Maurice de Zayas, " Nemesis at Potsdam". London, 1977. ISBN 0-8032-4910-1 . * Alfred-Maurice de Zayas , _A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950_, 1994, ISBN 0-312-12159-8 * Dickie, Reverend J.F., with E.Compton, _Germany_, A & C Black , London, 1912. * Douglas, R.M.: Orderly and Humane. The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War. Yale University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0300166606 . * von Treitschke, Heinrich , _History of Germany_ - vol.1: _The Wars of Emancipation_, (translated by E & C Paul), Allen & Unwin , London, 1915. * Powell, E. Alexander , _Embattled Borders_, London, 1928. * Prausser, Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German" Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004. * Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001. * Steed, Henry Wickham, _Vital Peace - A Study of Risks_, Constable Medlicott, W.N., Dakin, Douglas, plebiscites and all other problems in Europe; includes all diplomatic correspondence from all states. * Previté-Orton, C.W. , Professor, _The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History_, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
, 1952 (2 volumes). * Balfour, Michael, and John Mair, _Four-Power Control in Germany and Austria 1945-1946_, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 1956. * Kopelev, Lev , _To Be Preserved Forever_, ("Хранить вечно"), 1976. * Koch, H.W., Professor, _A History of Prussia_, Longman
Longman
, London, 1978/1984, (P/B), ISBN 0-582-48190-2 * Koch, H.W., Professor, _A Constitutional History of Germany
Germany
in the 19th and 20th Centuries_, Longman
Longman
, London, 1984, (P/B), ISBN 0-582-49182-7 * MacDonogh, Giles, _Prussia_, Sinclair-Stevenson , London, 1994, ISBN 1-85619-267-9 * Nitsch, Gunter, _Weeds Like Us_, AuthorHouse, 2006, ISBN 978-1-4259-6755-0

Publications in German

* B. Schumacher: _Geschichte Ost- und Westpreussens_, Würzburg 1959 * Boockmann, Hartmut: _Ostpreußen und Westpreußen_ (= Deutsche Geschichte im Osten Europas). Siedler, Berlin
Berlin
1992, ISBN 3-88680-212-4

* Buxa, Werner and Hans-Ulrich Stamm: _Bilder aus Ostpreußen_ * Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v. :_Namen die keiner mehr nennt - Ostpreußen, Menschen und Geschichte_ * Dönhoff, Marion Gräfin v.: _Kindheit in Ostpreussen_ * Falk, Lucy: _Ich Blieb in Königsberg. Tagebuchblätter aus dunklen Nachkriegsjahren_ * Kibelka, Ruth: _Ostpreußens Schicksaljahre, 1945-1948_ * Bernd, Martin (1998). _Masuren, Mythos und Geschichte_. Karlsruhe: Evangelische Akademie Baden. ISBN 83-85135-93-6 . * Nitsch, Gunter: "Eine lange Flucht aus Ostpreußen", Ellert & Richter Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8319-0438-9 * Wieck, Michael : _Zeugnis vom Untergang Königsbergs: Ein "Geltungsjude" berichtet,_ Heidelberger Verlaganstalt, 1990, 1993, ISBN 3-89426-059-9 .

Publications in French

* Pierre Benoît , _Axelle_ * Georges Blond , _L'Agonie de l'Allemagne_ * Michel Tournier , _Le Roi des aulnes_

Publications in Polish

* K. Piwarski (1946). _Dzieje Prus Wschodnich w czasach nowożytnych_. Gdańsk. * Gerard Labuda, ed. (1969–2003). _"Historia Pomorza", vol. I–IV_. Poznań. * collective work (1958–61). _"Szkice z dziejów Pomorza", vol. 1–3_. Warszawa. * Andreas Kossert (2009). _PRUSY WSCHODNIE, Historia i mit_. Warszawa. ISBN 978-83-7383-354-8 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Pictures Of East Prussia
Prussia
Large archive * Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Prince-Electors co-inheritors 1568, co-regent 1577 * East Prussia
Prussia
FAQ * Extensive East & West Prussian Historical Materials (in English) & (in German) * East and West Prussia
Prussia
Gazetteer * Provinz

.