The Info List - Dwight Eisenhower

World War II Supreme Allied Commander in Europe

D-Day Operation Overlord

Surrender of Germany VE-Day

Crusade in Europe

President of the United States


First Term

Draft movement

1952 Campaign


1st Inauguration

Korean War Atoms for Peace

Cold War

New Look Domino theory

Interstate Highway System

Second Term

1956 campaign


2nd Inauguration

Eisenhower Doctrine

crisis Missile gap


Civil Rights Act of 1957 Little Rock Nine

U-2 incident Farewell Address


Legacy Presidential library and museum Tributes and memorials

v t e

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (/ˈaɪzənhaʊ.ər/ EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army
United States Army
and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa
North Africa
in Operation Torch
Operation Torch
in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. He was also the first American President to be bound by the 22nd Amendment, which limits the number of times one can be elected to the office of President of the United States. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas
in a large family of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch
ancestry; his parents had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, and later became a Jehovah's Witness. Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952. He cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason.[2] He graduated from West Point
West Point
in 1915 and later married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews. Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U.S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the successful invasions of North Africa
North Africa
and Sicily
before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and then took on the uncomfortable role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican in order to block the foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft. He won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican elected President since 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to terms regarding POWs in the Korean War. An armistice ended the stalemated conflict. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions. He continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China
Republic of China
as the legitimate government of China, and he won congressional approval of the Formosa
Resolution. His administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. He supported local military coups against governments in Iran and Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli, British and French invasion of Egypt, and he forced them to withdraw. He also condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.[3] After the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched Sputnik
in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when an American spy plane was shot down over Russia. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, which was left to his successor to carry out.[4] On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal
New Deal
agencies and expanded Social Security. He covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy
and contributed to the end of McCarthyism
by openly invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. His largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958. In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending, particularly deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. He was voted Gallup's most admired man twelve times and also achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office.[5] Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U.S. presidents.


1 Early life and education 2 Personal life 3 World War I

3.1 In service of generals

4 World War II

4.1 Operations Torch and Avalanche 4.2 Supreme Allied commander and Operation Overlord 4.3 Liberation of France and victory in Europe

5 After World War II

5.1 Military Governor in Germany and Army Chief of Staff 5.2 1948 presidential election 5.3 President at Columbia University
Columbia University
and NATO Supreme Commander 5.4 Presidential campaign of 1952 5.5 Election of 1956

6 Presidency (1953–1961)

6.1 Interstate Highway System 6.2 Foreign policy

6.2.1 Space Race 6.2.2 Korean War, China, and Taiwan 6.2.3 The Middle East and Eisenhower doctrine 6.2.4 Southeast Asia 6.2.5 1960 U-2 incident

6.3 Civil rights 6.4 Relations with Congress 6.5 Judicial appointments

6.5.1 Supreme Court

6.6 States admitted to the Union 6.7 Health issues 6.8 End of presidency

7 Post-presidency, death and funeral 8 Legacy and memory 9 Tributes and memorials 10 Awards and decorations 11 Other honors 12 Promotions 13 Family tree 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography

16.1 General biographies 16.2 Military career 16.3 Civilian career 16.4 Historiography and interpretations by scholars 16.5 Primary sources

17 External links

Early life and education[edit]

The Eisenhower family home, Abilene, Kansas

The Eisenhauer (German for "iron hewer/miner") family migrated from Karlsbrunn
in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, and in the 1880s moving to Kansas.[6] Accounts vary as to how and when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower.[7] Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were primarily farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741.[8] Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower (1863–1942), was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth (Stover) Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas
from Virginia. She married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.[9] David owned a general store in Hope, Kansas, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers then lived in Texas
from 1889 until 1892, and later returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and then at a creamery.[9] By 1898, the parents made a decent living and provided a suitable home for their large family.[10] The future president was born on October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas, the third of seven boys.[11] His mother originally named him David Dwight but reversed the two names after his birth to avoid the confusion of having two Davids in the family.[12] All of the boys were called "Ike", such as "Big Ike" (Edgar) and "Little Ike" (Dwight); the nickname was intended as an abbreviation of their last name.[13] By World War II, only Dwight was still called "Ike".[6] In 1892, the family moved to Abilene, Kansas, which Eisenhower considered his hometown.[6] As a child, he was involved in an accident that cost his younger brother an eye; he later referred to this as an experience that taught him the need to be protective of those under him. Dwight developed a keen and enduring interest in exploring outdoors, hunting/fishing, cooking and card playing from an illiterate named Bob Davis who camped on the Smoky Hill River.[14][15][16] While Eisenhower's mother was against war, it was her collection of history books that first sparked Eisenhower's early and lasting interest in military history. He persisted in reading the books in her collection and became a voracious reader in the subject. Other favorite subjects early in his education were arithmetic and spelling.[17] His parents set aside specific times at breakfast and at dinner for daily family Bible reading. Chores were regularly assigned and rotated among all the children, and misbehavior was met with unequivocal discipline, usually from David.[18] His mother, previously a member (with David) of the River Brethren sect of the Mennonites, joined the International Bible Students Association, later known as Jehovah's Witnesses. The Eisenhower home served as the local meeting hall from 1896 to 1915, though Eisenhower never joined the International Bible Students.[19] His later decision to attend West Point
West Point
saddened his mother, who felt that warfare was "rather wicked", but she did not overrule him.[20] While speaking of himself in 1948, Eisenhower said he was "one of the most deeply religious men I know" though unattached to any "sect or organization". He was baptized in the Presbyterian Church in 1953.[21] Eisenhower attended Abilene High School and graduated with the class of 1909.[22] As a freshman, he injured his knee and developed a leg infection that extended into his groin, and which his doctor diagnosed as life-threatening. The doctor insisted that the leg be amputated but Dwight refused to allow it, and surprisingly recovered, though he had to repeat his freshman year.[23] He and brother Edgar both wanted to attend college, though they lacked the funds. They made a pact to take alternate years at college while the other worked to earn the tuitions.[24] Edgar took the first turn at school, and Dwight was employed as a night supervisor at the Belle Springs Creamery.[25] Edgar asked for a second year, Dwight consented and worked for a second year. At that time, a friend "Swede" Hazlett was applying to the Naval Academy and urged Dwight to apply to the school, since no tuition was required. Eisenhower requested consideration for either Annapolis or West Point with his U.S. Senator, Joseph L. Bristow. Though Eisenhower was among the winners of the entrance-exam competition, he was beyond the age limit for the Naval Academy.[26] He then accepted an appointment to West Point
West Point
in 1911.[26]

Eisenhower (second from left) and Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
(second from right) were members of the 1912 West Point
West Point
football team.

At West Point, Eisenhower relished the emphasis on traditions and on sports, but was less enthusiastic about the hazing, though he willingly accepted it as a plebe. He was also a regular violator of the more detailed regulations, and finished school with a less than stellar discipline rating. Academically, Eisenhower's best subject by far was English. Otherwise, his performance was average, though he thoroughly enjoyed the typical emphasis of engineering on science and mathematics.[27] In athletics, Eisenhower later said that "not making the baseball team at West Point
West Point
was one of the greatest disappointments of my life, maybe my greatest".[28] He made the varsity football team[29][30] and was a starter as running back and linebacker in 1912, when he tackled the legendary Jim Thorpe
Jim Thorpe
of the Carlisle Indians.[31] Eisenhower suffered a torn knee while being tackled in the next game, which was the last he played; he re-injured his knee on horseback and in the boxing ring,[6][14][32] so he turned to fencing and gymnastics.[6] Eisenhower later served as junior varsity football coach and cheerleader. He graduated in the middle of the class of 1915,[33] which became known as "the class the stars fell on", because 59 members eventually became general officers. Personal life[edit] While Eisenhower was stationed in Texas, he met Mamie Doud of Boone, Iowa.[6] He and her family were also immediately taken with one another. He proposed to her on Valentine's Day in 1916.[34] A November wedding date in Denver
was moved up to July 1 due to the pending U.S. entry into World War I. They moved many times during their first 35 years of marriage.[35] The Eisenhowers had two sons. Doud Dwight "Icky" Eisenhower (1917–1921) died of scarlet fever at the age of three.[36] Eisenhower was mostly reticent to discuss his death.[37] Their second son, John Eisenhower
John Eisenhower
(1922–2013), was born in Denver, Colorado.[38] John served in the United States Army, retired as a brigadier general, became an author and served as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium from 1969 to 1971. Coincidentally, John graduated from West Point
West Point
on D-Day, June 6, 1944. He married Barbara Jean Thompson on June 10, 1947. John and Barbara had four children: David, Barbara Ann, Susan Elaine and Mary Jean. David, after whom Camp David
Camp David
is named,[39] married Richard Nixon's daughter Julie in 1968.

