Eadweard Muybridge (/ˌɛdwərd ˈmaɪbrɪdʒ/; 9 April 1830 –
8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer
important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion,
and early work in motion-picture projection. He adopted the first name
Eadweard as the original Anglo-Saxon form of Edward, and the surname
Muybridge believing it to be similarly archaic.
At age 20, he emigrated to America as a bookseller, first to New York,
and then to San Francisco. Planning a return trip to
Europe in 1860,
he suffered serious head injuries in a stagecoach crash in Texas.
He spent the next few years recuperating in England, where he took up
professional photography, learning the wet-plate collodion process,
and secured at least two British patents for his inventions. He
went back to
San Francisco in 1867, and in 1868 his large photographs
Yosemite Valley made him world-famous.
In 1874 Muybridge shot and killed Major Harry Larkyns, his wife's
lover, but was acquitted in a jury trial on the grounds of justifiable
homicide. He travelled for more than a year in
Central America on a
photographic expedition in 1875.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion
in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in
stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for
projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film
strip used in cinematography. In the 1880s, he entered a very
productive period at the
University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia,
producing over 100,000 images of animals and humans in motion,
capturing what the human eye could not distinguish as separate
Muybridge spent much of his later years giving public lectures and
demonstrations of his photography and early motion picture sequences,
travelling back to
Europe to publicise his work. He also
edited and published compilations of his work, which greatly
influenced visual artists and the developing fields of scientific and
industrial photography. He returned to his native
in 1894, and in 1904, the Kingston Museum, containing a collection of
his equipment, was opened in his hometown.
2 Early life and career
3 Serious accident and recuperation
4 Photographing the American West
5 Stanford and horse gaits
6 Murder, acquittal and paternity
7 Later motion studies
8 Retirement and death
9 Influence on others
10 Exhibitions and collections
12 Legacy and representation in other media
13 See also
16 External links
Edward James Muggeridge was born and raised in England. Muggeridge
changed his name several times, starting with "Muggridge". In 1855, in
the United States, he used the surname "Muygridge".
After he returned from Britain to the
United States in 1867, he used
the surname "Muybridge". In addition, he used the pseudonym Helios
(Titan of the sun) to sign many of his photographs. He also used this
as the name of his studio and made it the middle name for his only
Helios Muybridge, born in 1874.
While travelling on a photography expedition in the Spanish-speaking
Central America in 1875, the photographer advertised his
works under the name "Eduardo Santiago Muybridge" in Guatemala.
After an 1882 trip to England, he changed the spelling of his first
name to "Eadweard", the
Old English form of his name. The spelling was
probably derived from the spelling of King Edward's Christian name as
shown on the plinth of the Kingston coronation stone, which had been
re-erected in the town in 1850 100 yards from Muybridge's childhood
family home. He used "Eadweard Muybridge" for the rest of his
career, but his gravestone carries his name as "Eadweard
Early life and career
Muybridge was born in Kingston upon Thames, in the county of
Surrey in England, on 9 April 1830 to John and Susanna Muggeridge; he
had three brothers. His father was a grain and coal merchant, with
business spaces on the ground floor of their house adjacent to the
River Thames at No.30 High Street, and the family living in the rooms
above. After his father died in 1843, his mother carried on the
business. His cousin
Norman Selfe who also grew up in Kingston upon
Thames moved to Australia and, following a family tradition, became a
renowned engineer. His great grandparents were Robert Muggeridge
and Hannah Charman who owned a farm. Their oldest son John Muggeridge
(1756-1819) was Edwards Grandfather and a stationer who taught him the
business. Several Uncles and cousins including Henry Muggeridge
(Sheriff of London) were Corn Merchants in the City of London although
all were born in Banstead, Surrey. Edwards younger brother George born
in 1833 is found living with his Uncle Samuel in 1851 after the death
of his Father in 1843 which establishes the lineage of Edward James
Muybridge emigrated to the
United States at the age of 20, arriving in
New York City
New York City and later moving to
San Francisco in 1855, a few years
California became a state, and while the city was still the
"capital of the Gold Rush". He started a career as a publisher's
agent for the London Printing and Publishing Company, and as a
bookseller. At the time, the city was booming, with 40 bookstores,
nearly 60 hotels and a dozen photography studios. Later in his
life, he wrote about also having spent time in
New Orleans and New
York City during his early years in the United States.
Serious accident and recuperation
By 1860, Muybridge was a successful bookseller. He left his bookshop
in care of his brother, and prepared to sail to
England to buy more
antiquarian books. However, Muybridge missed the boat and instead left
San Francisco in July 1860 to travel by stagecoach over the southern
route to Saint Louis, by rail to New York City, then by ship to
In central Texas, Muybridge suffered severe head injuries in a violent
runaway stagecoach crash which injured every passenger on board, and
killed one of them. Muybridge was bodily ejected from the
vehicle, and hit his head on a rock or other hard object. He was taken
150 miles (240 km) to Fort Smith, Arkansas, for treatment (his
earliest memories post-accident were there), where he stayed three
months, trying to recover from symptoms of double vision, confused
thinking, impaired sense of taste and smell, and other problems. He
next went to New York City, where he continued in treatment for nearly
a year before being able to sail to England.
