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ESPN
ESPN
(originally an initialism for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) is a U.S.-based pay television sports channel owned by ESPN
ESPN
Inc., owned jointly by The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
(80%) and Hearst Communications
Hearst Communications
(20%). The company was founded in 1979 by Bill Rasmussen along with his son Scott Rasmussen
Scott Rasmussen
and Ed Egan. ESPN
ESPN
broadcasts primarily from studio facilities located in Bristol, Connecticut. The network also operates offices in Miami, New York City, Seattle, Charlotte, and Los Angeles. James Pitaro currently serves as chairman of ESPN, a position he has held since March 5, 2018, following the resignation of John Skipper on December 18, 2017.[1] While ESPN
ESPN
is one of the most successful sports networks, there has been much criticism of ESPN, which includes accusations of biased coverage,[2] conflict of interest, and controversies with individual broadcasters and analysts.

ESPN
ESPN
headquarters in Bristol, Connecticut As of September 2018, ESPN
ESPN
is available to approximately 86 million television households (93.2% of households with pay television) in the United States.[3] In addition to the flagship channel and its seven related channels in the United States, ESPN
ESPN
broadcasts in more than 200 countries,[4] operating regional channels in Australia, Brazil, Latin America, and the United Kingdom, and owning a 20% interest in The Sports Network
The Sports Network
(TSN) as well as its five sister networks in Canada. In 2011, ESPN's history and rise was chronicled in Those Guys Have All the Fun, a nonfiction book written by James Andrew Miller and Tom Shales and published by Little, Brown and Company.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Programming 3 Executives 4 Related channels

4.1 ESPN2 4.2 ESPN
ESPN
Classic 4.3 ESPNews 4.4 ESPN
ESPN
Deportes 4.5 ESPNU 4.6 Longhorn Network 4.7 SEC Network 4.8 Other services

