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The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
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The Treaty of Rome, officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (TEEC), is an international agreement that brought about the creation of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC), the best-known of the European Communities
European Communities
(EC). It was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands
and West Germany and came into force on 1 January 1958. It remains one of the two most important treaties in the modern-day European Union
European Union
(EU). The TEEC proposed the progressive reduction of customs duties and the establishment of a customs union. It proposed to create a single market for goods, labour, services, and capital across the EEC's member states. It also proposed the creation of a Common Agriculture Policy, a Common Transport Policy and a European Social Fund, and established the European Commission. The treaty's name has been retrospectively amended on several occasions since 1957. The Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
of 1992 removed the word "economic" from the Treaty of Rome's official title and, in 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
renamed it the "Treaty on the functioning of the European Union".


1 Background

1.1 Treaty of Paris and the ECSC

2 History

2.1 Move towards a Single Market 2.2 Signature of the Treaty of Rome

3 Renamings and amendments 4 Historical assessment 5 Anniversary commemorations

5.1 Commemorative coins 5.2 2007 celebrations in Berlin 5.3 2017 celebrations in Rome

6 EU evolution timeline 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Background[edit] Main article: History of the European Union Treaty of Paris and the ECSC[edit] In 1951, the Treaty of Paris was signed, creating the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The Treaty of Paris was an international treaty based on international law, designed to help reconstruct the economies of the European continent, prevent war in Europe and ensure a lasting peace. The original idea was conceived by Jean Monnet, a senior French civil servant and it was announced by Robert Schuman, the French Foreign Minister, in a declaration on 9 May 1950. The aim was to pool Franco-West German coal and steel production, because the two raw materials were the basis of the industry (including war industry) and power of the two countries. The proposed plan was that Franco-West German coal and steel production would be placed under a common High Authority within the framework of an organisation that would be open for participation to other European countries. The underlying political objective of the European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
was to strengthen Franco-German cooperation and banish the possibility of war.

Modern-day view of the Palazzo dei Conservatori
Palazzo dei Conservatori
(today the Capitoline Museums) where the treaty was signed in 1957

France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands began negotiating the treaty. The Treaty Establishing the ECSC was signed in Paris on 18 April 1951, and entered into force on 24 July 1952. The Treaty expired on 23 July 2002, after fifty years, as was foreseen. The common market opened on 10 February 1953 for coal, iron ore and scrap, and on 1 May 1953 for steel. Partly in the aim of creating a United States of Europe, two further Communities were proposed, again by the French. A European Defence Community (EDC) and a European Political Community (EPC). While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the EDC was rejected by the French Parliament. President Jean Monnet, a leading figure behind the Communities, resigned from the High Authority in protest and began work on alternative Communities, based on economic integration rather than political integration.[1] As a result of the energy crises, the Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the ECSC to cover other sources of energy. However, Monnet desired a separate Community to cover nuclear power, and Louis Armand was put in charge of a study into the prospects of nuclear energy use in Europe. The report concluded that further nuclear development was needed, in order to fill the deficit left by the exhaustion of coal deposits and to reduce dependence on oil producers. The Benelux states and West Germany
West Germany
were also keen on creating a general common market; however, this was opposed by France owing to its protectionist policy, and Monnet thought it too large and difficult a task. In the end, Monnet proposed creating both as separate Communities to attempt to satisfy all interests.[2] As a result of the Messina Conference
Messina Conference
of 1955, Paul-Henri Spaak
Paul-Henri Spaak
was appointed as chairman of a preparatory committee, the Spaak Committee, charged with the preparation of a report on the creation of a common European market. History[edit] Move towards a Single Market[edit]

The audience chamber at the Palazzo dei Conservatori
Palazzo dei Conservatori
where the treaty was signed

The Spaak Report[3] drawn up by the Spaak Committee
Spaak Committee
provided the basis for further progress and was accepted at the Venice Conference
Venice Conference
(29 and 30 May 1956) where the decision was taken to organise an Intergovernmental Conference. The report formed the cornerstone of the Intergovernmental Conference
Intergovernmental Conference
on the Common Market and Euratom
at Val Duchesse in 1956. The outcome of the conference was that the new Communities would share the Common Assembly (now the Parliamentary Assembly) with the ECSC, as they would the European Court of Justice. However, they would not share the ECSC's Council of High Authority. The two new High Authorities would be called Commissions, from a reduction in their powers. France
was reluctant to agree to more supranational powers; hence, the new Commissions would have only basic powers, and important decisions would have to be approved by the Council (of national Ministers), which now adopted majority voting.[4] Euratom
fostered co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a very popular area, and the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
was to create a full customs union between members.[5][6] Signature of the Treaty of Rome[edit]