Arthur P. Shimamura, a psychologist at the University of California,
Berkeley, has speculated that Muybridge suffered substantial injuries
to the orbitofrontal cortex that probably also extended into the
anterior temporal lobes, which may have led to some of the emotional,
eccentric behavior reported by friends in later years, as well as
freeing his creativity from conventional social inhibitions. Today,
there still is little effective treatment for this kind of
While recuperating in
England and receiving treatment from Sir William
Gull, Muybridge took up the new field of professional photography
sometime between 1861 and 1866. Muybridge later stated that he had
changed his vocation at the suggestion of his physician. He learned
the wet-plate collodion process in England, and may have been
influenced by some of the great English photographers of those years,
such as Julia Margaret Cameron. Also during this period,
Muybridge secured at least two British patents for his inventions,
including an improvement of print-making techniques and an apparatus
for washing clothing and other textile articles.
Photographing the American West
Vernal Falls at
Yosemite by Eadweard Muybridge, 1872
Muybridge had left
San Francisco in 1860 as a merchant, but returned
in 1867 as a professional photographer, with highly proficient
technical skills and an artist's eye. He became successful in
photography, focusing principally on landscape and architectural
subjects. He converted a lightweight carriage into a portable darkroom
to carry out his work. His business cards also advertised his
services for portraiture. His stereographs, the popular format of
the time, were sold by various galleries and photographic
entrepreneurs (most notably the firm of Bradley & Rulofson) on
Montgomery Street, San Francisco. Early in his new career, Muybridge
was hired by Robert B. Woodward (1824–1879) to take extensive photos
of his Woodward's Gardens, a combination amusement park, zoo, museum,
and aquarium which opened in
San Francisco in 1866.
Muybridge established his reputation in 1867, with photos of the
Yosemite Valley wilderness (some of which used the same scenes taken
by his contemporary Carleton Watkins) and areas around San Francisco.
Muybridge gained notice for his landscape photographs, which showed
the grandeur and expansiveness of the West; if human figures were
portrayed, they were dwarfed by their surroundings, as in Chinese
landscape paintings. He signed and published his work under the
pseudonym Helios, which he also used as the name of his studio.
Albumen silver print photograph of Muybridge in 1867 at base of the
Ulysses S. Grant tree "71 Feet in Circumference" in the Mariposa
Grove, Yosemite, by Carleton Watkins
Muybridge took enormous physical risks to make his photographs, using
a heavy view camera and stacks of glass plate negatives. A spectacular
stereograph he published in 1872 shows him sitting casually on a
projecting rock over the
Yosemite Valley, with 2,000 feet (610 m)
of empty space yawning below him.
In 1868, Muybridge travelled to the newly acquired US territory of
Alaska to photograph the Tlingit Native Americans, occasional Russian
inhabitants, and dramatic landscapes for the US government.:242 In
1871, the Lighthouse Board hired Muybridge to photograph lighthouses
of the American west coast. From March to July, he travelled aboard
the Lighthouse Tender Shubrick to document these structures. In
1873, Muybridge was commissioned by the US Army to photograph the
Modoc War against the Native Americans in northern
Oregon. Many of his stereoscopic photos were published widely, and can
still be found today.:46
During the construction of the
San Francisco Mint in 1870–1872,
Muybridge made a sequence of images of the building's progress, using
the power of time-lapse photography to document changes over time.
As Muybridge's reputation as a photographer grew in the late 1800s,
Leland Stanford contacted him to help
settle a bet. In 1878, Muybridge made a famous 13-part 360°
photographic panorama of San Francisco, to be presented to the wife of
Leland Stanford. Today, it can be viewed on the Internet as a
seamlessly-spliced panorama, or as a QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR)
Stanford and horse gaits
Main article: Sallie Gardner at a Gallop
Muybridge's The Horse in Motion, 1878
The Horse in Motion by Eadweard Muybridge: The horse Sallie Gardner,
owned by Leland Stanford, running at a 1:40 pace over the Palo Alto
track, 19 June 1878. Frames 1-11 used for animation; frame 12 not
In 1872, the former governor of California, Leland Stanford, a
businessman and race-horse owner, hired Muybridge for some
photographic studies. He had taken a position on a popularly debated
question of the day — whether all four feet of a horse were off the
ground at the same time while trotting. In 1872, Muybridge began
experimenting with an array of 12 cameras photographing a galloping
horse in a sequence of shots. His initial efforts seemed to prove that
Stanford was right, but he didn’t have the process perfected. The
same question had arisen about the actions of horses during a gallop.
The human eye could not break down the action at the quick gaits of
the trot and gallop. Up until this time, most artists painted horses
at a trot with one foot always on the ground; and at a full gallop
with the front legs extended forward and the hind legs extended to the
rear, and all feet off the ground. Stanford sided with the
assertion of "unsupported transit" in the trot and gallop, and decided
to have it proven scientifically. Stanford sought out Muybridge and
hired him to settle the question.
