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East Asia
Asia
is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical[2] or ethno-cultural[3] terms.[4][5] China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
Vietnam
belong to the East Asian cultural sphere.[6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.[2][4][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[15][16] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China
China
largely influenced East Asia
Asia
(as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.[17][18][19] Historically, societies in East Asia
Asia
have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia
Asia
include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[note 4]), Confucianism
Confucianism
and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism
Shintoism
in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea.[13] Shamanism
Shamanism
is also prevalent among Mongols
Mongols
and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia
Asia
such as the Manchus.[20][21] East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia
Asia
and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia
Mongolia
and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia
Mongolia
having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Contents

1 History 2 Definitions

2.1 Alternative definitions

3 Economy 4 Territorial and regional data

4.1 Etymology 4.2 Demographics 4.3 Ethnic groups

5 Culture

5.1 Overview 5.2 Religions 5.3 Festivals

6 Collaboration

6.1 East Asian Youth Games 6.2 Free trade agreements 6.3 Military alliances

7 Cities and towns 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

History Main article: History of East Asia In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China
China
would already possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan
Japan
and Korea.[22] As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China
China
would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors.[23][24][25] Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia
Asia
culturally, economically, politically, and militarily for over two millennia.[25][26] Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it also supplied Japan, Vietnam, and Korea
Korea
with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems.[27] In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.[28] Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea
Korea
began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea
Korea
through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.[29] Jōmon society in ancient Japan
Japan
incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam
Vietnam
was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China
China
remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam
Vietnam
against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol
Mongol
Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence. As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea
Korea
by the fourth century AD and Japan
Japan
by the seventh century AD, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Vietnam
actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, religion, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[30] For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China
China
stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.[31] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia
Asia
in particular.[32][33][24] The transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the 19th century.[22] As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry
would open Japan
Japan
to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s.[34][35] Around the same time, Japan
Japan
with its rush to modernity transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[36][12][35] The modern and powerful Japan
Japan
would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world.[36] By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. With its newly found international status, Japan
Japan
would begin to inextricably take a more active position in East Asia
Asia
and leading role in world affairs at large. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan
Japan
soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
during the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.[37][34] Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan
Taiwan
and Korea.[36] During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia
Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China
China
and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Southeast Asia
Asia
under its control establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.[38] After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia
Asia
saw the defeat and occupation of Japan
Japan
by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China
China
and Korea
Korea
during the Cold War. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan
Taiwan
became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost Mainland China
China
to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan, the economic rise of South Korea
South Korea
and Taiwan, and the integration of Mainland China
China
into the global economy through its entry in the World Trade Organization while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power.[7][39] Culturally, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
Vietnam
are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia
Asia
(East Asian cultural sphere).

Definitions In common usage, the term East Asia
Asia
typically refers to a region including Greater China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Mongolia.[40][41][42][43][44] China, Japan, and Korea
Korea
represent the three core countries and civilizations of traditional East Asia
Asia
- as they once shared a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.[45][46][46][47][48] Other usages define China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, North Korea
Korea
and Taiwan
Taiwan
as countries that constitute East Asia
Asia
based on their geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
having strong cultural influences that originated from China.[48][49][50][4][51][52] Some scholars include Vietnam
Vietnam
as part of East Asia
Asia
as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence. Though Confucianism
Confucianism
continues to play an important role in Vietnamese culture, Chinese characters are no longer used in its written language and many scholarly organizations classify Vietnam
Vietnam
as a Southeast Asian country.[4][53] Mongolia
Mongolia
is geographically north of China
China
yet Confucianism
Confucianism
and the Chinese writing system and culture had no impact in Mongolian society. Thus, Mongolia
Mongolia
is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.[4][53] Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank
World Bank
refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and Siberia.[54] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia
Russia
Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[55] The World Bank
World Bank
also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia
Asia
defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[56]

The countries of East Asia
Asia
also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region. East Asia
Asia
map of Köppen climate classification. UNSD geoscheme for Asia
Asia
based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[57]   North Asia   Central Asia
Asia
  Western Asia
Asia
  South Asia
Asia
  East Asia
Asia
  Southeast Asia The UNSD definition of East Asia
Asia
is based on statistical convenience,[57] but also other common definitions of East Asia
Asia
contain Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan.[2][58] Culturally, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam
Vietnam
are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia
Asia
(East Asian cultural sphere).[3][59][60][61]

Alternative definitions There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia
Asia
or not.

