EA Digital Illusions CE AB (
trade name A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original o ...
: DICE) is a Swedish
video game developer A video game developer is a software developer specializing in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with emp ...
based in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

. The company was founded in 1992 and has been a subsidiary of
Electronic Arts Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California, Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest List of video game companies, gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and ma ...
since 2006. Its releases include the ''
Battlefield A battlefield, battleground, or field of battle is the location of a present or historic battle A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare between opposing military units of any number or size. A war usually consists of multiple battle ...
'', ''
Mirror's Edge ''Mirror's Edge'' is an action-adventure platform game developed by DICE and published by Electronic Arts Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California, Redwood City, California. I ...
'' and '' Star Wars Battlefront'' series. Through their Frostbite Labs division, the company also develops the
Frostbite Frostbite is a skin injury that occurs when exposed to extreme low temperatures, causing the freezing of the skin or other tissues, commonly affecting the fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin areas. Most often, frostbite occurs in the hands ...
game engine.


Foundation and early years (1992–2000)

Digital Illusions was founded in May 1992 by Olof "Olle" Gustafsson, Markus Nyström,
Fredrik LiljegrenFredrik Liljegren, also known as Fredrik Liliegren, is a Swedish programmer. He has worked at RedJade and co-founded the studio Digital Illusions and the demogroup The Silents. Early life and education Liliegren was born in Lund to Lars-Göran Lilje ...
and Andreas Axelsson, four friends and former members of The Silents, a
demogroup Demogroups are teams of demosceners, who make computer based audio-visual works of art known as Demo (computer programming), demos. Demogroups form a subculture collectively known as the demoscene. Groups frequently consist of students, young com ...
that developed for
Amiga The Amiga is a family of personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers ...

systems. The four studied at Växjö University, thus DICE was established in Växjö.

Expansion (2000–2004)

In 2000, DICE acquired developer Refraction Games (developers of ''Codename Eagle''). From the acquisition, DICE inherited the in-development ''Battlefield 1942''. Patrick Söderlund, who had founded Refraction Games in 1997, subsequently joined DICE as chief executive officer. This was followed with the merger of Sandbox Studios in April 2001. Sandbox Studios added 50 employees to DICE's staff, amounting to 150 total employees. In September 2004, DICE also merged with Trauma Studios in New York City. Trauma Studios employed nine people at the time.

Acquisition by Electronic Arts (2006–present)

In November 2004,
Electronic Arts Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California, Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest List of video game companies, gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and ma ...
(EA) announced their intent to purchase all outstanding shares in DICE at a price of per share, with the deal's closing deadline scheduled for 27 December. At the time, EA owned 18.9% in DICE. Initially, the offer was rejected by shareholders representing 28% of DICE's ownership on 15 December, after which EA adjusted its offer on 20 December, intending to only purchase 44.5% at the same price per share, extending the offer deadline to 20 January 2005. On 25 January 2005, shareholders agreed to the acquisition, and EA raised their ownership in DICE to 59.8%. In March 2006, EA announced a new plan to acquire all outstanding shares in DICE for per share. The acquisition was completed on 2 October, with 2.6 million shares in DICE transferred to EA in exchange for a total of . Shortly following the acquisition, on 5 October, EA closed Digital Illusions Canada, DICE's Ontario-based studio. The 25 employees working at the studio at the time were given the option to transfer to DICE's headquarters in Stockholm or any other EA studio. DICE co-founder Liljegren announced on 16 October that he established RedJade as a successor to Digital Illusions Canada. In May 2013, EA opened a new Los Angeles-based division for DICE known as DICE LA, helmed by former senior staff of EA's previously closed studio Danger Close Games. DICE LA had generally been involved with support of DICE and other EA games and had not generated any title on their own. Vince Zampella of Respawn Entertainment (another EA studio) was named as the studio's new lead in January 2020. Zampella had indicated at this time that they would likely become separate from DICE, and change their name to reflect this. DICE LA announced their new name, Ripple Effect Studios, in July 2021, but otherwise under management by Zampella, and while they will finish work on ''Battlefield 2042'', will move in a new direction following its release. On December 2, 2021, Electronic Arts announced that Vince Zampella, co-founder of Respawn Entertainment and head of Ripple Effect Studios, will oversee the ''Battlefield'' series going forward, with Ripple Effect leading the way in developing the franchise's "new experiences", instead of DICE. Along with the announcement, it was reported that DICE General Manager Oskar Gabrielson would be leaving EA, with Rebecka Coutaz, formerly Managing Director of Ubisoft Annecy, taking his place in the role.

Games developed


# Co-developed with Easy Studios # Co-developed with Neowiz Games # Cancelled in 1994 but eventually revived by Strictly Limited Games and released in 2019


External links

* * {{Authority control Battlefield (video game series) Electronic Arts Video game companies established in 1992 Video game companies of Sweden Companies based in Stockholm Video game development companies 2006 mergers and acquisitions Swedish companies established in 1992