Galloping horse, animated in 2006, using photos by Eadweard Muybridge
Between 1878 and 1884, Muybridge perfected his method of horses in
motion, proving that they do have all four hooves off the ground
during their running stride. In 1872, Muybridge settled Stanford's
question with a single photographic negative showing his Standardbred
trotting horse named Occident, airborne at the trot. This negative was
lost, but the image survives through woodcuts made at the time (the
technology for printed reproductions of photographs was still being
developed). He later did additional studies, as well as improving his
camera for quicker shutter speed and faster film emulsions. By 1878,
spurred on by Stanford to expand the experiments, Muybridge had
successfully photographed a horse at a trot; lantern slides have
survived of this later work.
Scientific American was among the
publications at the time that carried reports of Muybridge's
Stanford also wanted a study of the horse at a gallop. Muybridge
planned to take a series of photographs on 15 June 1878, at Stanford's
Palo Alto Stock Farm (now the campus of Stanford University). He
placed numerous large glass-plate cameras in a line along the edge of
the track; the shutter of each was triggered by a thread as the horse
passed (in later studies he used a clockwork device to set off the
shutters and capture the images). The path was lined with cloth
sheets to reflect as much light as possible. He copied the images in
the form of silhouettes onto a disc to be viewed in a machine he had
invented, which he called a "zoopraxiscope". This device was later
regarded as an early movie projector, and the process as an
intermediate stage toward motion pictures or cinematography.
The study is called
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop or The Horse in Motion;
it shows images of the horse with all feet off the ground. This did
not take place when the horse's legs were extended to the front and
back, as imagined by contemporary illustrators, but when its legs were
collected beneath its body as it switched from "pulling" with the
front legs to "pushing" with the back legs.
Murder, acquittal and paternity
In 1872, Muybridge married 21-year-old Flora Shallcross Stone. In
1874, Muybridge discovered that a drama critic known as Major Harry
Larkyns might have fathered Flora's seven-month-old son
Florado. On 17 October, Muybridge went to Calistoga to track
down Larkyns. Upon finding him, Muybridge said, "Good evening, Major,
my name is Muybridge and here's the answer to the letter you sent my
wife", and shot him point-blank. Larkyns died that night, and
Muybridge was arrested without protest and put in the Napa jail.
Muybridge was tried for murder, and pleaded insanity due to a severe
head injury suffered in the 1860 stagecoach accident. At least four
long-time acquaintances testified under oath that the accident had
dramatically changed Muybridge's personality, from genial and pleasant
to unstable and erratic. During the trial, Muybridge undercut his
own insanity case by indicating that his actions were deliberate and
premeditated, but he also showed impassive indifference and
uncontrolled explosions of emotion. The jury dismissed the insanity
plea, but acquitted the photographer on the grounds of "justifiable
homicide", disregarding the judge's instructions. The episode
interrupted his photography studies, but not his relationship with
Stanford, who had arranged for his criminal defense.
Today, the court case and transcripts are important to historians and
forensic neurologists, because of the sworn testimony from multiple
witnesses regarding Muybridge's state of mind and past behaviour.
The American composer
Philip Glass composed an opera, The
Photographer, with a libretto based in part on court transcripts from
Shortly after his acquittal in February 1875, Muybridge left the
United States on a previously planned 9-month photography trip to
Central America, as a "working exile". By 1877, he had resumed
work for Leland Stanford.
Flora petitioned for divorce, and was initially unsuccessful, but her
second petition received a favourable ruling and an order for alimony
in April 1875. While Muybridge was in Central America, she died in
July 1875. She had placed their son, Florado
(later nicknamed "Floddie" by friends), with a French couple. In 1876,
Muybridge had the boy moved from a Catholic orphanage to a Protestant
one and paid for his care, but otherwise had little to do with
Photographs of Florado Muybridge as an adult show him to have strongly
resembled Muybridge. Put to work on a ranch as a boy, he worked all
his life as a ranch hand and gardener. In 1944, Florado was hit by a
car in Sacramento and killed, at approximately the age of 70.
Later motion studies
Eadweard Muybridge Boys playing Leapfrog (1883–86, printed 1887)
Animated collotype Boys playing Leapfrog
Animated collotype Boys playing Leapfrog
American bison cantering – set to motion in 2006 using photos by
Muybridge often travelled back to
Europe to publicise his
work. The opening of the
Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, and the
development of steamships made travel much faster and less arduous
than it was in 1860. On 13 March 1882 he lectured at the Royal
Institution in London in front of a sell-out audience, which included
members of the Royal Family, notably the future King Edward VII.
He displayed his photographs on screen and showed moving pictures
projected by his zoopraxiscope.
Muybridge and Stanford had a major falling-out concerning his research
on equine locomotion. Stanford had asked his friend and horseman Dr.