Portrait of Mamie Eisenhower

Eisenhower was a golf enthusiast later in life, and he joined the Augusta National Golf Club
Augusta National Golf Club
in 1948.[40] He played golf frequently during and after his presidency and was unreserved in expressing his passion for the game, to the point of golfing during winter; he ordered his golf balls painted black so he could see them better against snow on the ground. He had a small, basic golf facility installed at Camp David, and became close friends with the Augusta National Chairman Clifford Roberts, inviting Roberts to stay at the White House
White House
on several occasions. Roberts, an investment broker, also handled the Eisenhower family's investments. Roberts also advised Eisenhower on tax aspects of publishing his memoirs, which proved financially lucrative.[40] Oil painting
Oil painting
was one of Eisenhower's hobbies.[37] While at Columbia University, he began the art after watching Thomas E. Stephens
Thomas E. Stephens
paint Mamie's portrait. In order to relax, Eisenhower painted about 260 oils during the last 20 years of his life. The images were mostly landscapes, but also portraits of subjects such as Mamie, their grandchildren, General Montgomery, George Washington, and Abraham Lincoln.[41] Wendy Beckett stated that Eisenhower's work, "simple and earnest, rather cause us to wonder at the hidden depths of this reticent president". A conservative in both art and politics, he in a 1962 speech denounced modern art as "a piece of canvas that looks like a broken-down Tin Lizzie, loaded with paint, has been driven over it."[37] Angels in the Outfield was Eisenhower's favorite movie.[42] His favorite reading material for relaxation were the Western novels of Zane Grey.[43] With his excellent memory and ability to focus, Eisenhower was skilled at card games. He learned poker, which he called his "favorite indoor sport," in Abilene. Eisenhower recorded West Point
West Point
classmates' poker losses for payment after graduation, and later stopped playing because his opponents resented having to pay him. A classmate reported that after learning to play contract bridge at West Point, Eisenhower played the game six nights a week for five months.[44] Eisenhower continued to play bridge throughout his military career. While stationed in the Philippines, he played regularly with President Manuel Quezon, and was dubbed "The bridge wizard of Manila". During WWII, an unwritten qualification for an officer's appointment to Eisenhower's staff was the ability to play a sound game of bridge. He played even during the stressful weeks leading up to the D-Day landings. His favorite partner was General Alfred Gruenther, considered the best player in the U.S. Army; he appointed Gruenther his second-in-command at NATO partly because of his skill at bridge. Saturday night bridge games at the White House were a feature of his presidency. He was a strong player, though not an expert by modern standards. The great bridge player and popularizer Ely Culbertson
Ely Culbertson
described his game as classic and sound with "flashes of brilliance", and said that "You can always judge a man's character by the way he plays cards. Eisenhower is a calm and collected player and never whines at his losses. He is brilliant in victory but never commits the bridge player's worst crime of gloating when he wins." Bridge expert Oswald Jacoby frequently participated in the White House games, and said, "The President plays better bridge than golf. He tries to break 90 at golf. At bridge, you would say he plays in the 70s."[45] World War I[edit] See also: Military career of Dwight D. Eisenhower After graduation in 1915, Second Lieutenant Eisenhower requested an assignment in the Philippines, which was denied. He served initially in logistics and then the infantry at various camps in Texas
and Georgia until 1918. In 1916, while stationed at Fort Sam Houston, Eisenhower was football coach for St. Louis College, now St. Mary's University.[46] Eisenhower was an honorary member of the Sigma Beta Chi fraternity at St. Mary's University.[47] In late 1917, while in charge of training at Ft. Oglethorpe in Georgia, his wife Mamie had their first son. When the U.S. entered World War I, he immediately requested an overseas assignment but was again denied and then assigned to Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas.[48] In February 1918, he was transferred to Camp Meade in Maryland
with the 65th Engineers. His unit was later ordered to France, but to his chagrin he received orders for the new tank corps, where he was promoted to brevet lieutenant colonel in the National Army.[49] He commanded a unit that trained tank crews at Camp Colt – his first command – at the site of "Pickett's Charge" on the Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Civil War battleground. Though Eisenhower and his tank crews never saw combat, he displayed excellent organizational skills, as well as an ability to accurately assess junior officers' strengths and make optimal placements of personnel.[50] Once again his spirits were raised when the unit under his command received orders overseas to France. This time his wishes were thwarted when the armistice was signed a week before his departure date.[51] Completely missing out on the warfront left him depressed and bitter for a time, despite receiving the Distinguished Service Medal for his work at home.[citation needed] In World War II, rivals who had combat service in the first great war (led by Gen. Bernard Montgomery) sought to denigrate Eisenhower for his previous lack of combat duty, despite his stateside experience establishing a camp, completely equipped, for thousands of troops, and developing a full combat training schedule.[52] In service of generals[edit]

Eisenhower (far right) with three unidentified men in 1919, four years after graduating from West Point

After the war, Eisenhower reverted to his regular rank of captain and a few days later was promoted to major, a rank he held for 16 years.[8] The major was assigned in 1919 to a transcontinental Army convoy to test vehicles and dramatize the need for improved roads in the nation. Indeed, the convoy averaged only 5 mph from Washington, D.C., to San Francisco; later the improvement of highways became a signature issue for Eisenhower as President.[53] He assumed duties again at Camp Meade, Maryland, commanding a battalion of tanks, where he remained until 1922. His schooling continued, focused on the nature of the next war and the role of the tank in it. His new expertise in tank warfare was strengthened by a close collaboration with George S. Patton, Sereno E. Brett, and other senior tank leaders. Their leading-edge ideas of speed-oriented offensive tank warfare were strongly discouraged by superiors, who considered the new approach too radical and preferred to continue using tanks in a strictly supportive role for the infantry. Eisenhower was even threatened with court-martial for continued publication of these proposed methods of tank deployment, and he relented.[54][55] From 1920, Eisenhower served under a succession of talented generals – Fox Conner, John J. Pershing, Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
and George Marshall. He first became executive officer to General Conner in the Panama
Canal Zone, where, joined by Mamie, he served until 1924. Under Conner's tutelage, he studied military history and theory (including Carl von Clausewitz's On War), and later cited Conner's enormous influence on his military thinking, saying in 1962 that "Fox Conner was the ablest man I ever knew." Conner's comment on Eisenhower was, "[He] is one of the most capable, efficient and loyal officers I have ever met."[56] On Conner's recommendation, in 1925–26 he attended the Command and General Staff College
Command and General Staff College
at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he graduated first in a class of 245 officers.[57][58] He then served as a battalion commander at Fort Benning, Georgia, until 1927. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, Eisenhower's career in the post-war army stalled somewhat, as military priorities diminished; many of his friends resigned for high-paying business jobs. He was assigned to the American Battle Monuments Commission
American Battle Monuments Commission
directed by General Pershing, and with the help of his brother Milton Eisenhower, then a journalist at the Agriculture Department, he produced a guide to American battlefields in Europe.[59] He then was assigned to the Army War College and graduated in 1928. After a one-year assignment in France, Eisenhower served as executive officer to General George V. Mosely, Assistant Secretary of War, from 1929 to February 1933.[60] Major Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
graduated from the Army Industrial College (Washington, DC) in 1933 and later served on the faculty (it was later expanded to become the Industrial College of the Armed Services and is now known as the Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
School for National Security and Resource Strategy).[61][62] His primary duty was planning for the next war, which proved most difficult in the midst of the Great Depression.[63] He then was posted as chief military aide to General Douglas MacArthur, Army Chief of Staff. In 1932, he participated in the clearing of the Bonus March encampment in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Although he was against the actions taken against the veterans and strongly advised MacArthur against taking a public role in it, he later wrote the Army's official incident report, endorsing MacArthur's conduct.[64][65] In 1935, he accompanied MacArthur to the Philippines, where he served as assistant military adviser to the Philippine government in developing their army. Eisenhower had strong philosophical disagreements with his patron regarding the role of the Philippine Army and the leadership qualities that an American army officer should exhibit and develop in his subordinates. The dispute and resulting antipathy between Eisenhower and MacArthur lasted the rest of their lives.[66] Historians have concluded that this assignment provided valuable preparation for handling the challenging personalities of Winston Churchill, George S. Patton, George Marshall, and General Montgomery during World War II. Eisenhower later emphasized that too much had been made of the disagreements with MacArthur, and that a positive relationship endured.[67] While in Manila, Mamie suffered a life-threatening stomach ailment but recovered fully. Eisenhower was promoted to the rank of permanent lieutenant colonel in 1936. He also learned to fly, making a solo flight over the Philippines in 1937 and obtained his private pilot's license in 1939 at Fort Lewis.[68][69] Also around this time, he was offered a post by the Philippine Commonwealth Government, namely by then Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon on recommendations by MacArthur, to become the chief of police of a new capital being planned, now named Quezon City, but he declined the offer.[70] Eisenhower returned to the United States in December 1939 and was assigned as commanding officer (CO) of the 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry
Regiment at Fort Lewis, Washington, later becoming the regimental executive officer. In March 1941 he was promoted to colonel and assigned as chief of staff of the newly activated IX Corps under Major General Kenyon Joyce. In June 1941, he was appointed chief of staff to General Walter Krueger, Commander of the Third Army, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas. After successfully participating in the Louisiana Maneuvers, he was promoted to brigadier general on October 3, 1941.[71][72] Although his administrative abilities had been noticed, on the eve of the American entry into World War II
World War II
he had never held an active command above a battalion and was far from being considered by many as a potential commander of major operations. World War II[edit] After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, where he served until June 1942 with responsibility for creating the major war plans to defeat Japan and Germany. He was appointed Deputy Chief in charge of Pacific Defenses under the Chief of War Plans Division (WPD), General Leonard T. Gerow, and then succeeded Gerow as Chief of the War Plans Division. Next, he was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of the new Operations Division (which replaced WPD) under Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall, who spotted talent and promoted accordingly.[73] At the end of May 1942, Eisenhower accompanied Lt. Gen. Henry H. Arnold, commanding general of the Army Air Forces, to London to assess the effectiveness of the theater commander in England, Maj. Gen. James E. Chaney.[74] He returned to Washington on June 3 with a pessimistic assessment, stating he had an "uneasy feeling" about Chaney and his staff. On June 23, 1942, he returned to London as Commanding General, European Theater of Operations
European Theater of Operations
(ETOUSA), based in London and with a house on Coombe, Kingston upon Thames,[75] and took over command of ETOUSA from Chaney.[76] He was promoted to lieutenant general on July 7. Operations Torch and Avalanche[edit]

Eisenhower as a major general, 1942

Eisenhower as General of the Army, 1945

In November 1942, he was also appointed Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force of the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA) through the new operational Headquarters Allied (Expeditionary) Force Headquarters (A(E)FHQ). The word "expeditionary" was dropped soon after his appointment for security reasons.[not in citation given] The campaign in North Africa
North Africa
was designated Operation Torch and was planned underground within the Rock of Gibraltar. Eisenhower was the first non-British person to command Gibraltar in 200 years.[77] French cooperation was deemed necessary to the campaign, and Eisenhower encountered a "preposterous situation" with the multiple rival factions in France. His primary objective was to move forces successfully into Tunisia, and intending to facilitate that objective, he gave his support to François Darlan as High Commissioner in North Africa, despite Darlan's previous high offices of state in Vichy France and his continued role as commander-in-chief of the French armed forces. The Allied leaders were "thunderstruck" by this from a political standpoint, though none of them had offered Eisenhower guidance with the problem in the course of planning the operation. Eisenhower was severely criticized for the move. Darlan was assassinated on December 24 by Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle. Eisenhower did not take action to prevent the arrest and extrajudicial execution of Bonnier de La Chapelle by associates of Darlan acting without authority from either Vichy or the Allies, considering it a criminal rather than a military matter.[78] Eisenhower later appointed General Henri Giraud
Henri Giraud
as High Commissioner, who had been installed by the Allies as Darlan's commander-in-chief, and who had refused to postpone the execution.[79] Operation Torch
Operation Torch
also served as a valuable training ground for Eisenhower's combat command skills; during the initial phase of Generalfeldmarschall
Erwin Rommel's move into the Kasserine Pass, Eisenhower created some confusion in the ranks by some interference with the execution of battle plans by his subordinates. He also was initially indecisive in his removal of Lloyd Fredendall, commanding U.S. II Corps. He became more adroit in such matters in later campaigns.[80] In February 1943, his authority was extended as commander of AFHQ across the Mediterranean basin to include the British Eighth Army, commanded by General Sir Bernard Montgomery. The Eighth Army had advanced across the Western Desert from the east and was ready for the start of the Tunisia
Campaign. Eisenhower gained his fourth star and gave up command of ETOUSA to become commander of NATOUSA.