5 International channels 6 In popular culture 7 Criticism 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of ESPN Bill Rasmussen conceived the concept of ESPN
ESPN
in late May 1978, after he was fired from his job with the World Hockey Association's New England Whalers. One of the first steps in Bill and his son Scott's (who had also been let go by the Whalers) process was finding land to build the channel's broadcasting facilities. The Rasmussens first rented office space in Plainville, Connecticut. However, the plan to base ESPN
ESPN
there was put on hold because of a local ordinance prohibiting buildings from bearing rooftop satellite dishes. Available land area was quickly found in Bristol, Connecticut
Bristol, Connecticut
(where the channel remains headquartered to this day), with funding to buy the property provided by Getty Oil, which purchased 85% of the company from Bill Rasmussen on February 22, 1979, in an attempt to diversify the company's holdings. This helped the credibility of the fledgling company, however there were still many doubters to the viability of their sports channel concept. Another event that helped build ESPN's credibility was securing an advertising agreement with Anheuser-Busch in the spring of 1979; the company invested $1 million to be the "exclusive beer advertised on the network."[6] ESPN
ESPN
launched on September 7, 1979, beginning with the first telecast of what would become the channel's flagship program, SportsCenter. Taped in front of a small live audience inside the Bristol studios, it was broadcast to 1.4 million cable subscribers throughout the United States.[6] ESPN's next big break came when the channel acquired the rights to broadcast coverage of the early rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament. It first aired the NCAA tournament in March 1980, creating the modern day television event known as "March Madness." The channel's tournament coverage also launched the broadcasting career of Dick Vitale, who at the time he joined ESPN, had just been fired as head coach of the Detroit Pistons. In April of that year, ESPN
ESPN
created another made-for-TV spectacle, when it began televising the NFL
NFL
Draft. It provided complete coverage of the event that allowed rookie players from the college ranks to begin their professional careers in front of a national television audience in ways they were not able to previously. The next major stepping stone for ESPN
ESPN
came over the course of a couple of months in 1984. During this time period, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) purchased 100% of ESPN
ESPN
from the Rasmussens and Getty Oil.[6] Under Getty ownership, the channel was unable to compete for the television rights to major sports events contracts as its majority corporate parent would not provide the funding, leading ESPN
ESPN
to lose out for broadcast deals with the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(to USA Network) and NCAA Division I college football (to TBS). For years, the NFL, NBA
NBA
and Major League Baseball refused to consider cable as a means of broadcasting some of their games.[7] However, with the backing of ABC, ESPN's ability to compete for major sports contracts greatly increased, and gave it credibility within the sports broadcasting industry. Later in 1984, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NCAA could no longer monopolize the rights to negotiate the contracts for college football games, allowing each individual school to negotiate broadcast deals of their choice. ESPN
ESPN
took full advantage and began to broadcast a large number of NCAA football games, creating an opportunity for fans to be able to view multiple games each weekend (instead of just one), the same deal that the NCAA had previously negotiated with TBS.[7] ESPN's breakthrough moment occurred in 1987, when it secured a contract with the NFL
NFL
to broadcast eight games during that year's regular season – all of which aired on Sunday nights, marking the first broadcasts of Sunday NFL
NFL
primetime games. ESPN's Sunday Night Football games would become the highest-rated NFL
NFL
telecasts for the next 17 years (before losing the rights to NBC
NBC
in 2006).[8] The channel's decision to broadcast NFL
NFL
games on Sunday evenings actually resulted in a decline in viewership for the daytime games shown on the major broadcast networks, marking the first time that ESPN
ESPN
had been a legitimate competitor to NBC
NBC
and CBS, which had long dominated the sports television market. In 1992, ESPN
ESPN
launched ESPN
ESPN
Radio, a national sports talk radio network providing analysis and commentary programs (including shows such as Mike and Mike in the Morning
Mike and Mike in the Morning
and The Herd) as well as audio play-by-play of sporting events (including some simulcasted with the ESPN
ESPN
television channel).[6] On October 10, 1993, ESPN2
ESPN2
– a secondary channel that originally was programmed with a separate lineup of niche sports popular with males 18–49 years old (with snowboarding and the World Series of Poker
World Series of Poker
as its headliners) as well as serving as an overflow channel for ESPN
ESPN
– launched on cable systems reaching to 10 million subscribers.[6] It became the fastest growing cable channel in the U.S. during the 1990s, eventually expanding its national reach to 75 million subscribers.[6] Ownership of ABC, and in effect control of ESPN, was acquired by Capital Cities Communications
Capital Cities Communications
in 1985.[9] ESPN's parent company renamed themselves as Capital Cities/ABC Inc. Capital Cities/ABC Inc. was then acquired by The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
in 1996[10] and was re-branded as Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Television. On April 26, 2017, approximately 100 ESPN
ESPN
employees were notified that their positions with the sports network had been terminated, among them athletes-turned-analysts Trent Dilfer
Trent Dilfer
and Danny Kanell, and noted journalists like NFL
NFL
beat reporter Ed Werder and Major League Baseball expert Jayson Stark.[11] The layoffs came as ESPN
ESPN
continued to shed viewers, more than 10 million over a period of several years, while paying big money for the broadcast rights to such properties as the NFL, NBA
NBA
and College Football Playoff.[12] Further cost-cutting measures taken include moving the studio operations of ESPNU
ESPNU
to Bristol from Charlotte, North Carolina,[13] reducing its longtime MLB studio show Baseball Tonight
Baseball Tonight
to Sundays as a lead-in to the primetime game and adding the MLB Network-produced Intentional Talk
Talk
to ESPN2's daily lineup.[14] On April 12, 2018, ESPN
ESPN
began a supplemental over-the-top streaming service known as ESPN+.[15]

Programming[edit] See also: List of programs broadcast by ESPN, List of ESPN
ESPN
sports properties, and List of UFC events Alongside its live sports broadcasts, ESPN
ESPN
also airs a variety of sports highlight, talk, and documentary-styled shows. These include:

Around the Horn
Around the Horn
– Competitive debating between four sports writers across the country College GameDay (basketball) – Weekly college basketball show airing from the Saturday Primetime game of the week site College GameDay (football) – Weekly college football preview show airing from the site of a major college football game E:60 – An investigative newsmagazine program focusing on American and international sports First Take – Monday-Friday with Stephen A. Smith, Max Kellerman
Max Kellerman
and Molly Qerim (moved from ESPN2
ESPN2
on January 3, 2017) Get Up! – A morning show, focusing on the previous night's game results and the burning sports issues of the day Golic and Wingo
Golic and Wingo
– A simulcast of the ESPN Radio
ESPN Radio
morning show, focusing on current sports stories Hall of Fame
Hall of Fame
- A night show, focusing on the night events going on at that time Monday Night Countdown
Monday Night Countdown
– Weekly recap show aired on Monday evenings during the NFL
NFL
season, also serves as the pre-game show for Monday Night Football Outside the Lines
Outside the Lines
Talk
Talk
and debate show that examines critical sports issues on and off the field of play Pardon the Interruption
Pardon the Interruption
Tony Kornheiser
Tony Kornheiser
and Michael Wilbon
Michael Wilbon
debate an array of sports topics SportsCenter
SportsCenter
– The flagship program of ESPN, a daily sports news program delivering the latest sports news and highlights Sunday NFL
NFL
Countdown – Weekly preview show that airs on Sunday mornings during the NFL
NFL
season Many of ESPN's documentary programs (such as 30 for 30
30 for 30
and Nine for IX) are produced by ESPN
ESPN
Films, a film division created in March 2008 as a restructuring of ESPN
ESPN
Original Entertainment, a programming division that was originally formed in 2001. 30 for 30
30 for 30
started airing in 2009 and continues airing to this day. Each episode is through the eyes of a well known filmmaker and has featured some of the biggest directors in Hollywood.[16] The 30 for 30
30 for 30
film O.J.: Made in America won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2017, the first such Oscar for ESPN.[17] Since September 2006, ESPN
ESPN
has been integrated with the sports division of sister broadcast network ABC, with sports events televised on that network airing under the banner ESPN
ESPN
on ABC;[18] much of ABC's sports coverage since the rebranding has become increasingly limited to secondary coverage of sporting events whose broadcast rights are held by ESPN
ESPN
(such as NBA
NBA
games, and the X Games
X Games
and its related qualifying events) as well as a limited array of event coverage not broadcast on ESPN
ESPN
(most notably, the NBA
NBA
Finals). Ultimate Fighting Championship
Ultimate Fighting Championship
signed a 5-year contract with ESPN
ESPN
starting 2019[19] on ESPN
ESPN
and ESPN
ESPN
+ which estimate every quarter 2 event on UFC on ESPN
ESPN
and 6 events on UFC Fight Night on ESPN+.[20] In March 2019, ESPN
ESPN
announced a new betting-themed daily program, Daily Wager, hosted by the network's gambling analyst Doug Kezirian.[21] The program was ESPN's first regularly scheduled program solely dedicated to gaming-related content. On May 14, 2019, ESPN
ESPN
announced a deal with casino operator Caesars Entertainment to establish an ESPN-branded studio at The LINQ Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas to produce betting-themed content.[22]

Executives[edit] James Pitaro – President of ESPN, Co-chair, Disney Media Networks [23] Sean Bratches – Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing[24] Christine Driessen – Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer[25] Ed Durso – Executive Vice President, Administration[26] Aaron LaBerge – Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer[27] Norby Williamson – Executive Vice President, Programming[28] Russell Wolff – Executive Vice President and Managing Director, ESPN+[29] Related channels[edit] ESPN2[edit] Main article: ESPN2 ESPN2
ESPN2
was launched on October 1, 1993. It carried a broad mix of event coverage from conventional sports—including auto racing, college basketball and NHL hockey—to extreme sports—such as BMX, skateboarding and motocross.[30] The " ESPN
ESPN
BottomLine", a ticker displaying sports news and scores during all programming that is now used by all of ESPN's networks, originated on ESPN2
ESPN2
in 1995.[31] In the late 1990s, ESPN2
ESPN2
was gradually reformatted to serve as a secondary outlet for ESPN's mainstream sports programming.[32]

ESPN
ESPN
Classic[edit] Main article: ESPN
ESPN
Classic ESPN Classic
ESPN Classic
is a subscription television network that launched in 1995 as Classic Sports Network, founded by Brian Bedol
Brian Bedol
and Steve Greenberg. ESPN Inc.
ESPN Inc.
purchased Classic Sports Network in 1997 for $175 million,[33] rebranding the channel to its current name the following year. The channel broadcasts notable archived sporting events (originally including events from past decades, but now focusing mainly on events from the 1990s and later), sports documentaries and sports-themed movies.

ESPNews[edit] Main article: ESPNews ESPNews
ESPNews
is a subscription television network that was launched on November 1, 1996, originally focusing solely on sports news, highlights and press conferences. Since August 2010, the network has gradually incorporated encores of ESPN's various sports debate and entertainment shows and video simulcasts of ESPN Radio
ESPN Radio
shows, in addition to sports news programming (which since the 2013 cancellation of Highlight Express,[34] consists mainly of additional runs of SportsCenter); ESPNews
ESPNews
also serves as an overflow feed due to programming conflicts caused by sporting events on the other ESPN networks.