J. B. D. Stillman to write a book analysing The Horse in Motion, which
was published in 1882. Stillman used Muybridge's photos as the
basis for his 100 illustrations, and the photographer's research for
the analysis, but he gave Muybridge no prominent credit. The historian
Phillip Prodger later suggested that Stanford considered Muybridge as
just one of his employees, and not deserving of special
However, as a result of Muybridge not being credited in the book, the
Royal Society of Arts
Royal Society of Arts withdrew an offer to fund his stop-motion
studies in photography, and refused to publish a paper he had
submitted, accusing him of plagiarism. Muybridge filed a lawsuit
against Stanford to gain credit, but it was dismissed out of
court. However, Stillman's book did not sell as expected.
Muybridge, looking elsewhere for funding, was more successful. The
Royal Society later invited Muybridge back to show his work.
In the 1880s, the
University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania sponsored Muybridge's
research using banks of cameras to photograph people in a studio, and
animals from the
Philadelphia Zoo to study their movement. The human
models, either entirely nude or very lightly clothed, were
photographed against a measured grid background in a variety of action
sequences, including walking up or down stairs, hammering on an anvil,
carrying buckets of water, or throwing water over one another.
Muybridge produced sequences showing farm, industrial, construction,
and household work, military maneuvers, and everyday activities. He
also photographed athletic activities such as baseball, cricket,
boxing, wrestling, discus throwing, and a ballet dancer performing.
Showing a single-minded dedication to scientific accuracy and artistic
composition, Muybridge himself posed nude for some of the photographic
sequences, such as one showing him swinging a miner's pick.
Classic animation by Muybridge of a horse and rider jumping
Between 1883 and 1886, Muybridge made more than 100,000 images,
working obsessively in
Philadelphia under the auspices of the
University of Pennsylvania. During 1884, the painter Thomas Eakins
briefly worked alongside him, to learn more about the application of
photography to the study of human and animal motion. Eakins later
favoured the use of multiple exposures superimposed on a single
photographic negative to study motion more precisely, while Muybridge
continued to use multiple cameras to produce separate images which
could also be projected by his zoopraxiscope. The vast majority of
Muybridge's work at this time was done in a special sunlit outdoor
studio, due to the bulky cameras and slow photographic emulsion speeds
then available. Towards the end of this period, Muybridge spent much
of his time selecting and editing his photos in preparation for
In 1887, the photos were published as a massive portfolio, with 781
plates comprising 20,000 of the photographs, in a groundbreaking
collection titled Animal Locomotion: an Electro-Photographic
Investigation of Connective Phases of Animal Movements.
Muybridge's work contributed substantially to developments in the
science of biomechanics and the mechanics of athletics. Some of his
books are still published today, and are used as references by
artists, animators, and students of animal and human movement.
A phenakistoscope disc by Muybridge (1893)
A phenakistoscope sequence of a couple waltzing
Recent scholarship has noted that in his later work, Muybridge was
influenced by, and in turn influenced the French photographer
Étienne-Jules Marey. In 1881, Muybridge first visited Marey's studio
in France and viewed stop-motion studies before returning to the US to
further his own work in the same area. Marey was a pioneer in
producing multiple exposure sequential images using a rotary shutter
in his so-called "Marey wheel" camera.
While Marey's scientific achievements in the realms of cardiology and
aerodynamics (as well as pioneering work in photography and
chronophotography) are indisputable, Muybridge's efforts were to some
degree more artistic rather than scientific. As Muybridge explained,
in some of his published sequences he had substituted images where
original exposures had failed, in order to illustrate a representative
movement (rather than producing a strictly scientific recording of a
Today, similar setups of carefully timed multiple cameras are used in
modern special effects photography but they have the opposite goal of
capturing changing camera angles, with little or no movement of the
subject. This is often dubbed "bullet time" photography.
After his work at the University of Pennsylvania, Muybridge travelled
widely and gave numerous lectures and demonstrations of his still
photography and primitive motion picture sequences. At the Chicago
World's Columbian Exposition
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, Muybridge presented a series of
lectures on the "Science of Animal Locomotion" in the
Zoopraxographical Hall, built specially for that purpose in the
"Midway Plaisance" arm of the exposition. He used his zoopraxiscope to
show his moving pictures to a paying public, making the Hall the first
commercial movie theater.
Retirement and death
Eadweard Muybridge returned to his native
England in 1894, and
continued to lecture extensively throughout Great Britain. He returned
to the US once more, in 1896–1897, to settle financial affairs and
to dispose of property related to his work at the University of
Pennsylvania. He retained control of his negatives, which he used to
publish two popular books of his work, Animals in Motion (1899) and
The Human Figure in Motion (1901), both of which remain in print over
a century later.
Muybridge died on 8 May 1904 in
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames of prostate
cancer at the home of his cousin Catherine Smith. His body was
cremated, and its ashes interred in a grave at
Woking in Surrey. On
the grave's headstone his name is misspelled "Eadweard
In 2004, a British
Film Institute commemorative plaque was installed
on the outside wall of the former Smith house, at Park View, 2
Liverpool Road. Many of his papers and collected artifacts were
donated to the Kingston Library, and eventually passed to the Kingston
Museum in his place of birth.