General Eisenhower, General Patton and President Roosevelt in Sicily, 1943

After the capitulation of Axis forces in North Africa, Eisenhower oversaw the highly successful invasion of Sicily. Once Mussolini, the Italian leader, had fallen in Italy, the Allies switched their attention to the mainland with Operation Avalanche. But while Eisenhower argued with President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill, who both insisted on unconditional terms of surrender in exchange for helping the Italians, the Germans pursued an aggressive buildup of forces in the country. The Germans made the already tough battle more difficult by adding 19 divisions and initially outnumbering the Allied forces 2 to 1; nevertheless, the invasion of Italy was highly successful for the Allied commanders.[81] Supreme Allied commander and Operation Overlord[edit]

Eisenhower speaks with men of the 502nd Parachute Infantry
Regiment, part of the 101st Airborne Division, on June 5, 1944, the day before the D-Day invasion.

In December 1943, President Roosevelt decided that Eisenhower – not Marshall – would be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. The following month, he resumed command of ETOUSA and the following month was officially designated as the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), serving in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945.[82] He was charged in these positions with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord, the liberation of Western Europe and the invasion of Germany.

From left, front row includes army officers Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges and Gerow in 1945

Eisenhower, as well as the officers and troops under him, had learned valuable lessons in their previous operations, and their skills had all strengthened in preparation for the next most difficult campaign against the Germans—a beach landing assault. His first struggles, however, were with Allied leaders and officers on matters vital to the success of the Normandy invasion; he argued with Roosevelt over an essential agreement with De Gaulle to use French resistance forces in covert and sabotage operations against the Germans in advance of Overlord.[83] Admiral Ernest J. King
Ernest J. King
fought with Eisenhower over King's refusal to provide additional landing craft from the Pacific.[84] He also insisted that the British give him exclusive command over all strategic air forces to facilitate Overlord, to the point of threatening to resign unless Churchill relented, as he did.[85] Eisenhower then designed a bombing plan in France in advance of Overlord and argued with Churchill over the latter's concern with civilian casualties; de Gaulle interjected that the casualties were justified in shedding the yoke of the Germans, and Eisenhower prevailed.[86] He also had to skillfully manage to retain the services of the often unruly George S. Patton, by severely reprimanding him when Patton earlier had slapped a subordinate, and then when Patton gave a speech in which he made improper comments about postwar policy.[87] The D-Day Normandy landings
Normandy landings
on June 6, 1944, were costly but successful. Two months later (August 15), the invasion of Southern France took place, and control of forces in the southern invasion passed from the AFHQ to the SHAEF. Many thought that victory in Europe would come by summer's end, but the Germans did not capitulate for almost a year. From then until the end of the war in Europe on May 8, 1945, Eisenhower, through SHAEF, commanded all Allied forces, and through his command of ETOUSA had administrative command of all U.S. forces on the Western Front north of the Alps. He was ever mindful of the inevitable loss of life and suffering that would be experienced on an individual level by the troops under his command and their families. This prompted him to make a point of visiting every division involved in the invasion.[88] Eisenhower's sense of responsibility was underscored by his draft of a statement to be issued if the invasion failed. It has been called one of the great speeches of history:

Our landings in the Cherbourg-Havre area have failed to gain a satisfactory foothold and I have withdrawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time and place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air and the Navy did all that bravery and devotion to duty could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt, it is mine alone.[89]

Liberation of France and victory in Europe[edit]

Eisenhower with Allied commanders following the signing of the German Instrument of Surrender at Reims

Once the coastal assault had succeeded, Eisenhower insisted on retaining personal control over the land battle strategy, and was immersed in the command and supply of multiple assaults through France on Germany. Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Montgomery insisted priority be given to his 21st Army Group's attack being made in the north, while Generals Bradley (12th U.S. Army Group) and Devers (Sixth U.S. Army Group) insisted they be given priority in the center and south of the front (respectively). Eisenhower worked tirelessly to address the demands of the rival commanders to optimize Allied forces, often by giving them tactical, though sometimes ineffective, latitude; many historians conclude this delayed the Allied victory in Europe. However, due to Eisenhower's persistence, the pivotal supply port at Antwerp was successfully, albeit belatedly, opened in late 1944, and victory became a more distinct probability.[90] In recognition of his senior position in the Allied command, on December 20, 1944, he was promoted to General of the Army, equivalent to the rank of Field Marshal
Field Marshal
in most European armies. In this and the previous high commands he held, Eisenhower showed his great talents for leadership and diplomacy. Although he had never seen action himself, he won the respect of front-line commanders. He interacted adeptly with allies such as Winston Churchill, Field Marshal
Field Marshal
Bernard Montgomery and General Charles de Gaulle. He had serious disagreements with Churchill and Montgomery over questions of strategy, but these rarely upset his relationships with them. He dealt with Soviet Marshal Zhukov, his Russian counterpart, and they became good friends.[91] The Germans launched a surprise counter offensive, in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, which the Allies turned back in early 1945 after Eisenhower repositioned his armies and improved weather allowed the Air Force to engage.[92] German defenses continued to deteriorate on both the eastern front with the Soviets and the western front with the Allies. The British wanted Berlin, but Eisenhower decided it would be a military mistake for him to attack Berlin, and said orders to that effect would have to be explicit. The British backed down, but then wanted Eisenhower to move into Czechoslovakia
for political reasons. Washington refused to support Churchill's plan to use Eisenhower's army for political maneuvers against Moscow. The actual division of Germany followed the lines that Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin had previously agreed upon. The Soviet Red Army
Red Army
captured Berlin in a very large-scale bloody battle, and the Germans finally surrendered on May 7, 1945.[93] In 1945, Eisenhower anticipated that someday an attempt would be made to recharacterize Nazi crimes as propaganda (Holocaust denial) and took steps against it by demanding extensive still and movie photographic documentation of Nazi death camps.[94] After World War II[edit] Military Governor in Germany and Army Chief of Staff[edit]

The sphere of influence for General Eisenhower in Allied-occupied Germany

Following the German unconditional surrender, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the U.S. Occupation Zone, based at the IG Farben Building in Frankfurt am Main. He had no responsibility for the other three zones, controlled by Britain, France and the Soviet Union, except for the city of Berlin, which was managed by the Four-Power Authorities through the Allied Kommandatura
Allied Kommandatura
as the governing body. Upon discovery of the Nazi concentration camps, he ordered camera crews to document evidence of the atrocities in them for use in the Nuremberg Trials. He reclassified German prisoners of war (POWs) in U.S. custody as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEFs), who were no longer subject to the Geneva Convention. Eisenhower followed the orders laid down by the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
(JCS) in directive JCS 1067, but softened them by bringing in 400,000 tons of food for civilians and allowing more fraternization.[95][96][97] In response to the devastation in Germany, including food shortages and an influx of refugees, he arranged distribution of American food and medical equipment.[98] His actions reflected the new American attitudes of the German people as Nazi victims not villains, while aggressively purging the ex-Nazis.[99][100]

In Warsaw, 1945

In November 1945, Eisenhower returned to Washington to replace Marshall as Chief of Staff of the Army. His main role was rapid demobilization of millions of soldiers, a slow job that was delayed by lack of shipping. Eisenhower was convinced in 1946 that the Soviet Union did not want war and that friendly relations could be maintained; he strongly supported the new United Nations and favored its involvement in the control of atomic bombs. However, in formulating policies regarding the atomic bomb and relations with the Soviets, Truman was guided by the U.S. State Department and ignored Eisenhower and the Pentagon. Indeed, Eisenhower had opposed the use of the atomic bomb against the Japanese, writing, "First, the Japanese were ready to surrender and it wasn't necessary to hit them with that awful thing. Second, I hated to see our country be the first to use such a weapon."[101] Initially, Eisenhower was characterized by hopes for cooperation with the Soviets.[102] He even visited Warsaw in 1945. Invited by Bolesław Bierut
Bolesław Bierut
and decorated with the highest military decoration, he was shocked by the scale of destruction in the city.[103] However, by mid-1947, as East–West tensions over economic recovery in Germany and the Greek Civil War
Greek Civil War
escalated, Eisenhower gave up and agreed with a containment policy to stop Soviet expansion.[102] 1948 presidential election[edit] In June 1943, a visiting politician had suggested to Eisenhower that he might become President of the United States
President of the United States
after the war. Believing that a general should not participate in politics, one author later wrote that "figuratively speaking, [Eisenhower] kicked his political-minded visitor out of his office". As others asked him about his political future, Eisenhower told one that he could not imagine wanting to be considered for any political job "from dogcatcher to Grand High Supreme King of the Universe", and another that he could not serve as Army Chief of Staff if others believed he had political ambitions. In 1945 Truman told Eisenhower during the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
that if desired, the president would help the general win the 1948 election,[104] and in 1947 he offered to run as Eisenhower's running mate on the Democratic ticket if MacArthur won the Republican nomination.[105] As the election approached, other prominent citizens and politicians from both parties urged Eisenhower to run for president. In January 1948, after learning of plans in New Hampshire to elect delegates supporting him for the forthcoming Republican National Convention, Eisenhower stated through the Army that he was "not available for and could not accept nomination to high political office"; "life-long professional soldiers", he wrote, "in the absence of some obvious and overriding reason, [should] abstain from seeking high political office".[104] Eisenhower maintained no political party affiliation during this time. Many believed he was forgoing his only opportunity to be president: Republican Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
was considered the probable winner and would presumably serve two terms, meaning that Eisenhower, at age 66 in 1956, would be too old to have another chance to run.[106] President at Columbia University
Columbia University
and NATO Supreme Commander[edit]

The Supreme Commanders of the Four Powers on June 5, 1945, in Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov
Georgy Zhukov
and Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