Vietnam
Vietnam
(officially part of Southeast Asia
Asia
geographically, although culturally it is a part of the East Asian cultural sphere, politically, it is related to both Southeast Asia
Asia
and East Asia) Far Eastern Federal District
Far Eastern Federal District
in Russia
Russia
(often described as North Asia due to its location, although this part of Russia
Russia
is often seen as more closely related to its East Asian neighbours) Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China
China
Sea. In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan
Japan
and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN
ASEAN
countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term " Asia
Asia
Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia
Asia
as well as Oceania. Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia
Asia
to refer to the greater China
China
area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia
Asia
covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[62][63][64] The Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
defines Northeast Asia
Asia
as Japan
Japan
and Korea.[55]

Economy Main article: Economy of East Asia

Country

GDP nominalbillions of USD (2017)[65]

GDP nominal per capitaUSD (2017)[65]

GDP PPPbillions of USD (2017)[65]

GDP PPP per capitaUSD (2017)[65]

 China

12,014.610

8,643.107

23,159.107

16,660.269

 Hong Kong[66]

341.659

46,109.124

454.912

61,393.316

 Macau[67]

49.802

77,451.287

71.778

111,629.024

 Japan

4,872.135

38,439.517

5,428.813

42,831.523

 North Korea

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

 South Korea

1,538.030

29,891.255

2,029.032

39,433.779

 Mongolia

11.135

3,639.894

39.704

12,978.557

 Taiwan[note 5]

579.302

24,576.665

1,185.480

50,293.541

Territorial and regional data Etymology

Flag Common Name Official Name ISO 3166 Country Codes[68]

Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short Name Alpha-2 Code Alpha-3 Code Numeric

China 中国 People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国 China CN CHN 156

Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Regionof the People's Republic of China 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong HK HKG 344

Macau 澳門 Macao Special
Special
Administrative Regionof the People's Republic of China 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區 Macao MO MAC 446

Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国 Japan JP JPN 392

Mongolia Монгол улс / ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ Mongolia Монгол Улс(ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ) Mongolia MG MNG 496

North Korea 조선 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) Korea
Korea
(the Democratic People's Republic of) KP PRK 408

South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國) Korea
Korea
(the Republic of) KR KOR 410

Taiwan[69] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國 Taiwan
Taiwan
(Province of China)[70] TW TWN 158

Demographics

State/Territory

Area km2

Population[71] (2016)

Population density
Population density
per km2

HDI[72]

Capital

 China

9,640,011[note 6]

1,403,500,365[note 7]

138

0.752

Beijing

 Hong Kong

1,104

7,302,843

6,390

0.933

Beijing

 Macau

30

612,167

18,662

0.909

Beijing

 Japan

377,930

127,748,513

337

0.909

Tokyo

 North Korea

120,538

25,368,620

198

0.733

Pyongyang[73]

 South Korea

100,210

50,791,919

500

0.903

Seoul

 Mongolia

1,564,100

3,027,398

2

0.741

Ulaanbaatar

 Taiwan

36,188

23,556,706

639

0.885

Taipei[74]

Ethnic groups Main articles: East Asians and Ethnic groups of East Asia

Ethnicity

Native name

Population

Language(s)

Writing system(s)

Major states/territories*

Physical appearance

Han/Chinese

漢族 or 汉族

1,260,000,000[75]

Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc.

Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters

( )

Yamato/Japanese

大和民族

125,117,000[76]

Japanese

Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana

Joseon/Korean

조선족 (朝鮮族) 한민족 (韓民族)

79,432,225[citation needed]

Korean

Hangul, Han characters
Han characters
(Hanja)

Bai

白族

1,858,063

Bai, Southwestern Mandarin

Latin script, Simplified Han characters

Hui

回族

10,586,087[citation needed]

Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc.