Influence on others
According to an exhibition at Tate Britain, "His influence has forever
changed our understanding and interpretation of the world, and can be
found in many diverse fields, from Marcel Duchamp's painting Nude
Descending a Staircase and countless works by Francis Bacon, to the
The Matrix and Philip Glass's opera The
Diller Scofidio + Renfro - EJM 1:Man Walking at Ordinary Speed and
EJM2:Interia (1998). The two-part multimedia dance work with
Charleroi/Danses and the
Opera of Lyon was inspired by motion
photography experiments of two photographer-scientists: Eadward
Muybridge and Etiene-Jules Maray
Étienne-Jules Marey — in 1882 recorded the first series of live
action photos with a single camera by a method of chronophotography;
influenced and was influenced by Muybridge's work
Thomas Eakins — American artist who worked with and continued
Muybridge's motion studies, and incorporated the findings into his own
William Dickson — credited as inventor of the motion picture camera
Thomas Edison — in 1891 developed and owned patents for motion
Marcel Duchamp — artist, painted Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2,
inspired by multiple-exposure photography in 1912
Harold Eugene Edgerton
Harold Eugene Edgerton — c.1930 pioneered stroboscopic and high
speed photography and film, producing an Oscar-winning short movie and
many striking photographic sequences
Francis Bacon — painted from Muybridge photographs
John Gaeta — used the principles of Muybridge photography to create
the bullet time slow-motion technique of the 1999 movie The
Steven Pippin — in 1999 so-called
Young British Artist
Young British Artist who converted
a row of laundromat washing machines into sequential cameras in the
style of Muybridge
Wayne McGregor — in 2011 UK choreographer collaborated with composer
Mark-Anthony Turnage and artist
Mark Wallinger on a piece entitled
Undance, inspired by Muybridge's "action verbs"
Exhibitions and collections
A collection of Muybridge's equipment, including his original biunial
slide lantern and zoopraxiscope projector, can be viewed at the
Kingston Museum in Kingston upon Thames, South West London. The
University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania Archives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
hold a large collection of Muybridge's photographs, equipment, and
Stanford University Libraries and the Iris
& B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University
also maintain a large collection of Muybridge's photographs, glass
plate negatives, and some equipment including a functioning
In 1991, the
Addison Gallery of American Art
Addison Gallery of American Art at
Phillips Academy in
Andover, Massachusetts, hosted a major exhibition of Muybridge's work,
plus the works of many other artists who had been influenced by him.
The show later traveled to other venues and a book-length exhibition
catalogue was also published. The Addison Gallery has significant
holdings of Muybridge's photographic work.
In 2000–2001, the
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of
American History presented the exhibition Freeze Frame: Eadweard
Photography of Motion, plus an online virtual exhibit.
From 10 April through 18 July 2010, the
Corcoran Gallery of Art
Corcoran Gallery of Art in
Washington, DC, mounted a major retrospective of Muybridge's work
Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change. The exhibit
received favourable reviews from major publications including The New
York Times. The exhibition traveled in autumn 2010 to the Tate
Britain, Millbank, London, and also appeared at the San Francisco
Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA).
An exhibition of important items bequeathed by Muybridge to his
birthplace of Kingston upon Thames, entitled Muybridge Revolutions,
opened at the
Kingston Museum on 18 September 2010 (exactly a century
since the first Muybridge exhibition at the Museum) and ran until 12
February 2011. The full collection is held by the Museum and
Title page of the first edition of Descriptive Zoopraxography
Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, Vol. I: All 781
Plates from the 1887 "Animal Locomotion" (1979) Dover Publications
Descriptive Zoopraxography, or the Science of Animal Locomotion Made
Popular. Library of Alexandria. 1893. ISBN 9781465542977.
Legacy and representation in other media
Eadweard Muybridge statue at the
Letterman Digital Arts Center
Letterman Digital Arts Center in the
Presidio of San Francisco
The main campus site of
Kingston University has a building named after
Many of Muybridge's photographic sequences have been published since
the 1950s as artists' reference books. Cartoon animators often use his
photos as a reference when drawing their characters in
In the 1950s TV series Death Valley Days, hosted by Ronald Reagan, the
story of Eadweard Muybridge's invention of the zoopraxiscope was told
in the episode titled "The $25,000 Wager"
Jim Morrison makes a reference to Muybridge in his poetry book The
Lords (1969), suggesting that "Muybridge derived his animal subjects
Philadelphia Zoological Garden, male performers from the
Thom Andersen made a 1974 documentary titled Eadweard
Muybridge, Zoopraxographer, describing his life and work.
The composer Philip Glass's opera
The Photographer (1982) is based on
Muybridge's murder trial, with a libretto including text from the
In 1985, the music video for Larry Gowan's single "(You're a) Strange
Animal" prominently featured animation rotoscoped from Muybridge's
work. In 1986, a galloping horse sequence was used in the background
John Farnham music video for the song "Pressure Down".