In 1948, Eisenhower became President of Columbia University, an Ivy League university in New York City, where he was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa.[107] The assignment was described as not being a good fit in either direction.[108] During that year Eisenhower's memoir, Crusade in Europe, was published.[109] Critics regarded it as one of the finest U.S. military memoirs, and it was a major financial success as well. Eisenhower's profit on the book was substantially aided by an unprecedented ruling by the U.S. Department of the Treasury that Eisenhower was not a professional writer, but rather, marketing the lifetime asset of his experiences, and thus he had to pay only capital gains tax on his $635,000 advance instead of the much higher personal tax rate. This ruling saved Eisenhower about $400,000.[110] Eisenhower's stint as the president of Columbia University
Columbia University
was punctuated by his activity within the Council on Foreign Relations, a study group he led as president concerning the political and military implications of the Marshall Plan, and The American Assembly, Eisenhower's "vision of a great cultural center where business, professional and governmental leaders could meet from time to time to discuss and reach conclusions concerning problems of a social and political nature". His biographer Blanche Wiesen Cook suggested that this period served as "the political education of General Eisenhower", since he had to prioritize wide-ranging educational, administrative, and financial demands for the university. Through his involvement in the Council on Foreign Relations, he also gained exposure to economic analysis, which would become the bedrock of his understanding in economic policy. "Whatever General Eisenhower knows about economics, he has learned at the study group meetings," one Aid to Europe member claimed. Eisenhower accepted the presidency of the university to expand his ability to promote "the American form of democracy" through education. He was clear on this point to the trustees involved in the search committee. He informed them that his main purpose was "to promote the basic concepts of education in a democracy." As a result, he was "almost incessantly" devoted to the idea of the American Assembly, a concept he developed into an institution by the end of 1950. Within months of beginning his tenure as the president of the university, Eisenhower was requested to advise U.S. Secretary of Defense James Forrestal
James Forrestal
on the unification of the armed services. About six months after his appointment, he became the informal Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
in Washington. Two months later he fell ill, and he spent over a month in recovery at the Augusta National Golf Club. He returned to his post in New York in mid-May, and in July 1949 took a two-month vacation out-of-state. Because the American Assembly had begun to take shape, he traveled around the country during mid-to-late 1950, building financial support from Columbia Associates, an alumni association. Eisenhower was unknowingly building resentment and a reputation among the Columbia University
Columbia University
faculty and staff as an absentee president who was using the university for his own interests. As a career military man, he naturally had little in common with the academics.[111] The contacts gained through university and American Assembly fund-raising activities would later become important supporters in Eisenhower's bid for the Republican party nomination and the presidency. Meanwhile, Columbia University's liberal faculty members became disenchanted with the university president's ties to oilmen and businessmen, including Leonard McCollum, the president of Continental Oil; Frank Abrams, the chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey; Bob Kleberg, the president of the King Ranch; H. J. Porter, a Texas
oil executive; Bob Woodruff, the president of the Coca-Cola Corporation; and Clarence Francis, the chairman of General Foods. As the president of Columbia, Eisenhower gave voice and form to his opinions about the supremacy and difficulties of American democracy. His tenure marked his transformation from military to civilian leadership. His biographer Travis Beal Jacobs also suggested that the alienation of the Columbia faculty contributed to sharp intellectual criticism of him for many years.[112] The trustees of Columbia University
Columbia University
refused to accept Eisenhower's resignation in December 1950, when he took an extended leave from the university to become the Supreme Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and he was given operational command of NATO forces in Europe. Eisenhower retired from active service as an army general on May 31, 1952, and he resumed his presidency of Columbia. He held this position until January 20, 1953, when he became the President of the United States. NATO did not have strong bipartisan support in Congress at the time that Eisenhower assumed its military command. Eisenhower advised the participating European nations that it would be incumbent upon them to demonstrate their own commitment of troops and equipment to the NATO force before such would come from the war-weary United States. At home, Eisenhower was more effective in making the case for NATO in Congress than the Truman administration was. By the middle of 1951, American and European support for NATO was substantial enough to give it a genuine military power. Nevertheless, Eisenhower thought that NATO would become a truly European alliance, with the American and Canadian commitments ending after about ten years.[113] Presidential campaign of 1952[edit] Main article: United States presidential election, 1952

Button from the 1952 campaign

President Truman, symbolizing a broad-based desire for an Eisenhower candidacy for president, again in 1951 pressed him to run for the office as a Democrat. It was at this time that Eisenhower voiced his disagreements with the Democratic Party and declared himself and his family to be Republicans.[114] A "Draft Eisenhower" movement in the Republican Party persuaded him to declare his candidacy in the 1952 presidential election to counter the candidacy of non-interventionist Senator Robert A. Taft. The effort was a long struggle; Eisenhower had to be convinced that political circumstances had created a genuine duty for him to offer himself as a candidate, and that there was a mandate from the populace for him to be their President. Henry Cabot Lodge, who served as his campaign manager, and others succeeded in convincing him, and in June 1952 he resigned his command at NATO to campaign full-time.[115] Eisenhower defeated Taft for the nomination, having won critical delegate votes from Texas. Eisenhower's campaign was noted for the simple but effective slogan, "I Like Ike". It was essential to his success that Eisenhower express opposition to Roosevelt's policy at Yalta and against Truman's policies in Korea and China—matters in which he had once participated.[116][117] In defeating Taft for the nomination, it became necessary for Eisenhower to appease the right wing Old Guard of the Republican Party; his selection of Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
as the Vice-President on the ticket was designed in part for that purpose. Nixon also provided a strong anti-communist presence as well as some youth to counter Ike's more advanced age.[118]

1952 electoral vote results

In the general election, against the advice of his advisers, Eisenhower insisted on campaigning in the South, refusing to surrender the region to the Democratic Party. The campaign strategy, dubbed "K1C2", was to focus on attacking the Truman and Roosevelt administrations on three issues: Korea, Communism
and corruption. In an effort to accommodate the right, he stressed that the liberation of Eastern Europe should be by peaceful means only; he also distanced himself from his former boss President Truman. Two controversies during the campaign tested him and his staff, but did not affect the campaign. One involved a report that Nixon had improperly received funds from a secret trust. Nixon spoke out adroitly to avoid potential damage, but the matter permanently alienated the two candidates. The second issue centered on Eisenhower's relented decision to confront the controversial methods of Joseph McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy
on his home turf in a Wisconsin appearance.[119] Just two weeks prior to the election, Eisenhower vowed to go to Korea and end the war there. He promised to maintain a strong commitment against Communism
while avoiding the topic of NATO; finally, he stressed a corruption-free, frugal administration at home.

Presidential candidate Eisenhower in the Hobo Day
Hobo Day
parade at South Dakota State University in 1952

He defeated Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson II
Adlai Stevenson II
in a landslide, with an electoral margin of 442 to 89, marking the first Republican return to the White House
White House
in 20 years.[117] In the election he also brought with him a Republican majority in the House (by eight votes) and in the Senate (actually a tie, with Nixon providing the majority vote).[120] Eisenhower was the last president born in the 19th century, and at age 62, was the oldest man elected President since James Buchanan
James Buchanan
in 1856 (President Truman stood at 64 in 1948 as the incumbent president, having succeeded to the Presidency in 1945 upon the death of Franklin Roosevelt).[121] Eisenhower was the only general to serve as President in the 20th century and was the most recent President to have never held elected office prior to the Presidency until Donald Trump, who never held public office nor served in the military; the other Presidents who did not have prior elected office were Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, William Howard Taft, and Herbert Hoover. Election of 1956[edit] Main article: United States presidential election, 1956

1956 electoral vote results

The United States presidential election of 1956 was held on November 6, 1956. Eisenhower, the popular incumbent, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of 1952, as his opponent in 1956 was Stevenson, a former Illinois governor, whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier. Compared to the 1952 election, Eisenhower gained Kentucky, Louisiana, and West Virginia from Stevenson, while losing Missouri. His voters were less likely to bring up his leadership record. Instead what stood out this time, "was the response to personal qualities— to his sincerity, his integrity and sense of duty, his virtue as a family man, his religious devotion, and his sheer likeableness."[122] Presidency (1953–1961)[edit] Main article: Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower Due to a complete estrangement between the two as a result of campaigning, Truman and Eisenhower had minimal discussions about the transition of administrations.[123] After selecting his budget director, Joseph M. Dodge, Eisenhower asked Herbert Brownell Jr.
Herbert Brownell Jr.
and Lucius D. Clay
Lucius D. Clay
to make recommendations for his cabinet appointments. He accepted their recommendations without exception; they included John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
and George M. Humphrey
George M. Humphrey
with whom he developed his closest relationships, and one woman, Oveta Culp Hobby. Eisenhower's cabinet, consisting of several corporate executives and one labor leader, was dubbed by one journalist, "Eight millionaires and a plumber."[124] The cabinet was known for its lack of personal friends, office seekers, or experienced government administrators. He also upgraded the role of the National Security Council in planning all phases of the Cold War.[125] Prior to his inauguration, Eisenhower led a meeting of advisors at Pearl Harbor addressing foremost issues; agreed objectives were to balance the budget during his term, to bring the Korean War
Korean War
to an end, to defend vital interests at lower cost through nuclear deterrent, and to end price and wage controls.[126] Eisenhower also conducted the first pre-inaugural cabinet meeting in history in late 1952; he used this meeting to articulate his anti-communist Russia policy. His inaugural address was also exclusively devoted to foreign policy and included this same philosophy as well as a commitment to foreign trade and the United Nations.[127]

February 1959 White House
White House

Eisenhower made greater use of press conferences than any previous president, holding almost 200 over his two terms. While he saw the benefit of maintaining a good relationship with the press, he saw more value in them as a means of direct communication with the American people.[128] Throughout his presidency, Eisenhower adhered to a political philosophy of dynamic conservatism.[129] A self-described "progressive conservative"[130] who used terms like "progressive moderate" and "dynamic conservatism" to describe his approach,[131] he continued all the major New Deal
New Deal
programs still in operation, especially Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolled them into a new cabinet-level agency, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers. He implemented integration in the Armed Services in two years, which had not been completed under Truman.[132] When the 1954 Congressional elections approached, it became evident that the Republicans were in danger of losing their thin majority in both houses. Eisenhower was among those who blamed the Old Guard for the losses, and he took up the charge to stop suspected efforts by the right wing to take control of the GOP. Eisenhower then articulated his position as a moderate, progressive Republican: "I have just one purpose ... and that is to build up a strong progressive Republican Party in this country. If the right wing wants a fight, they are going to get it ... before I end up, either this Republican Party will reflect progressivism or I won't be with them anymore."[133] Eisenhower initially planned on serving only one term, but as with other decisions, he maintained a position of maximum flexibility in case leading Republicans wanted him to run again. During his recovery from a heart attack late in 1955, he huddled with his closest advisors to evaluate the GOP's potential candidates; the group, in addition to his doctor, concluded a second term was well advised, and he announced in February 1956 he would run again.[134][135] Eisenhower was publicly noncommittal about Nixon's repeating as the Vice President on his ticket; the question was an especially important one in light of his heart condition. He personally favored Robert B. Anderson, a Democrat, who rejected his offer; Eisenhower then resolved to leave the matter in the hands of the party.[136] In 1956, Eisenhower faced Adlai Stevenson again and won by an even larger landslide, with 457 of 531 electoral votes and 57.6% of the popular vote. The level of campaigning was curtailed out of health considerations.[137] Eisenhower valued the brief respites and the amenities of an office which he endowed with an arduous daily schedule. He made full use of his valet, chauffeur, and secretarial support—he rarely drove or dialed a phone number. He was an avid fisherman, golfer, painter, and bridge player, and preferred active rather than passive forms of entertainment.[138] On August 26, 1959, Eisenhower was aboard the maiden flight of Air Force One, which replaced the previous Presidential aircraft, the Columbine.[139] Interstate Highway System[edit] Main article: Interstate Highway System