Simplified Han characters

Mongols

Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ

8,942,528

Mongolian

Mongol
Mongol
script, Cyrillic script

Zhuang

壮族/Bouxcuengh

18,000,000

Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc.

Simplified Han characters, Latin script

Uyghurs

ئۇيغۇر

15,000,000+[77]

Uighur

Arabic alphabet, Cyrillic script

Manchus

满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ

10,422,873[citation needed]

Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc.

Simplified Han characters, Mongol
Mongol
script

Hmong/Miao

Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb

9,426,007[citation needed]

Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin

Latin script, Simplified Han characters

Tibetans

བོད་པ་

6,500,000

Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc.

Tibetan script

Yi

ꆈꌠ/彝族

8,714,393

Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin

Yi script, Simplified Han characters

Tujia

土家族

8,353,912

Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia

Simplified Han characters

Kam

Gaeml

2,879,974

Gaeml

Simplified Han characters, Latin script

Tu

土族/Monguor

289,565

Tu, Northwestern Mandarin

Simplified Han characters

Daur

达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ

131,992

Daur, Northeastern Mandarin

Mongol
Mongol
script, Simplified Han characters

Taiwanese Aborigines

Pangcah, etc.

533,600

Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
(Amis, Yami), etc.

Latin script, Traditional Han characters

Ryukyuan

琉球民族(沖縄人)

1,900,000

JapaneseRyukyuan

Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana

()

Ainu

アイヌ

200,000

Japanese Ainu[78]

Han characters
Han characters
(Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana

Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia
Asia
only. Culture Main article: Culture of East Asia Main category: East Asian culture Overview The culture of East Asia
Asia
has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[79] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China
China
served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan
Japan
and Korea.[80][25][81][82][83][84][85][86][48] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China
China
and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China
China
facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan
Japan
and Korea
Korea
and drew them into a Chinese international order.[87][88] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia
Asia
in particular.[33][88] The relationship between China
China
and its cultural influence on East Asia
Asia
has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization
Greco-Roman civilization
on Europe and the Western World.[84][82][88][80]

Religions Main article: East Asian religions

Religion

Native name

Denomination

Major book

Type

Est. Followers

Ethnic groups

States/territories

Chinese religion

none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc.

Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo

Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc.

Pantheism/polytheism

~900,000,000[89][90]

Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)

( )

Taoism

道教

Zhengyi, Quanzhen

Tao Te Ching

Pantheism/polytheism

~20,000,000[90]

Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia

( )

East Asian Buddhism

漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教

Mahayana

Diamond Sutra

Non-God

~300,000,000

Han, Korean, Yamato

( )

Tibetan Buddhism

བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།

Mahayana

Anuttarayoga Tantra

Non-God

~10,000,000

Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols

Shamanism[note 8]

萨满教 or Бөө мөргөл

N/A

N/A

Polytheism/pantheism

N/A

Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen

Shintoism

神道

Shinto sects

Kojiki, Nihon Shoki

Polytheism/pantheism

N/A

Yamato

Sindo/Muism

신도 or 무교

Sindo sects

N/A

Polytheism/pantheism

N/A

Korean

Ryukyuan religion

琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰

N/A

N/A

Polytheism/pantheism

N/A

Ryukyuan

()

Festivals

Festival

Native Name

Other name

Calendar

Date

Gregorian date

Activity

Religious practices

Food

Major ethnicities

Major states/territories

Chinese New Year

春節 or 春节

Spring Festival

Chinese

Month 1 Day 1

21 Jan–20 Feb

Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks

Worship the King of Gods

Jiaozi

Han, Manchus etc.