Muybridge is a central figure in John Edgar Wideman's 1987 novel
Muybridge's work figures prominently in Laird Barron's tale of
Lovecraftian horror, "Hand of Glory".
Since 1991, the company Optical Toys has published Muybridge sequences
in the form of movie flipbooks.
The video for Scottish singer Jimmy Somerville's song, "Coming,"
featured in the 1992 film Orlando, features dozens of Muybridge's
motion study photographs.
In 1993, the music video for U2's "Lemon", directed by Mark Neale, was
filmed in black and white with a grid-like background as a tribute to
The play Studies in Motion: The Hauntings of
Eadweard Muybridge (2006)
was a co-production between Vancouver's
Electric Company Theatre and
University of British Columbia
University of British Columbia Theatre. While blending fiction
with fact, it conveys Muybridge's obsession with cataloguing animal
motion. The production started touring in 2010. In 2015, it would be
adapted into a feature film.
The Canadian poet
Rob Winger wrote Muybridge's Horse: A Poem in Three
Phases (2007). The long poem won the CBC Literary Award for Poetry and
was nominated for the
Governor General's Award for Literature, the
Trillium Book Award for Poetry, and the Ottawa Book Award. It
expressed his life and obsessions in a "poetic-photographic" style.
To accompany the 2010 Tate exhibition, the BBC commissioned a TV
programme, "The Weird World of Eadweard Muybridge", as part of
Imagine, the arts series presented by Alan Yentob.
On 9 April 2012, the 182nd anniversary of his birth, a Google Doodle
honoured Muybridge with an animation based on the photographs of the
horse in motion.
Josh Epstein and director
Kyle Rideout made the feature film
Eadweard (2015), starring
Michael Eklund and Sara Canning. The film
tells the story of Eadweard Muybridge's motion experiments, social
reactions to the morality of photographing nude figures in motion, his
work with sanitarium patients, and his (fictional) death in a
Muybridge appears as a character in Brian Catling's 2012 novel, The
Vorrh, where events from his life are blended into the fantasy
Czech theatre company
Laterna Magika introduced an original play based
on Muybridge's life in 2014. The play follows his life and
combines dancing and speech with multimedia created from Muybridge's
Five frames of the horse Annie G were encoded in bacteria's
Crispr in 2017, 90% of which proved recoverable.
History of film
Photography in the
United States of America
Cinema of the United States
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^ "If anything, the surname Muggeridge actually derives from a place
in Devon, Mogridge, in turn taking its name from one Mogga who held a
ridge there. Edward, on the other hand, was indeed spelled Eadweard in
Old English." Adrian Room, Naming Names: Stories of Pseudonyms and
Name Changes, with a Who's Who, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981, p.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Shimamura, Arthur P. (2002).
"Muybridge in Motion: Travels in Art, Psychology, and Neurology"
(PDF). History of Photography. 26 (4): 341–350.
^ Riesz, Megan. "Did Eadweard J. Muybridge get away with murder?".
Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
Eadweard Muybridge (British photographer)". Britannica. Retrieved
17 July 2009. English photographer important for his pioneering work
in photographic studies of motion and in motion-picture
^ a b Solnit 2003, p. 7
^ "Exhibition notes", Muybridge Exhibition at Tate Britain, January
^ a b Solnit 2003, p. 148
^ Paul Hill
Eadweard Muybridge Phaidon, 2001
^ a b Adam, (ed.), Hans Christian (2010). Eadweard Muybridge, the
human and animal locomotion photographs (1. Aufl. ed.). Köln:
Taschen. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-8365-0941-1. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
^ "Eadweard Muybridge". Kingston Council. Kingston upon Thames
Council. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
^ The building today bears a commemorative plaque marking it as
Muybridge's childhood home.
^ Anderson, Maybanke (2001). "My Sprig of Rosemary". In Jan Roberts
& Beverley Kingston. Maybanke, a woman's voice: the collected work
of Maybanke Selfe - Wolstenholme - Anderson, 1845–1927. Avalon
Beach, N.S.W.: Ruskin Rowe Press. ISBN 0-9587095-3-X.
^ Solnit 2003, p. 29
^ Solnit 2003, p. 30
^ Solnit 2003, p. 27-28
^ Brookman 2010, p. 29
^ Solnit 2003, pp. 38–39
^ Brian Clegg (2007). The Man Who Stopped Time: The Illuminating Story
of Eadweard Muybridge : Pioneer Photographer, Father of the
Motion Picture, Murderer, p. 90.
^ a b Solnit 2003, p. 39
^ a b Solnit 2003, p. 40
^ Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal
Locomotion: All 781 Plates from the 1887 Animal Locomotion, Courier
Dover Publications, 1979
^ Lance Day, Ian McNeil. Biographical Dictionary of the History of
Technology, p. 884. Routledge, 2003.
Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change. Corcoran Gallery of
Washington, D.C. 10 April – 18 July 2010. Archived from the
original on 24 March 2012.