Remarks in Cadillac Square, Detroit

President Eisenhower delivered remarks about the need for a new highway program at Cadillac Square in Detroit on October 29, 1954 Text of speech excerpt

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Eisenhower was assured of an enduring achievement when he championed and signed the bill that authorized the Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
in 1956.[140] He justified the project through the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 as essential to American security during the Cold War. It was believed that large cities would be targets in a possible war, hence the highways were designed to facilitate their evacuation and ease military maneuvers. Eisenhower's goal to create improved highways was influenced by difficulties encountered during his involvement in the U.S. Army's 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy. He was assigned as an observer for the mission, which involved sending a convoy of U.S. Army vehicles coast to coast.[141][142] His subsequent experience with encountering German autobahn limited-access road systems during the concluding stages of World War II
World War II
convinced him of the benefits of an Interstate Highway System. The Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
could also be used as a runway for airplanes, which would be beneficial to war efforts. This system was put into place by Franklin D. Roosevelt, in 1944, under the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944. Noticing the improved ability to move logistics throughout the country, he thought an Interstate Highway System in the U.S. would not only be beneficial for military operations, but provide a measure of continued economic growth.[143] The legislation initially stalled in the Congress over the issuance of bonds to finance the project, but the legislative effort was renewed and the law was signed by Eisenhower in June 1956.[144] Foreign policy[edit]

Eisenhower with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru

U.S. President Eisenhower visits Taiwan and its President Chiang Kai-shek at Taipei.

Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
during his 11-day U.S. visit as guest of President Eisenhower, September 1959

In 1953, the Republican Party's Old Guard presented Eisenhower with a dilemma by insisting he disavow the Yalta Agreements as beyond the constitutional authority of the Executive Branch; however, the death of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in March 1953 made the matter a moot point.[145] At this time Eisenhower gave his Chance for Peace speech in which he attempted, unsuccessfully, to forestall the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by suggesting multiple opportunities presented by peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Biographer Stephen Ambrose opined that this was the best speech of Eisenhower's presidency.[146][147] Nevertheless, the Cold War
Cold War
escalated during his presidency. When the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in late November 1955, Eisenhower, against the advice of Dulles, decided to initiate a disarmament proposal to the Soviets. In an attempt to make their refusal more difficult, he proposed that both sides agree to dedicate fissionable material away from weapons toward peaceful uses, such as power generation. This approach was labeled "Atoms for Peace".[148] The U.N. speech was well received but the Soviets never acted upon it, due to an overarching concern for the greater stockpiles of nuclear weapons in the U.S. arsenal. Indeed, Eisenhower embarked upon a greater reliance on the use of nuclear weapons, while reducing conventional forces, and with them the overall defense budget, a policy formulated as a result of Project Solarium
Project Solarium
and expressed in NSC 162/2. This approach became known as the "New Look", and was initiated with defense cuts in late 1953.[149] In 1955 American nuclear arms policy became one aimed primarily at arms control as opposed to disarmament. The failure of negotiations over arms until 1955 was due mainly to the refusal of the Russians to permit any sort of inspections. In talks located in London that year, they expressed a willingness to discuss inspections; the tables were then turned on Eisenhower, when he responded with an unwillingness on the part of the U.S. to permit inspections. In May of that year the Russians agreed to sign a treaty giving independence to Austria, and paved the way for a Geneva summit with the U.S., U.K. and France.[150] At the Geneva Conference Eisenhower presented a proposal called "Open Skies" to facilitate disarmament, which included plans for Russia and the U.S. to provide mutual access to each other's skies for open surveillance of military infrastructure. Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev dismissed the proposal out of hand.[151] In 1954, Eisenhower articulated the domino theory in his outlook towards communism in Southeast Asia and also in Central America. He believed that if the communists were allowed to prevail in Vietnam, this would cause a succession of countries to fall to communism, from Laos
through Malaysia and Indonesia ultimately to India. Likewise, the fall of Guatemala
would end with the fall of neighboring Mexico.[152] That year the loss of North Vietnam
North Vietnam
to the communists and the rejection of his proposed European Defence Community
European Defence Community
(EDC) were serious defeats, but he remained optimistic in his opposition to the spread of communism, saying "Long faces don't win wars".[153] As he had threatened the French in their rejection of EDC, he afterwards moved to restore West Germany, as a full NATO partner.[154] With Eisenhower's leadership and Dulles' direction, CIA activities increased under the pretense of resisting the spread of communism in poorer countries;[155] the CIA in part deposed the leaders of Iran in Operation Ajax, of Guatemala
through Operation Pbsuccess, and possibly the newly independent Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville).[156] In 1954 Eisenhower wanted to increase surveillance inside the Soviet Union. With Dulles' recommendation, he authorized the deployment of thirty Lockheed U-2's at a cost of $35 million.[157] The Eisenhower administration also planned the Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs Invasion
to overthrow Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in Cuba, which John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
was left to carry out."[158] Space Race[edit] Further information: Space Race

President Eisenhower with Wernher von Braun, 1960

Eisenhower and the CIA had known since at least January 1957, nine months before Sputnik, that Russia had the capability to launch a small payload into orbit and was likely to do so within a year.[159] He may also privately have welcomed the Russian satellite for its legal implications: By launching a satellite, Russia had in effect acknowledged that space was open to anyone who could access it, without needing permission from other nations. On the whole, Eisenhower's support of the nation's fledgling space program was officially modest until the Soviet launch of Sputnik
in 1957, gaining the Cold War
Cold War
enemy enormous prestige around the world. He then launched a national campaign that funded not just space exploration but a major strengthening of science and higher education. The Eisenhower administration determined to adopt a non-aggressive policy that would allow "space-crafts of any state to overfly all states, a region free of military posturing and launch Earth satellites to explore space.[160] His Open Skies
Open Skies
Policy attempted to legitimize illegal Lockheed U-2
Lockheed U-2
flyovers and Project Genetrix
Project Genetrix
while paving the way for spy satellite technology to orbit over sovereign territory,[161] however Nikolai Bulganin
Nikolai Bulganin
and Nikita Khrushchev declined Eisenhower's proposal at the Geneva conference in July 1955.[162] In response to Sputnik
being launched in October 1957, Eisenhower created NASA
as a civilian space agency in October 1958, signed a landmark science education law, and improved relations with American scientists.[163] Fear spread through the United States that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would invade and spread communism, so Eisenhower wanted to not only create a surveillance satellite to detect any threats but ballistic missiles that would protect the United States. In strategic terms, it was Eisenhower who devised the American basic strategy of nuclear deterrence based upon the triad of B-52 bombers, land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and Polaris submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs).[164] NASA
planners projected that human spaceflight would pull the United States ahead in the Space Race
Space Race
as well as accomplishing their long time goal, however, in 1960, an Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space concluded that "man-in-space can not be justified" and was too costly.[165] Eisenhower later resented the space program and its gargantuan price tag—he was quoted as saying, "Anyone who would spend $40 billion in a race to the moon for national prestige is nuts."[166] Korean War, China, and Taiwan[edit]

Eisenhower in Korea with General Chung Il-kwon, and Baik Seon-yup, 1952

In late 1952 Eisenhower went to Korea and discovered a military and political stalemate. Once in office, when the Chinese began a buildup in the Kaesong sanctuary, he threatened to use nuclear force if an armistice was not concluded. His earlier military reputation in Europe was effective with the Chinese.[167] The National Security Council, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Strategic Air Command (SAC) devised detailed plans for nuclear war against China.[168] With the death of Stalin in early March 1953, Russian support for a Chinese hard-line weakened and China decided to compromise on the prisoner issue.[169] In July 1953, an armistice took effect with Korea divided along approximately the same boundary as in 1950. The armistice and boundary remain in effect today. The armistice, concluded despite opposition from Secretary Dulles, South Korean President Syngman Rhee, and also within Eisenhower's party, has been described by biographer Ambrose as the greatest achievement of the administration. Eisenhower had the insight to realize that unlimited war in the nuclear age was unthinkable, and limited war unwinnable.[169] A point of emphasis in Ike's campaign had been his endorsement of a policy of liberation from communism as opposed to a policy of containment. This remained his preference despite the armistice with Korea.[170] Throughout his terms Eisenhower took a hard-line attitude toward China, as demanded by conservative Republicans, with the goal of driving a wedge between China and the Soviet Union.[171] Eisenhower continued Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China (based in Formosa/Taiwan) as the legitimate government of China, not the Beijing regime. There were localized flare-ups when the Red Army began shelling the islands of Quemoy
and Matsu in September 1954. Eisenhower received recommendations embracing every variation of response to the aggression of the Chinese communists. He thought it essential to have every possible option available to him as the crisis unfolded.[172] The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with Taiwan was signed in December 1954. He requested and secured from Congress their "Formosa Resolution" in January 1955, which gave Eisenhower unprecedented power in advance to use military force at any level of his choosing in defense of Formosa
and the Pescadores. The Resolution bolstered the morale of the Chinese nationalists, and signaled to Beijing that the U.S. was committed to holding the line.[172] Eisenhower openly threatened the Chinese with use of nuclear weapons, authorizing a series of bomb tests labeled Operation Teapot. Nevertheless, he left the Chinese communists guessing as to the exact nature of his nuclear response. This allowed Eisenhower to accomplish all of his objectives—the end of this communist encroachment, the retention of the Islands by the Chinese nationalists and continued peace.[173] Defense of Taiwan from an invasion remains a core American policy.[174] By the end of 1954 Eisenhower's military and foreign policy experts—the NSC, JCS and State Dept.—had unanimously urged him, on no less than five occasions, to launch an atomic attack against China; yet he consistently refused to do so and felt a distinct sense of accomplishment in having sufficiently confronted communism while keeping world peace.[175] The Middle East and Eisenhower doctrine[edit]