The signature page on the original Treaty of Rome

The conference led to the signature, on 25 March 1957, of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
and the Euratom
Treaty at the Palazzo dei Conservatori
Palazzo dei Conservatori
on Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
in Rome. In March 2007, the BBC's Today radio programme reported that delays in printing the treaty meant that the document signed by the European leaders as the Treaty of Rome
consisted of blank pages between its frontispiece and page for the signatures.[7][8][9]

Signatories For

Paul-Henri Spaak · Jean-Charles Snoy et d'Oppuers  Belgium

Konrad Adenauer · Walter Hallstein  West Germany

Christian Pineau · Maurice Faure  France

Antonio Segni · Gaetano Martino  Italy

Joseph Bech · Lambert Schaus  Luxembourg

Joseph Luns · J. Linthorst Homan  Netherlands

Renamings and amendments[edit] The Treaty of Rome, the original full name of which was the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
has been amended by successive treaties significantly changing its content. The 1992 Treaty of Maastricht
Treaty of Maastricht
established the European Union, the EEC becoming one of its three pillars, the European Community. Hence, the treaty was renamed the Treaty establishing the European Community
European Community
(TEC). When the Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
came into force in 2009, the pillar system was abandoned; hence, the EC ceased to exist as a legal entity separate from the EU. This led to the treaty being amended and renamed as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(TFEU).[10] In March 2011, the European Council
European Council
adopted a decision to amend the Treaty by adding a new paragraph to Article 136. The additional paragraph, which enables the establishment of a financial stability mechanism for the Eurozone, runs as follows:

The Member States whose currency is the euro may establish a stability mechanism to be activated if indispensable to safeguard the stability of the euro area as a whole. The granting of any required financial assistance under the mechanism will be made subject to strict conditionality.[11]

For details of the content of the Treaty as it stands after 2009, see Treaties of the European Union#Treaty on the functioning of the European Union. Historical assessment[edit] According to the historian Tony Judt, the Treaty of Rome
did not represent a fundamental turning point in the history of European integration:

It is important not to overstate the importance of the Rome
Treaty. It represented for the most part a declaration of future good intentions...Most of the text constituted a framework for instituting procedures designed to establish and enforce future regulations. The only truly significant innovation – the setting up under Article 177 of a European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
to which national courts would submit cases for final adjudication – would prove immensely important in later decades but passed largely unnoticed at the time.[12]

Anniversary commemorations[edit] Major anniversaries of the signing of the Treaty of Rome
have been commemorated in numerous ways. Commemorative coins[edit]

A 1987 Silver Coin

Commemorative coins have been struck by numerous European countries, notably at the 30th and 50th anniversaries (1987 and 2007 respectively). 2007 celebrations in Berlin[edit] In 2007, celebrations culminated in Berlin with the Berlin declaration preparing the Lisbon Treaty. 2017 celebrations in Rome[edit]

One of the events in preparation of the 60th anniversary: projection on the Colosseum
by the JEF[13]

In 2017, Rome
was the centre of multiple official[14][15][16] and popular celebrations.[17][18] Street demonstrations were largely in favour of European unity and integration, according to several news sources.[19][20][21][22]

EU evolution timeline[edit]

Signed: In force: Document: 1948 1948 Brussels Treaty 1951 1952 Paris Treaty 1954 1955 Modified Brussels Treaty 1957 1958 Rome Treaty & EURATOM 1965 1967 Merger Treaty 1975 1976 Council Agreement on TREVI 1986 1987 Single European Act 1985+90 1995 Schengen Treaty & Convention 1992 1993 Maastricht Treaty (TEU) 1997 1999 Amsterdam Treaty 2001 2003 Nice Treaty 2007 2009 Lisbon Treaty  

Content: (founded WUDO) (founded ECSC) (protocol amending WUDO to become WEU) (founded EEC and EURATOM) (merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities) (founded TREVI) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+ (founded EPC) (founded Schengen) (implemented Schengen) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to transform it into EC)+ (founded: JHA+CFSP) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA) (amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU) (abolished the 3 pillars and WEU by amending: EURATOM, EC=>TFEU, and TEU) (founded EU as an overall legal unit with Charter of Fundamental Rights, and reformed governance structures & decision procedures)  


Three pillars of the European Union:  

European Communities (with a single Commission & Council)  

European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)