ESPN
ESPN
Deportes[edit] Main article: ESPN
ESPN
Deportes ESPN Deportes
ESPN Deportes
(Spanish pronunciation: [i.es.piˈen deˈpoɾtes], " ESPN
ESPN
Sports") is a subscription television network that was originally launched in July 2001 to provide Spanish language simulcasts of certain Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
telecasts from ESPN. It became a 24-hour sports channel in January 2004.

ESPNU[edit] Main article: ESPNU ESPNU
ESPNU
is a subscription television network that launched on March 4, 2005, and focuses on college athletics including basketball, football, baseball college swimming, and hockey.

Longhorn Network[edit] Main article: Longhorn Network The Longhorn Network is a subscription television network that was launched on August 26, 2011, focusing on events from the Texas Longhorns varsity sports teams of the University of Texas at Austin.[35] It features events from the 20 sports sanctioned by the Texas Longhorns
Texas Longhorns
athletics department, along with original programming (including historical, academic and cultural content).

SEC Network[edit] Main article: SEC Network SEC Network
SEC Network
is a subscription television network that launched on August 14, 2014, focusing on the coverage of sporting events sanctioned by the Southeastern Conference. Created as a result of a 20-year broadcast partnership between the two entities, the network is a joint venture between the conference and ESPN Inc.
ESPN Inc.
(which operates the network).[36][37]

Other services[edit] ESPNHD ESPN
ESPN
launched its high definition simulcast feed, originally branded as ESPNHD, on March 30, 2003.[38] All studio shows based in Bristol and at L.A. Live, along with most live event telecasts on ESPN, are broadcast in high definition. ESPN
ESPN
is one of the few television networks with an all-digital infrastructure. Archived non-HD programming is presented in 4:3 standard definition with stylized pillarboxing. Pardon the Interruption
Pardon the Interruption
and Around the Horn began airing in HD on September 27, 2010, with the relocation of the production of both shows into the facility housing the Washington, D.C. bureau for ABC News.[39] ESPN, as with Disney/ABC's other television networks, broadcasts HD programming in the 720p
720p
resolution format; this is due to the fact that ABC executives had proposed a progressive scan signal that resolves fluid and high-speed motion in sports better, particularly during slow-motion replays.[40] The network's Digital Center itself natively holds 2160p UHD/4K operations and equipment.[41][42] In 2011, ESPNHD began to downplay its distinct promotional logo in preparation for the conversion of its standard definition feed from a 4:3 full-screen to a letterboxed format (via the application of the AFD #10 display flag), which occurred on June 1 of that year.

WatchESPN WatchESPN
WatchESPN
is a website for desktop computers, as well as an application for smartphones and tablet computers that allows subscribers of participating pay-TV providers to watch live streams of programming from ESPN
ESPN
and its sister networks (with the exception of ESPN
ESPN
Classic), including most sporting events, on computers, mobile devices, Apple TV, Roku
Roku
and Xbox Live
Xbox Live
via their TV Everywhere
TV Everywhere
login provided by their cable provider. The service originally launched on October 25, 2010 as ESPN
ESPN
Networks, a streaming service which provided a live stream of ESPN
ESPN
exclusive to Time Warner Cable subscribers.[43] ESPN3, an online streaming service providing live streams and replays of global sports events that launched in 2005 as a separate website,[44] was incorporated into the WatchESPN platform on August 31, 2011.[45] Likewise, ESPN+
ESPN+
was launched in April 2018 as an add-on subscription for $4.99 per month.[46]

ESPN
ESPN
Events ESPN
ESPN
Regional Television (formerly branded as ESPN
ESPN
Plus) is the network's syndication arm, which produces collegiate sporting events for free-to-air television stations throughout the United States (primarily those affiliated with networks such as The CW
The CW
and MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
or independent stations). ESPN
ESPN
Plus syndicates college football and basketball games from the American Athletic Conference, Big 12 Conference,[47] Mid-American Conference, Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference, Sun Belt Conference
Sun Belt Conference
and the Western Athletic Conference.

ESPN
ESPN
on Snapchat ESPN
ESPN
distributes various content on Snapchat
Snapchat
Discover, including a Snapchat-only version of SportsCenter.

ESPN
ESPN
MVP ESPN MVP
ESPN MVP
(initially known as Mobile ESPN) was a failed attempt in the 2000s and 2010s to have exclusive mobile content, first as a feature phone and later as part of a smartphone package.