^ Peter Hartlaub (2012-10-30). "Peter Hartlaub, "Woodward's Gardens
Comes to Life in New Book",
San Francisco Chronicle (October 30,
2012)". Sfgate.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
^ James Kaiser (2007) Yosemite, The Complete Guide:
Park, p. 104
^ a b Paula Fleming and Judith Lusky, The North American Indians in
Early Photographs, Dorset Press, 1988, (source: Ralph W. Andrews, 1964
and David Mattison, 1985)
^ Bowdoin, Jeffrey. "West Coast Lighthouses of the 19th Century". U.S.
Coast Guard History Program.
United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 10
^ Bullough, William A. (Spring–Summer 1989). "
Eadweard Muybridge and
San Francisco Mint: Archival Photographs as Historical
California History. 68 (1/2): 2–13.
doi:10.2307/25158510. JSTOR 25158510.
^ "Archive – City Views of San Francisco". Central Pacific Railroad
Photographic History Museum. CPRR.org. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
Eadweard Muybridge and His Influence on Horse Art".
Your-guide-to-gifts-for-horse-lovers.com. Retrieved 9 April
^ a b c d e f g h Mitchell Leslie (May–June 2001). "The Man Who
Stopped Time". Stanford Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
^ Williams, Alan Larson (1992) Republic of Images: A History of French
Filmmaking, Harvard University Press
^ a b c "Capturing the Moment", p. 2, Freeze Frame: Eadward
Photography of Motion, 7 October 2000 – 15 March 2001,
National Museum of American History, accessed 9 April 2012
^ Muybridge, Eadweard; Mozley, Anita Ventura (foreword) (1887).
Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion: All 781 Plates from
the 1887 Animal Locomotion. Courier Dover Publications. p. xvii.
ISBN 978-0-486-23792-3. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
^ He had discovered letters between them, one of which included a
photo of the child with the caption "Little Harry". The (Washington,
D.C.) Examiner, 17 October 2012, p. 8.
^ Haas, Robert Bartlett (1976). Muybridge: Man in Motion. Oakland,
Calif.: University of California. ISBN 978-0-52002-464-9.
^ a b c Brookman 2010, p. 69
^ a b Brian Clegg The Man Who Stopped Time: The Illuminating Story of
Eadweard Muybridge : Pioneer Photographer, Father of the Motion
Picture, Murderer, Joseph Henry Press, 2007
^ John Sanford (12 February 2003). "Cantor exhibit showcases
motion-study photography". Stanford Report. Retrieved
^ Brookman 2010, p. 93
^ Selected Items from the
Eadweard Muybridge Collection (University of
Pennsylvania Archives and Records Center) "The Eadweard Muybridge
Collection at the
University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania Archives contains 702 of
the 784 plates in his Animal Locomotion study"
^ a b "Eadweard Muybridge" (PDF). Saylor.org. p. 4. Retrieved 18
^ Brookman 2010, p. 91
^ Adam, (ed.), Hans Christian (2010). Eadweard Muybridge, the human
and animal locomotion photographs (1. Aufl. ed.). Köln: Taschen.
p. 14. ISBN 978-3-8365-0941-1. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ Clegg, Brian (2007). The Man Who Stopped Time. Joseph Henry Press.
^ Brookman 2010, p. 100
^ Brookman 2010, p. 101
^ Braun, Marta; Herbert, Stephen; Hill, Paul; McCormack, Anne (2004).
Herbert, Stephen, ed. Eadweard Muybridge: The
Kingston Museum Bequest.
The Projection Box. ISBN 1-903000-07-6.
^ Eadweard Muybridge. Tate. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
^ "EJM". dsrny.com. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
^ "Muybridge at Tate Britain". Tate.org.uk. Retrieved 9 April
^ Thomas, Rebecca (25 November 2011). "McGregor, Turnage and Wallinger
unite for dance debut". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
^ A form of lantern which can project two images at once, used to
produce fade and dissolve effects.
^ "Eadweard Muybridge, 1830 – 1904, Collection, 1870 – 1981".
Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
^ Phillip Prodger, "Time Stands Still: Muybridge and the Instantaneous
Photography Movement" (Oxford University Press and Stanford
University, 2003). ISBN 0195149645
^ Sheldon, James L.; Jock Reynolds (1991). Motion and
Document—Sequence and Time:
Eadweard Muybridge and Contemporary
American Photography. Andover, Massachusetts: Addison Gallery of
^ "About the Collection".
Addison Gallery of American Art
Addison Gallery of American Art (website).
Philips Academy, Andover. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
^ "Freeze Frame: Eadweard Muybridge's
Photography of Motion — online
National Museum of American History
National Museum of American History (website).
National Museum of American History. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
^ Karen Rosenberg (26 April 2010). "A Man Who Stopped Time to Set It
in Motion Again". The New York Times.
Eadweard Muybridge at Tate Britain, 8 September 2010 – 16
January 2011". Tate.org.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2012. "This
exhibition brings together the full range of his art for the first
time, and explores the ways in which Muybridge created and honed his
remarkable images, which continue to resonate with artists today.
Highlights include a seventeen foot panorama of
San Francisco and
recreations of the zoopraxiscope in action."