European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC) Treaty expired in 2002

European Union
European Union


European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC)   European Community (EC)

        Schengen Rules  

    Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)   Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters
Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters

  European Political Cooperation (EPC) Common Foreign and Security Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy

Western Union Defence Organization (WUDO) Western European Union
European Union

Treaty terminated in 2011    



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See also[edit]

Article 81 Article 82 Berlin Declaration (2007) Common Agricultural Policy Four Freedoms (European Union) History of the European Union Intergovernmental Conference
Intergovernmental Conference
on the Common Market and Euratom Ohlin Report Spaak Report European Coal and Steel Community Euratom European Economic Community


^ Raymond F. Mikesell, The Lessons of Benelux and the European Coal and Steel Community for the European Economic Community, The American Economic Review, Vol. 48, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Seventieth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1958), pp. 428–441 ^ 1957–1968 Successes and crises – CVCE (Centre for European Studies) ^ The Brussels Report on the General Common Market (abridged, English translation of document commonly called the Spaak Report) – AEI (Archive of European Integration) ^ Drafting of the Rome
Treaties – CVCE (Centre for European Studies) ^ A European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community
– CVCE (Centre for European Studies) ^ A European Customs Union – CVCE (Centre for European Studies) ^ What really happened when the Treaty of Rome
was signed 50 years ago ^ EU landmark document was 'blank pages' ^ How divided Europe came together ^ "Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council
European Council
21/22 June 2007" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 23 June 2007.  ^ The European Treaty Amendment for the Creation of a Financial Stability Mechanism (Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies) ^ Judt, Tony (2007). Postwar: A History of Europe since 1945. London: Pimlico. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-7126-6564-3.  ^ FAZ ^ " European Commission
European Commission
- PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Rome Declaration of the Leaders of 27 Member States and of the European Council, the European Parliament
European Parliament
and the European Commission". europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Speech by President Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
at the ceremony of the 60th anniversary of the Treaties of Rome
- Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ " European Commission
European Commission
- PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Speech by President Juncker at the 60th Anniversary of the Treaties of Rome celebration – A new chapter for our Union: shaping the future of EU 27". europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Cortei Roma, il raduno dei federalisti. "L'Europa è anche pace, solidarietà e diritti"". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Celebrazioni Ue, in 5 mila al corteo europeista". Repubblica.it (in Italian). 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "A Rome, plusieurs milliers de manifestants défilent pour «un réveil de l'Europe»". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Des milliers de manifestants en marge des 60 ans du traité de Rome". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2017-03-25. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Pro-European, Anti-Populist Protesters March as EU Leaders Meet in Rome". Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ "Trattati di Roma, cortei e sit-in: la giornata in diretta" (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-03-26. 

External links[edit]

Documents of Treaty of Rome's negotiations are at the Historical Archives of the EU in Florence History of the Rome
Treaties – CVCE (Centre for European Studies) Treaty establishing the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
– CVCE (Centre for European Studies) Happy Birthday EU — Union wide design competition to mark the 50th anniversary of the Treaty 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome
- Official Site

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Treaties of the European Union
European Union
and related documents

Legal basis

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(2007) Treaty on European Union
European Union
(2007) Euratom
Treaty (1957)

Main treaties

Paris (European Coal and Steel Community, 1951) Rome
(European Economic Community, 1957) Merger (1965) Single European Act
Single European Act
(1986) Maastricht (1992) Amsterdam (1997) Nice (2001) Lisbon (2007)

Accession Treaties

1972 1979 1985 1994 2003 2005 2011

Minor treaties

Antilles Association Convention (1962) First Budgetary Treaty (1970) Second Budgetary Treaty (1975) Greenland Treaty
Greenland Treaty

Minor amendments

Protocol 36 (2011) Article 136 (2011)

Abandoned treaties and agreements

Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
European Defence Community
(1952) Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
(2004) UK renegotiation of EU membership (2016)


Schuman Declaration
Schuman Declaration
(1950) Solemn Declaration (1983) Charter of Fundamental Rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights
(2000) Berlin Declaration (2007)

Other documents

Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
(1985) Schengen Convention
Schengen Convention
(1990) Schengen acquis
Schengen acquis
of the EU (1999) PFI Convention (2002) Prüm Convention
Prüm Convention
(2005) Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism
European Stability Mechanism
(2012) European Fiscal Compact
European Fiscal Compact
(2012) Agreement on a Unified Patent Court
Unified Patent Court
(2013) Single Resolution Fund Agreement (2014)

European Union
European Union

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 190567667 GN