International channels[edit] Main article: ESPN
ESPN
International ESPN
ESPN
owns and operates regional channels in Brazil, Caribbean, Latin America and Oceania. In Canada, ESPN
ESPN
is a minority owner of The Sports Network (TSN) and the French-language Réseau des sports
Réseau des sports
(RDS). ESPN also has a minority stake in J Sports
J Sports
in Japan. In the United Kingdom, BT Group
BT Group
operates the channel BT Sport ESPN. In India, it is operated by Sony Pictures Networks
Sony Pictures Networks
under the name Sony ESPN
ESPN
with English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, Malayalam
Malayalam
feeds.

In popular culture[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "ESPN" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) ESPN
ESPN
has been a part of popular culture since its inception. Many movies with a general sports theme will include ESPN
ESPN
announcers and programming into their storylines. Many jokes have been made by comedians about fake obscure sports that are shown on ESPN. Dennis Miller
Dennis Miller
mentioned watching "sumo rodeo," while George Carlin
George Carlin
stated that ESPN
ESPN
showed "Australian dick wrestling." One of several Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
sketches poking fun at the network features a fictional ESPN2
ESPN2
program called Scottish Soccer Hooligan Weekly, which includes a fake advertisement for "Senior Women's Beach Lacrosse." SNL also parodies ESPN Classic
ESPN Classic
with fake archived obscure women's sports event telecasts from the 1980s (such as bowling, weightlifting and curling), with announcers who know nothing about the sport, and instead focus on the sponsors, which were always for feminine hygiene products. In the early years of ESPN, Late Night with David Letterman even featured a "Top Ten List" segment poking fun at some of the obscure sports seen on ESPN
ESPN
at the time. One of the more memorable sports on the list was "Amish Rake Fighting." A recurring skit on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon
Late Night with Jimmy Fallon
named Sports Freak-Out! is a parody of SportsCenter's overexcited anchors. The 2004 comedy film DodgeBall: A True Underdog Story gently lampoons the channel's multiple outlets by referencing the fictional ESPN8, "The Ocho",[48] a reference to a nickname formerly used by ESPN2, "the Deuce". ESPNU
ESPNU
was rebranded ESPN8 The Ocho on August 8, 2017, airing obscure competitions such as disc golf, kabaddi, arm wrestling and roller derby.[49] On August 8, 2018, the special returned on ESPN2, featuring competitions such as jousting, lightsaber fighting, ultimate frisbee, spikeball, lawn mower racing, roller derby and chess boxing.[50] Japanese videogame publisher Konami launched the ESPN
ESPN
MLS GameNight and ESPN MLS ExtraTime 2002 soccer games. In the early 1990s, Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
games featured a logo for a fictional sports TV network, EASN ( Electronic Arts
Electronic Arts
Sports Network); this was soon changed to EA Sports
EA Sports
after ESPN
ESPN
requested that the company stop using the similar name. In 2005, both companies signed a 15-year partnership, where the ESPN
ESPN
brand and personalities are integrated into EA Sports video games. Grid 2
Grid 2
also features prominent ESPN
ESPN
branding.[51] An occasional joke used in comedic television and film involves people getting ESP (the common abbreviation for extrasensory perception, that was coincidentally the working abbreviation for the channel prior to its launch) confused with ESPN, often including someone saying a sentence along the lines of "I know these kinds of things, I've got ESPN." There are also at least 22 children that are named after the network.[52][53] On November 19, 2017, in Season 29, episode 7 of The Simpsons, entitled "Singin' in the Lane", the bowling tournament is being streamed on ESPN8, which is a parody of ESPN8: The Ocho.

Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticism of ESPN ESPN
ESPN
has been criticized for focusing too much on men's college and professional sports, and very little on women's sports or extreme sports.[54] Ice hockey
Ice hockey
and soccer fans have also criticized ESPN
ESPN
for not giving their respective sports more coverage.[55][56] Other criticism has focused on ethnicity in ESPN's varying mediated forms, as well as carriage fees and issues regarding the exportation of ESPN
ESPN
content.[57] Some critics argue that ESPN's success is their ability to provide other enterprise and investigative sports news while competing with other hard sports-news-producing outlets such as Yahoo! Sports
Yahoo! Sports
and Fox Sports.[58] Some scholars have challenged ESPN's journalistic integrity calling for an expanded standard of professionalism to prevent biased coverage and conflicts of interest.[59]

See also[edit] List of ESPN
ESPN
personalities List of past ESPN
ESPN
personalities ESPN
ESPN
3D Wieden+Kennedy References[edit]

^ James, Meg (November 23, 2011). " John Skipper is promoted to ESPN president". Los Angeles
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Times. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 24, 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Geography lesson: Breaking down the bias in ESPN's coverage, ESPN.com, August 15, 2008.