Eisenhower with the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Even before he was inaugurated Eisenhower accepted a request from the British government to restore the Shah of Iran (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) to power. He therefore authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to overthrow Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh.[176] This resulted in an increased strategic control over Iranian oil by U.S. and British companies.[177] In November 1956, Eisenhower forced an end to the combined British, French and Israeli invasion of Egypt in response to the Suez Crisis, receiving praise from Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Simultaneously he condemned the brutal Soviet invasion of Hungary in response to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. He publicly disavowed his allies at the United Nations, and used financial and diplomatic pressure to make them withdraw from Egypt.[178] Eisenhower explicitly defended his strong position against Britain and France in his memoirs, which were published in 1965.[179]

Eisenhower and Vice President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
with their host, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, at the Mayflower Hotel
Mayflower Hotel

After the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
the United States became the protector of unstable friendly governments in the Middle East via the "Eisenhower Doctrine". Designed by Secretary of State Dulles, it held the U.S. would be "prepared to use armed force ... [to counter] aggression from any country controlled by international communism". Further, the United States would provide economic and military aid and, if necessary, use military force to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East.[180] Eisenhower applied the doctrine in 1957–58 by dispensing economic aid to shore up the Kingdom of Jordan, and by encouraging Syria's neighbors to consider military operations against it. More dramatically, in July 1958, he sent 15,000 Marines and soldiers to Lebanon
as part of Operation Blue Bat, a non-combat peace-keeping mission to stabilize the pro-Western government and to prevent a radical revolution from sweeping over that country.[181] The mission proved a success and the Marines departed three months later. The deployment came in response to the urgent request of Lebanese president Camille Chamoun
Camille Chamoun
after sectarian violence had erupted in the country. Washington considered the military intervention successful since it brought about regional stability, weakened Soviet influence, and intimidated the Egyptian and Syrian governments, whose anti-West political position had hardened after the Suez Crisis.[181] Most Arab countries were skeptical about the "Eisenhower doctrine" because they considered "Zionist imperialism" the real danger. However, they did take the opportunity to obtain free money and weapons. Egypt and Syria, supported by the Soviet Union, openly opposed the initiative. However, Egypt received American aid until the Six Day War
Six Day War
in 1967.[182] As the Cold War
Cold War
deepened, Dulles sought to isolate the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by building regional alliances of nations against it. Critics sometimes called it "pacto-mania".[183] Southeast Asia[edit] Early in 1953, the French asked Eisenhower for help in French Indochina against the Communists, supplied from China, who were fighting the First Indochina War. Eisenhower sent Lt. General John W. "Iron Mike" O'Daniel to Vietnam to study and assess the French forces there.[184] Chief of Staff Matthew Ridgway
Matthew Ridgway
dissuaded the President from intervening by presenting a comprehensive estimate of the massive military deployment that would be necessary. Eisenhower stated prophetically that "this war would absorb our troops by divisions."[185] Eisenhower did provide France with bombers and non-combat personnel. After a few months with no success by the French, he added other aircraft to drop napalm for clearing purposes. Further requests for assistance from the French were agreed to but only on conditions Eisenhower knew were impossible to meet – allied participation and congressional approval.[186] When the French fortress of Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietnamese Communists in May 1954, Eisenhower refused to intervene despite urgings from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, the Vice President and the head of NCS.[187] Eisenhower responded to the French defeat with the formation of the SEATO
(Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) Alliance with the U.K., France, New Zealand and Australia in defense of Vietnam against communism. At that time the French and Chinese reconvened Geneva peace talks; Eisenhower agreed the U.S. would participate only as an observer. After France and the Communists agreed to a partition of Vietnam, Eisenhower rejected the agreement, offering military and economic aid to southern Vietnam.[188] Ambrose argues that Eisenhower, by not participating in the Geneva agreement, had kept the U.S. out of Vietnam; nevertheless, with the formation of SEATO, he had in the end put the U.S. back into the conflict.[189] In late 1954, Gen. J. Lawton Collins
J. Lawton Collins
was made ambassador to "Free Vietnam" (the term South Vietnam
South Vietnam
came into use in 1955), effectively elevating the country to sovereign status. Collins' instructions were to support the leader Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem
in subverting communism, by helping him to build an army and wage a military campaign.[190] In February 1955, Eisenhower dispatched the first American soldiers to Vietnam as military advisors to Diem's army. After Diem announced the formation of the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, commonly known as South Vietnam) in October, Eisenhower immediately recognized the new state and offered military, economic, and technical assistance.[191] In the years that followed, Eisenhower increased the number of U.S. military advisors in South Vietnam
South Vietnam
to 900 men.[192] This was due to North Vietnam's support of "uprisings" in the south and concern the nation would fall.[188] In May 1957 Diem, then President of South Vietnam, made a state visit to the United States for ten days. President Eisenhower pledged his continued support, and a parade was held in Diem's honor in New York City. Although Diem was publicly praised, in private Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
conceded that Diem had been selected because there were no better alternatives.[193] After the election of November 1960, Eisenhower in briefing with John F. Kennedy pointed out the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring prioritization in the next administration. Eisenhower told Kennedy he considered Laos
"the cork in the bottle" with regard to the regional threat.[194] 1960 U-2 incident[edit] Main article: 1960 U-2 incident

A U-2 reconnaissance aircraft in flight

On May 1, 1960, a U.S. one-man U-2 spy plane was reportedly shot down at high altitude over Soviet Union
Soviet Union
airspace. The flight was made to gain photo intelligence before the scheduled opening of an East-West summit conference, which had been scheduled in Paris, 15 days later.[195] Captain Francis Gary Powers
Francis Gary Powers
had bailed out of his aircraft and was captured after parachuting down onto Russian soil. Four days after Powers disappeared, the Eisenhower Administration had NASA
issue a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had "gone missing" north of Turkey. It speculated that the pilot might have fallen unconscious while the autopilot was still engaged, and falsely claimed that "the pilot reported over the emergency frequency that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties."[196] Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
announced that a "spy-plane" had been shot down but intentionally made no reference to the pilot. As a result, the Eisenhower Administration, thinking the pilot had died in the crash, authorized the release of a cover story claiming that the plane was a "weather research aircraft" which had unintentionally strayed into Soviet airspace after the pilot had radioed "difficulties with his oxygen equipment" while flying over Turkey.[197] The Soviets put Captain Powers on trial and displayed parts of the U-2, which had been recovered almost fully intact.[198] The 1960 Four Power Paris Summit with Eisenhower, Nikita Khrushchev, Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
and Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
collapsed because of the incident. Eisenhower refused to accede to Khrushchev's demands that he apologize. Therefore, Khrushchev would not take part in the summit. Up until this event, Eisenhower felt he had been making progress towards better relations with the Soviet Union. Nuclear arms reduction and Berlin
were to have been discussed at the summit. Eisenhower stated it had all been ruined because of that "stupid U-2 business".[198] The affair was an embarrassment for United States prestige. Further, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a lengthy inquiry into the U-2 incident.[198] In Russia, Captain Powers made a forced confession and apology. On August 19, 1960, Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to imprisonment. On February 10, 1962, Powers was exchanged for Rudolf Abel
Rudolf Abel
in Berlin
and returned to the U.S.[196] Civil rights[edit] While President Truman had begun the process of desegregating the Armed Forces in 1948, actual implementation had been slow. Eisenhower made clear his stance in his first State of the Union address
State of the Union address
in February 1953, saying "I propose to use whatever authority exists in the office of the President to end segregation in the District of Columbia, including the Federal Government, and any segregation in the Armed Forces".[199] When he encountered opposition from the services, he used government control of military spending to force the change through, stating "Wherever Federal Funds are expended ..., I do not see how any American can justify ... a discrimination in the expenditure of those funds".[200] When Robert B. Anderson, Eisenhower's first Secretary of the Navy, argued that the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
must recognize the "customs and usages prevailing in certain geographic areas of our country which the Navy had no part in creating," Eisenhower overruled him: "We have not taken and we shall not take a single backward step. There must be no second class citizens in this country."[201] The administration declared racial discrimination a national security issue, as Communists around the world used the racial discrimination and history of violence in the U.S. as a point of propaganda attack.[202] Eisenhower told District of Columbia
District of Columbia
officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children.[203][204] He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and of 1960 and signed those acts into law. The 1957 act for the first time established a permanent civil rights office inside the Justice Department and a Civil Rights Commission to hear testimony about abuses of voting rights. Although both acts were much weaker than subsequent civil rights legislation, they constituted the first significant civil rights acts since 1875.[205] In 1957, the state of Arkansas
refused to honor a federal court order to integrate their public school system stemming from the Brown decision. Eisenhower demanded that Arkansas
governor Orval Faubus
Orval Faubus
obey the court order. When Faubus balked, the president placed the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and sent in the 101st Airborne Division. They escorted and protected nine black students' entry to Little Rock Central High School, an all-white public school, for the first time since the Reconstruction Era.[206] Martin Luther King Jr. wrote to Eisenhower to thank him for his actions, writing "The overwhelming majority of southerners, Negro and white, stand firmly behind your resolute action to restore law and order in Little Rock".[207] Eisenhower's administration contributed to the McCarthyist Lavender Scare[208] with President Eisenhower issuing his Executive Order 10450 in 1953.[209] During Eisenhower's presidency thousands of lesbian and gay applicants were barred from federal employment and over 5,000 federal employees were fired under suspicions of being homosexual, mentally ill, or an alcoholic.[210][211] From 1947 to 1961 the number of firings based on sexual orientation were far greater than those for membership in the Communist party,[210] and government officials intentionally campaigned to make "homosexual" synonymous with "Communist traitor" such that LGBT people were treated as a national security threat stemming from the belief they were susceptible to blackmail and exploitation.[212] Relations with Congress[edit] Eisenhower had a Republican Congress for only his first two years in office; in the Senate, the Republican majority was by a one-vote margin. Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
assisted the President greatly in working with the Old Guard, and was sorely missed when his death (in July 1953) left Eisenhower with his successor William Knowland, whom Eisenhower disliked.[213] This prevented Eisenhower from openly condemning Joseph McCarthy's highly criticized methods against communism. To facilitate relations with Congress, Eisenhower decided to ignore McCarthy's controversies and thereby deprive them of more energy from involvement of the White House. This position drew criticism from a number of corners.[214] In late 1953, McCarthy declared on national television that the employment of communists within the government was a menace and would be a pivotal issue in the 1954 Senate elections. Eisenhower was urged to respond directly and specify the various measures he had taken to purge the government of communists.[215] Among Eisenhower's objectives in not directly confronting McCarthy was to prevent McCarthy from dragging the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) into McCarthy's witch hunt for communists, which would interfere with, and perhaps delay, the AEC's important work on H-bombs. The administration had discovered through its own investigations that one of the leading scientists on the AEC, J. Robert Oppenheimer, had urged that the H-bomb
work be delayed. Eisenhower removed him from the agency and revoked his security clearance, though he knew this would create fertile ground for McCarthy.[216] In May 1955, McCarthy threatened to issue subpoenas to White House personnel. Eisenhower was furious, and issued an order as follows: "It is essential to efficient and effective administration that employees of the Executive Branch be in a position to be completely candid in advising with each other on official matters ... it is not in the public interest that any of their conversations or communications, or any documents or reproductions, concerning such advice be disclosed." This was an unprecedented step by Eisenhower to protect communication beyond the confines of a cabinet meeting, and soon became a tradition known as executive privilege. Ike's denial of McCarthy's access to his staff reduced McCarthy's hearings to rants about trivial matters, and contributed to his ultimate downfall.[217] In early 1954, the Old Guard put forward a constitutional amendment, called the Bricker Amendment, which would curtail international agreements by the Chief Executive, such as the Yalta Agreements. Eisenhower opposed the measure.[218] The Old Guard agreed with Eisenhower on the development and ownership of nuclear reactors by private enterprises, which the Democrats opposed. The President succeeded in getting legislation creating a system of licensure for nuclear plants by the AEC.[219] The Democrats gained a majority in both houses in the 1954 election.[220] Eisenhower had to work with the Democratic Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(later U.S. president) in the Senate and Speaker Sam Rayburn
Sam Rayburn
in the House, both from Texas. Joe Martin, the Republican Speaker from 1947 to 1949 and again from 1953 to 1955, wrote that Eisenhower "never surrounded himself with assistants who could solve political problems with professional skill. There were exceptions, Leonard W. Hall, for example, who as chairman of the Republican National Committee
Republican National Committee
tried to open the administration's eyes to the political facts of life, with occasional success. However, these exceptions were not enough to right the balance."[221] Speaker Martin concluded that Eisenhower worked too much through subordinates in dealing with Congress, with results, "often the reverse of what he has desired" because Members of Congress, "resent having some young fellow who was picked up by the White House
White House
without ever having been elected to office himself coming around and telling them 'The Chief wants this'. The administration never made use of many Republicans of consequence whose services in one form or another would have been available for the asking."[221] Judicial appointments[edit] Supreme Court[edit] Main articles: Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Court candidates
Dwight D. Eisenhower Supreme Court candidates
and Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
judicial appointments Eisenhower appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Earl Warren, 1953 (Chief Justice) John Marshall Harlan II, 1954 William J. Brennan, 1956 Charles Evans Whittaker, 1957 Potter Stewart, 1958