Kingston Museum – Muybridge Revolutions".
Muybridgeinkingston.com. Retrieved 9 April 2012. [permanent dead
link] "This important collection includes Muybridge's original
Zoöpraxiscope machine and 68 of only 71 glass Zoöpraxiscope discs
known to exist worldwide. In addition, the archive holds many
personalised lantern slides, hundreds of collotype prints, rare early
albums, Muybridge's own scrapbook in which he charts his entire
career, a copy of his epic San Franscisco Panorama; and many other
items that make the Kingston Muybridge bequest a collection of major
^ The Royal Borough of
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames Muybridge Collection
Archived 18 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, Vol. I: All 781
Plates from the 1887 "Animal Locomotion"". Goodreads. Retrieved 28
Eadweard Muybridge and main buildings". Retrieved 28 January
^ "Books for figure drawing models and artists (reference books)".
Artmodeltips.com, A website for life models and figurative artists.
Artmodeltips.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014.
Retrieved 18 August 2013.
Eadweard Muybridge (2007). Muybridge's Human Figure in Motion. Dover
Publications, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-486-99771-1. Retrieved 18
^ "The Lords, 11th paperback edition (October 15, 1971)". Touchstone.
Retrieved 21 July 2015.
^ "Times. Imagine: Episode 3, The Weird World of Eadweard Muybrige".
Radiotimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
^ Eadweard J Muybridge celebrated in a Google doodle The Guardian, 9
^ "Eadweard (2015)". imdb.com. Retrieved 2015-11-30.
^ "Human Locomotion Theatre in Prague: The Story of Eadweard
Muybridge". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
^ Rincon, Paul (2017-07-12). "Gif and image written into the
Brookman, Philip; Braun, Marta; Keller, Corey; Solnit, Rebecca (2010).
Brookman, Philip, ed. Helios:
Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change.
Göttingen, Germany: Steidl. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Hendricks, Gordon (2001). Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion
Picture. Mineola, New York: Dover. ISBN 978-0-48641-535-2.
Mozley, Anita Ventura, ed. (1972). Eadweard Muybridge: The Stanford
Years 1872 - 1882. Contributions by Robert Bartlett Haas. Berkeley,
Calif.: Stanford Univ., Department of Art.
Solnit, Rebecca (2003). River of Shadows:
Eadweard Muybridge and the
Technological Wild West. New York: Penguin.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Eadweard Muybridge (category)
Eadweard Muybridge on IMDb
Article on discovered Muybridge photos, March 2012[permanent dead
Time Stands Still, exhibit on
Eadweard Muybridge and contemporaries,
February–May 2003, Cantor Center, Stanford University
Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion, via Boston Public Library's
Eadweard Muybridge at Who's Who of Victorian Cinema
Eadweard Muybridge Online Archive, access to most of Muybridge's
motion studies, at printable resolutions, along with a growing number
Tesseract, 20-Min experimental film expressing Eadweard Muybridge's
obsession with time and its images at the turn of the century.
Eadweard Muybridge, Valley of the Yosemite, Sierra Nevada Mountains,
Mariposa Grove of Mammoth Trees, 1872, finding aid and online
photo collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Eadweard Muybridge, Stereographic Views of
San Francisco Bay Area
Locations, ca. 1865-ca. 1879, finding aid and online photo collection,
Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Era of exploration : the rise of landscape photography in the
American West, 1860-1885, fully digitized text from The Metropolitan
Museum of Art libraries
Yosemite American Indian Life, The Hive
"The Muybridge Collection", Kingston Museum, Kingston upon Thames,
Muybridge's 11-volume Animal Locomotion Studies and similar
publications by E.-J. Marey, The University of South Florida Tampa
Special Collections Department
Film Website, the life of Muybridge, directed by Andy
Serkis and written by Keith Stern
"Eadweard Muybridge". Photography. Victoria and Albert Museum.
Retrieved 11 November 2007.
Eadweard Muybridge stereoscopic photographs of the Modoc War, via
California Digital Library, University of California,
Human and Animal Locomotion, via SC Digital Library, University of
Teacher's Guide: Eadweard Muybridge, Harold Edgerton, and Beyond: A
Study of Motion and Time, 2-part introduction to the work of Muybridge
and Edgerton, for high school level, Addison Museum
The short film It Started With Muybridge (1965) is available for free
download at the Internet Archive
David Levy, "Muybridge and the Movies", Early American Cinema
Carola Unterberger-Probst, Animation of the first moving pictures in
film history, at Rhizome
Burns, Paul. The History of the Discovery of Cinematography: An
Illustrated Chronology, Pre-cinema history
The Compleat Eadweard Muybridge, extensive illustrated bibliography
Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs by Eadweard
Muybridge, 1867–1880 at The Bancroft Library
Central America Illustrated by Muybridge. Digital
Eadweard Muybridge at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
Eadweard Muybridge at Internet Archive
Collections search for the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for
Visual Arts at
Stanford University including the Cantor's Muybridge
ISNI: 0000 0001 2117 9845
BNF: cb12306392q (data)