^ https://awfulannouncing.com/espn/nielsen-coverage-estimates-september-espn-nbcsn-nbatv-mlbn-nfln.html

^ ESPN
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^ "Those Guys Have All the Fun: Inside the World of ESPN". Amazon.com. Retrieved August 28, 2016.

^ a b c d e f Hill (January 3, 1984). "ABC buys stake in ESPN". The New York Times.

^ a b Wolverton, Brad; López-Rivera, Marisa; Killough, Ashley C. (September 4, 2009). "A Powerful League Piles Up Its Advantages". Chronicle of Higher Education. 56 (2): A1–A28. Retrieved November 11, 2015.

^ Goodwin, Michael (October 28, 1987). " ESPN
ESPN
Ends season in middle of pack". The New York Times.

^ Vise, David A. (March 19, 1985). " Capital Cities Communications
Capital Cities Communications
To Buy ABC for $3.5 Billion". Retrieved December 23, 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.

^ Geraldine Fabrikant. "THE MEDIA BUSINESS;Disney and ABC Shareholders Solidly Approve Merger Deal". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2013.

^ Richard Deitsch (April 26, 2017). " ESPN
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^ Joe Drape and Brooks Barnes (April 26, 2017). "A Struggling ESPN Lays Off Many On-Air Personalities". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved April 26, 2017.

^ Katherine Peralta (April 26, 2017). " ESPN
ESPN
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^ Ian Casselberry (April 27, 2017). " ESPN
ESPN
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Baseball Tonight
to Sundays only, partnering with MLB Network
MLB Network
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^ " ESPN+
ESPN+
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^ "30 for 30".

^ "'O.J.: Made In America' wins best documentary feature Oscar". ESPN.

^ "' ESPN
ESPN
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^ " ESPN
ESPN
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^ "UFC announces 2019 first quarter schedule: ESPN
ESPN
debut Jan. 19 in Brooklyn". MMAjunkie. November 4, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2019.

^ Battaglio, Stephen. " ESPN
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launches 'Daily Wager' as sports betting goes showtime". latimes.com. Retrieved May 14, 2019.

^ Schulz, Bailey (May 14, 2019). " ESPN
ESPN
studio coming to The Linq Hotel on Las Vegas Strip". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved May 14, 2019.

^ "Disney exec Pitaro named new ESPN
ESPN
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^ "SEAN R. H. BRATCHES Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007.

^ "CHRISTINE F. DRIESSEN Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007.

^ "EDWIN M. DURSO Executive Vice President, Administration". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007.

^ "Aaron LaBerge - ESPN
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^ "NORBY WILLIAMSON Executive Vice President, Studio and Remote Production". ESPN. Retrieved April 7, 2007.

^ "RUSSELL WOLFF Executive Vice President and Managing Director, ESPN+". ESPN. Retrieved November 1, 2018.

^ "Whether you get it or not, ESPN2
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^ Hiestand, Michael (March 7, 2008). "Dedicated staff keeps close watch on ESPN's Bottom Line". USA Today. Retrieved March 27, 2008.

^ "The Last Days Of ESPN2". February 1, 2012. Deadspin. Retrieved September 26, 2012.

^ Whitford, David (May 25, 2010). "The king of the sports deal". Fortune. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved June 2, 2010.

^ " ESPN
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Cancels "Highlight Express" And "Unite," While Schwab, Hoenig Among Layoffs". Street & Smith's Sports Business Daily. June 13, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.

^ " ESPN
ESPN
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^ "SEC And ESPN
ESPN
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^ "SEC Releases 2014 Conference Football Schedule". SEC. August 21, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013.

^ "On This Day in ESPN
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History: ESPN
ESPN
HD debuts - ESPN
ESPN
Front Row". March 30, 2016.

^ ESPN
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TVPredictions.com September 20, 2010.

^ "The HD Experience" (PDF). ESPN. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2008. Retrieved July 5, 2011.

^ Butts, Tom (May 28, 2014). " ESPN
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^ McCracken, Harry (June 13, 2016). "The Technology Behind ESPN'S Digital Transformation". Fast Company. Retrieved August 18, 2017.

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^ Grid 2
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