( )

Korean New Year

설날 or 설

Seollal

Korean

Month 1 Day 1

21 Jan–20 Feb

Ancestors Worship, Family Reunion, Tomb Sweeping

N/A

Tteokguk

Korean

New Year

元旦

Yuan Dan

Gregorian

1 Jan

1 Jan

Fireworks

N/A

N/A

N/A

( )

Losar
Losar
or Tsagaan Sar

ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар

White Moon

Tibetan, Mongolian

Month 1 Day 1

25 Jan – 2 Mar

Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks

N/A

Chhaang
Chhaang
or Buuz

Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.

Lantern Festival

元宵節 or 元宵节

Upper Yuan Festival (上元节)

Chinese

Month 1 Day 15

4 Feb – 6 Mar

Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping

Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer

Yuanxiao

Han

( ) *

Daeboreum

대보름 or 정월 대보름

Great Full Moon

Korean

Month 1 Day 15

4 Feb – 6 Mar

Greeting of the moon, kite-flying, Jwibulnori, eating nuts (Bureom)

Bonfires (daljip taeugi)

Ogok-bap, namul, nuts

Korean

Qingming Festival
Qingming Festival
/ Hanshi Festival

清明節 or 清明节 / 寒食節 or 寒食节

Tomb Sweeping Day / Cold Food Festival

Solar

15th day since March equinox
March equinox
/ Day 105 after Winter solstice

4–6 April

Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping

Burning Hell money(Only Qingming Festival)

Cold Food

Han, Korean, Mongols

( )

Dragon Boat Festival

端午節 or 端午节 or 단오

Duanwu Festival / Dano (Surit-nal)

Chinese / Korean

Month 5 Day 5

Driving poisons & plague away. ( China
China
- Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door.) / ( Korea
Korea
- Washing hair with iris water, ssireum)

Worship various Gods

Zongzi
Zongzi
/ Surichwitteok (rice cake with herbs)

Han, Korean, Yamato

( ) *

Ghost Festival

中元節 or 中元节 or 백중

Mid Yuan Festival

Chinese

Month 7 Day 15

Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping

Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer

Han, Korean, Yamato

( ) *

Mid-Autumn Festival

中秋節 or 中秋节

中秋祭

Chinese

Month 8 Day 15

Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view

Worship the Moon Goddess

Mooncake

Han

( ) *

Chuseok

추석 or 한가위

Hangawi

Korean

Month 8 Day 15

Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Enjoying Moon view

N/A

Songpyeon, Torantang (Taro soup)

Korean

Double Ninth Festival

重陽節 or 重阳节

Double Positive Festival

Chinese

Month 9 Day 09

Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus.

Worship various Gods

Han, Korean, Yamato

( ) *

Lower Yuan Festival

下元節 or 下元节

N/A

Chinese

Month 10 Day 15

Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping

Birthdate of the God of Water-officer

Ciba

Han

( )

Dongzhi Festival

冬至 or 동지

N/A

Gregorian

Between Dec 21 and Dec 23

Between Dec 21 and Dec 23

Ancestors Worship, Rites to dispel bad spirits

N/A

Tangyuan, Patjuk

Han, Korean

( )

Small New Year

小年

Jizao (祭灶)

Chinese

Month 12 Day 23

Cleaning Houses

Worship the God of Hearth

tanggua

Han, Mongols

( )

International Labor Day

N/A

N/A

Gregorian

1 May

1 May

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

( )

International Women's Day

N/A

N/A

Gregorian

8 Mar

8 Mar

Taking care of women

N/A

N/A

N/A

All

* Japan
Japan
switched the date to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
after the Meiji Restoration. *Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

Collaboration East Asian Youth Games Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia
Asia
(OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania
Oceania
National Olympic Committees. The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
(SEA Games), and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreements

Name of agreement

Parties

Leaders at the time

Negotiation begins

Signing date

Starting time

Current status

China– South Korea
South Korea
FTA

Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye

May, 2012

Jun 01, 2015

Dec 30, 2015

Enforced

China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
FTA

Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye

Mar 26, 2013

N/A

N/A

10 round negotiation

Japan- Mongolia
Mongolia
EPA

Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj

-

Feb 10, 2015

-

Enforced

China- Mongolia
Mongolia
FTA

Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj

N/A

N/A

N/A

Officially proposed

China-HK CEPA

Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa

-

Jun 29, 2003

-

Enforced

China- Macau
Macau
CEPA

Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho
Edmund Ho
Hau-wah

-

Oct 18, 2003

-

Enforced

Hong Kong- Macau
Macau
CEPA

Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui

Oct 09, 2015

N/A

N/A

Negotiating

ECFA

Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou

Jan 26, 2010

Jun 29, 2010

Aug 17, 2010

Enforced

CSSTA (Based on ECFA)

Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou

Mar, 2011

Jun 21, 2013

N/A

Abolished

CSGTA (Based on ECFA)

Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou

Feb 22, 2011

N/A

N/A

Suspended

Military alliances

Name

Abbr.

Parties within the region

Shanghai
Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation

SCO

( )

General Security of Military Information Agreement

GSOMIA

Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty

-

( )

Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan

-

( )

Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States
United States
and the Republic of Korea

-

( )

Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act ( Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
before 1980)

TRA (SAMDT)

( )

Major non-NATO ally
Major non-NATO ally
(Global Partners of NATO)

-

( ) [91]

Cities and towns Main article: Cities of East Asia

vte Largest population centres of East Asia[92][93]

Rank

City name

Country

Pop.

Tokyo Seoul

1 Tokyo Japan 38,140,000

Shanghai Beijing

2 Seoul South Korea 25,520,000

3 Shanghai China 24,484,000

4 Beijing China 21,240,000

5 Osaka Japan 20,337,000

6 Chongqing China 13,744,000

7 Guangzhou China 13,070,000

8 Tianjin China 11,558,000

9 Shenzhen China 10,828,000

10 Chengdu China 10,104,000

Beijing
Beijing
is the capital of the People's Republic of China
China
and the largest metropolis in northern China.

Shanghai
Shanghai
is the largest city in China
China
and one of the largest in the world, and is a global financial centre and transport hub with the world's busiest container port.

Guangzhou
Guangzhou
is one of the most important cities in southern China. It has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road
Silk Road
and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub today.

Xi'an
Xi'an
or Chang'an
Chang'an
is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties. It has a significant cultural influence in East Asia.

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
is one of the world's leading global financial centres and is known as a cosmopolitan metropolis.

Taipei
Taipei
is the capital of the Republic of China
China
and anchors a major high-tech industrial area in Taiwan.

Tokyo
Tokyo
is the capital of Japan
Japan
and one of the largest cities in the world, both in metropolitan population and economy.

Osaka
Osaka
is the second largest metropolitan area in Japan.

Kyoto
Kyoto
was the Imperial capital of Japan
Japan
for more than one thousand years.

Seoul
Seoul
is the capital of South Korea, one of the largest cities in the world and a leading global technology hub.

Pyongyang
Pyongyang
is the capital of North Korea, and is a significant metropolis on the Korean Peninsula.

Ulaanbaatar
Ulaanbaatar
is the capital of Mongolia
Mongolia
with a population of 1 million as of 2008.

Play media Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam
Guam
can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video. See also China–Japan– South Korea
South Korea
trilateral summit East Asia
Asia
Summit East Asian Community East Asian languages East Asian studies Four Asian Tigers Northeast Asia Geography
Geography
portal Asia
Asia
portal Notes

^ A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory. The population on the Taiwan island and the Pescadores
Pescadores
is governed by an effective government to the exclusion of others, but the political status is dispute.

^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
as listed at List of countries and dependencies by area.

^ The population figure is the combined populations of Greater China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Japan
Japan
as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects.

^ includes Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
traditionally prevailing in Tibetan and Mongolian areas

^ Listed as " Taiwan
Taiwan
Province of China" by the IMF

^ Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).

^ A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China
China
do not include Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macao, Special
Special
Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan
Taiwan
Province of China."

^ almost Manchu, Mongolian

References

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^ Listed as "Macao SAR" by IMF

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eastern Asia.

Look up east asia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. East Asia
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travel guide from Wikivoyage High resolution map of East Asian region

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