Whittaker was unsuited for the role and soon retired. Stewart and Harlan were conservative Republicans, while Brennan was a Democrat who became a leading voice for liberalism.[222] In selecting a Chief Justice, Eisenhower looked for an experienced jurist who could appeal to liberals in the party as well as law-and-order conservatives, noting privately that Warren "represents the kind of political, economic, and social thinking that I believe we need on the Supreme Court ... He has a national name for integrity, uprightness, and courage that, again, I believe we need on the Court".[223] In the next few years Warren led the Court in a series of liberal decisions that revolutionized the role of the Court. States admitted to the Union[edit]

Alaska – January 3, 1959 49th state Hawaii – August 21, 1959 50th state

Health issues[edit] Eisenhower began chain smoking cigarettes at West Point, often three or four packs a day. He joked that he "gave [himself] an order" to stop cold turkey in 1949. But Evan Thomas says the true story was more complex. At first he removed cigarettes and ashtrays, but that did not work. He told a friend:

I decided to make a game of the whole business and try to achieve a feeling of some superiority.... So I stuffed cigarettes in every pocket, put them around my office on the desk....[and] made it a practice to offer a cigarette to anyone who came in... while mentally reminding myself as I sat down, "I do not have to do what that poor fellow is doing.[224]

He was the first president to release information about his health and medical records while in office, but people around him deliberately misled the public about his health. On September 24, 1955, while vacationing in Colorado, he had a serious heart attack.[225] Dr. Howard Snyder, his personal physician, misdiagnosed the symptoms as indigestion, and failed to call in the help that was urgently needed. Snyder later falsified his own records to cover his blunder and to protect Eisenhower's need to portray he was healthy enough to do his job.[226][227][228] The heart attack required six weeks' hospitalization, during which time Nixon, Dulles, and Sherman Adams assumed administrative duties and provided communication with the President.[229] He was treated by Dr. Paul Dudley White, a cardiologist with a national reputation, who regularly informed the press of the President's progress. Instead of eliminating him as a candidate for a second term as President, his physician recommended a second term as essential to his recovery.[230] As a consequence of his heart attack, Eisenhower developed a left ventricular aneurysm, which was in turn the cause of a mild stroke on November 25, 1957. This incident occurred during a cabinet meeting when Eisenhower suddenly found himself unable to speak or move his right hand. The stroke had caused an aphasia. The president also suffered from Crohn's disease,[231] chronic inflammatory condition of the intestine,[232] which necessitated surgery for a bowel obstruction on June 9, 1956.[233] To treat the intestinal block, surgeons bypassed about ten inches of his small intestine.[234] His scheduled meeting with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
was postponed so he could recover at his farm.[235] He was still recovering from this operation during the Suez Crisis. Eisenhower's health issues forced him to give up smoking and make some changes to his dietary habits, but he still indulged in alcohol. During a visit to England he complained of dizziness and had to have his blood pressure checked on August 29, 1959; however, before dinner at Chequers on the next day his doctor General Howard Snyder recalled Eisenhower "drank several gin-and-tonics, and one or two gins on the rocks ... three or four wines with the dinner".[236] The last three years of Eisenhower's second term in office were ones of relatively good health. Eventually after leaving the White House, he suffered several additional and ultimately crippling heart attacks.[237] A severe heart attack in August 1965 largely ended his participation in public affairs.[238] In August 1966 he began to show symptoms of cholecystitis, for which he underwent surgery on December 12, 1966, when his gallbladder was removed, containing 16 gallstones.[237] After Eisenhower's death in 1969 (see below), an autopsy unexpectedly revealed an adrenal pheochromocytoma,[239] a benign adrenaline-secreting tumor that may have made the President more vulnerable to heart disease. Eisenhower suffered seven heart attacks in total from 1955 until his death.[237] End of presidency[edit]

The official White House
White House
portrait of Dwight D. Eisenhower

The 22nd Amendment
22nd Amendment
to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1951, and it set term limits to the presidency of two terms. Truman as the incumbent was not covered. Eisenhower became the first U.S. president constitutionally prevented from running for re-election to a third term. Eisenhower was also the first outgoing President to come under the protection of the Former Presidents Act; two living former Presidents, Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
and Harry S. Truman, left office before the Act was passed. Under the act, Eisenhower was entitled to receive a lifetime pension, state-provided staff and a Secret Service detail.[240] In the 1960 election to choose his successor, Eisenhower endorsed Nixon over Democrat John F. Kennedy. He told friends, "I will do almost anything to avoid turning my chair and country over to Kennedy."[117] He actively campaigned for Nixon in the final days, although he may have done Nixon some harm. When asked by reporters at the end of a televised press conference to list one of Nixon's policy ideas he had adopted, Eisenhower joked, "If you give me a week, I might think of one. I don't remember." Kennedy's campaign used the quote in one of its campaign commercials. Nixon narrowly lost to Kennedy. Eisenhower, who was the oldest president in history at that time (then 70), was succeeded by the youngest elected president, as Kennedy was 43.[117] It was originally intended for President Eisenhower to have a more active role in the campaign as he wanted to respond to attacks Kennedy made on his administration. However, First Lady Mamie Eisenhower expressed concern to Second Lady Pat Nixon
Pat Nixon
about the strain campaigning would put on his heart and wanted the President to back out of it without letting him know of her intervention. Vice President Nixon himself also received concern from White House
White House
physician Major General Howard Snyder, who informed him that he could not approve a heavy campaign schedule for the President and his health had been exacerbated by Kennedy's attacks. Nixon then convinced Eisenhower not to go ahead with the expanded campaign schedule and limit himself to the original schedule. Nixon reflected that if Eisenhower had carried out his expanded campaign schedule he might have had a decisive impact on the outcome of the election, especially in states that Kennedy won with razor-thin margins. It was years later before Mamie told Dwight why Nixon changed his mind on Dwight's campaigning.[241]

Eisenhower's farewell address, January 17, 1961. Length 15:30.

On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the Oval Office.[242] In his farewell speech, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War
Cold War
and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War: "We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method ..." and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex."[242] He elaborated, "we recognize the imperative need for this development ... the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist ... Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together."[242] Because of legal issues related to holding a military rank while in a civilian office, Eisenhower had resigned his permanent commission as General of the Army before entering the office of President of the United States. Upon completion of his Presidential term, his commission was reactivated by Congress and Eisenhower again was commissioned a five-star general in the United States Army.[243][244] Post-presidency, death and funeral[edit]

Eisenhower speaks to the press at the 1964 Republican National Convention

President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
with Eisenhower aboard Air Force One
Air Force One
in October 1965

Eisenhower's funeral service

Graves of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Doud Dwight "Icky" Eisenhower and Mamie Eisenhower
Mamie Eisenhower
in Abilene, Kansas

Following the presidency, Eisenhower moved to the place where he and Mamie had spent much of their post-war time. The home was a working farm adjacent to the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 70 miles from his ancestral home in Elizabethville, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania.[245][246] They also maintained a retirement home in Palm Desert, California.[247] In 1967 the Eisenhowers donated the Gettysburg farm to the National Park Service. After leaving office, Eisenhower did not completely retreat from political life. He flew to San Antonio, where he had been stationed years earlier, to support John W. Goode, the unsuccessful Republican candidate against the Democrat Henry B. Gonzalez
Henry B. Gonzalez
for Texas' 20th congressional district seat.[248] He addressed the 1964 Republican National Convention, in San Francisco, and appeared with party nominee Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in a campaign commercial from his Gettysburg retreat.[249] That endorsement came somewhat reluctantly because Goldwater had in the late 1950s criticized Eisenhower's administration as "a dime-store New Deal".[250] On January 20, 1969, the day Nixon was inaugurated as President, Eisenhower issued a statement praising his former vice president and calling it a "day for rejoicing".[251] On the morning of March 28, 1969, Eisenhower died in Washington, D.C., of congestive heart failure at Walter Reed Army Medical Center; he was 78 years old. The following day, his body was moved to the Washington National Cathedral's Bethlehem Chapel, where he lay in repose for 28 hours. On March 30, his body was brought by caisson to the United States Capitol, where he lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda. On March 31, Eisenhower's body was returned to the National Cathedral, where he was given an Episcopal Church funeral service.[252] That evening, Eisenhower's body was placed onto a special train for its journey from the nation's capital to Abilene, Kansas. This was the last time a funeral train has been used as part of funeral proceedings for an American president.[citation needed] His body arrived on April 2, and was interred that day in a small chapel on the grounds of the Eisenhower Presidential Library. The president's body was buried as a General of the Army. The family used an $80 standard soldier's casket, and dressed his body in his famous short green jacket. The medals worn were: the Army Distinguished Service Medal
Army Distinguished Service Medal
with three oak leaf clusters, the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, and the Legion of Merit. Eisenhower is buried alongside his son Doud, who died at age 3 in 1921. His wife Mamie was buried next to him after her death a decade later in 1979.[252] President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
eulogized Eisenhower, saying:

Some men are considered great because they lead great armies or they lead powerful nations. For eight years now, Dwight Eisenhower has neither commanded an army nor led a nation; and yet he remained through his final days the world's most admired and respected man, truly the first citizen of the world.[253]

Legacy and memory[edit] Eisenhower's reputation declined in the immediate years after he left office. During his presidency, he was widely seen by critics as an inactive, uninspiring, golf-playing president. This was in stark contrast to his vigorous young successor, John F. Kennedy, who was 26 years his junior. Despite his unprecedented use of Army troops to enforce a federal desegregation order at Central High School in Little Rock, Eisenhower was criticized for his reluctance to support the civil rights movement to the degree that activists wanted. Eisenhower also attracted criticism for his handling of the 1960 U-2 incident
1960 U-2 incident
and the associated international embarrassment,[254][255] for the Soviet Union's perceived leadership in the nuclear arms race and the Space Race, and for his failure to publicly oppose McCarthyism. In particular, Eisenhower was criticized for failing to defend George Marshall from attacks by Joseph McCarthy, though he privately deplored McCarthy's tactics and claims.[256]

Eisenhower signs the legislation that changes Armistice
Day to Veterans Day, June 1, 1954.

Historian John Lewis Gaddis
John Lewis Gaddis
has summarized a more recent turnaround in evaluations by historians:

Historians long ago abandoned the view that Eisenhower's was a failed presidency. He did, after all, end the Korean War
Korean War
without getting into any others. He stabilized, and did not escalate, the Soviet-American rivalry. He strengthened European alliances while withdrawing support from European colonialism. He rescued the Republican Party from isolationism and McCarthyism. He maintained prosperity, balanced the budget, promoted technological innovation, facilitated (if reluctantly) the civil rights movement and warned, in the most memorable farewell address since Washington's, of a "military–industrial complex" that could endanger the nation's liberties. Not until Reagan would another president leave office with so strong a sense of having accomplished what he set out to do.[257]

Although conservatism in politics was strong during the 1950s and Eisenhower generally espoused conservative sentiments, his administration concerned itself mostly with foreign affairs (an area in which the career-military president had more knowledge) and pursued a hands-off domestic policy. Eisenhower looked to moderation and cooperation as a means of governance.[258] Although he sought to slow or contain the New Deal
New Deal
and other federal programs, he did not attempt to repeal them outright, and in doing so was popular among the liberal wing of the Republican Party.[258] Conservative critics of his administration found that he did not do enough to advance the goals of the right; according to Hans Morgenthau, "Eisenhower's victories were but accidents without consequence in the history of the Republican party."[259]

President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
meets with Eisenhower at Camp David, April 22, 1961, three days after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.

Since the 19th century, many if not all presidents were assisted by a central figure or "gatekeeper", sometimes described as the president's private secretary, sometimes with no official title at all.[260] Eisenhower formalized this role, introducing the office of White House Chief of Staff – an idea he borrowed from the United States Army. Every president after Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
has also appointed staff to this position. Initially, Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
and Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
tried to operate without a chief of staff, but each eventually appointed one. As president, Eisenhower also initiated the "up or out" policy that still prevails in the U.S. military, whereby officers who are passed over for promotion twice are usually honorably but quickly discharged to make way for younger, more able officers. (As an army officer, Eisenhower had been stuck at the rank of major for 16 years between the two world wars.) On December 20, 1944, Eisenhower was appointed to the rank of General of the Army, placing him in the company of George Marshall, Henry "Hap" Arnold, and Douglas MacArthur, the only four men to achieve the rank in World War Two, and along with Omar Bradley, one of only five men to achieve the rank since the August 5, 1888 death of Philip Sheridan, and the only five men to hold the rank as a Five-star general. The rank was created by an Act of Congress
Act of Congress
on a temporary basis when Public Law 78-482 was passed on December 14, 1944,[261] as a temporary rank, subject to reversion to permanent rank six months after the end of the war. The temporary rank was then declared permanent March 23, 1946 by Public Law 333 of the 79th Congress, which also awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list.[262][263] It was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the ranks of field marshal and admiral of the fleet. This second General of the Army rank is not the same as the post-Civil War era version because of its purpose and five stars. Eisenhower founded People to People International in 1956, based on his belief that citizen interaction would promote cultural interaction and world peace. The program includes a student ambassador component, which sends American youth on educational trips to other countries.[264]

Frank Gasparro's obverse design (left) and reverse design (right) of the Presidential Medal of Appreciation award during Eisenhower's official visit to the State of Hawaii
from June 20–25, 1960.

During his second term as president, Eisenhower distinctively preserved his presidential gratitude by awarding individuals a special memento. This memento was a series of specially designed U.S. Mint presidential appreciation medals. Eisenhower presented the medal as an expression of his appreciation and the medal is a keepsake reminder for the recipient.[265] The development of the appreciation medals was initiated by the White House and executed by the Bureau of the Mint through the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The medals were struck from September 1958 through October 1960. A total of twenty designs are cataloged with a total mintage of 9,858. Each of the designs incorporates the text "with appreciation" or "with personal and official gratitude" accompanied with Eisenhower's initials "D.D.E." or facsimile signature. The design also incorporates location, date, and/or significant event. Prior to the end of his second term as President, 1,451 medals were turned in to the Bureau of the Mint and destroyed.[265] The Eisenhower appreciation medals are part of the Presidential Medal of Appreciation Award Medal Series.[265] Tributes and memorials[edit] Main article: List of memorials to Dwight D. Eisenhower

Eisenhower Interstate System sign south of San Antonio, Texas

Bronze statue of Eisenhower at Capitol rotunda[266]

The Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
is officially known as the 'Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways' in his honor. It was inspired in part by Eisenhower's own Army experiences in World War II, where he recognized the advantages of the autobahn system in Germany.[143] Commemorative signs reading "Eisenhower Interstate System" and bearing Eisenhower's permanent 5-star rank insignia were introduced in 1993 and now are displayed throughout the Interstate System. Several highways are also named for him, including the Eisenhower Expressway (Interstate 290) near Chicago. the Eisenhower Tunnel
Eisenhower Tunnel
on Interstate 70
Interstate 70
west of Denver, and Interstate 80 in California.[267] Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
School for National Security and Resource Strategy is a senior war college of the Department of Defense's National Defense University
National Defense University
in Washington, DC. Eisenhower graduated from this school when it was previously known as the Army Industrial College. The school's building on Fort Lesley J. McNair, when it was known as the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, was dedicated as Eisenhower Hall in 1960. Eisenhower was honored on a US one dollar coin, minted from 1971 to 1978. His centenary was honored on a commemorative dollar coin issued in 1990. In 1969, four major record companies – ABC Records, MGM Records, Buddha Records
Buddha Records
and Caedmon Audio – released tribute albums in Eisenhower's honor.[268] In 1999, the United States Congress
United States Congress
created the Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission, to create an enduring national memorial in Washington, D.C.. In 2009, the commission chose the architect Frank Gehry to design the memorial.[269][270] The memorial will stand on a four-acre site near the National Mall
National Mall
on Maryland
Avenue, SW across the street from the National Air and Space Museum.[271][272] Awards and decorations[edit]

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The star of the Soviet Order of Victory
Order of Victory
awarded to Eisenhower[273]

The coat of arms granted to Eisenhower upon his incorporation as a knight of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
in 1950.[274] The anvil represents the fact that his name is derived from the German for "iron hewer".

U.S. Military Decorations

Army Distinguished Service Medal
Army Distinguished Service Medal
w/ 4 oak leaf clusters

Navy Distinguished Service Medal

Legion of Merit

U.S. Service Medals

Mexican Border Service Medal

World War I
World War I
Victory Medal

American Defense Service Medal

European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
w/ 9 campaign stars

World War II
World War II
Victory Medal

Army of Occupation Medal
Army of Occupation Medal
w/ "Germany" clasp

National Defense Service Medal
National Defense Service Medal
w/ 1 service star

International and Foreign Awards[275]

Order of the Liberator San Martin, Grand Cross (Argentina)

Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash (Austria)[276]

Order of Leopold, Grand Cordon (Belgium)

Croix de guerre w/ palm (Belgium)

Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Cross (Brazil)

Order of Military Merit (Brazil), Grand Cross

Order of Aeronautical Merit, Grand Cross (Brazil)

War Medal (Brazil)

Campaign Medal (Brazil)

Order of Merit, Grand Cross (Chile)

Order of the Cloud and Banner, with Special
Grand Cordon, (China)

Military Order of the White Lion, Grand Cross (Czechoslovakia)

War Cross 1939–1945 (Czechoslovakia)

Order of the Elephant, Knight (Denmark)

Order of Abdon Calderón, First Class (Ecuador)

Order of Ismail, Grand Cordon (Egypt)

Order of Solomon, Knight Grand Cross with Cordon (Ethiopia)

Order of the Queen of Sheba, Member (Ethiopia)

Legion of Honor, Grand Cross (France)

Order of Liberation, Companion (France)

Military Medal (France)[277]

Croix de guerre w/ palm (France)

Royal Order of George I, Knight Grand Cross with Swords (Greece)

Order of the Redeemer, Knight Grand Cross (Greece)

Cross of Military Merit, First Class (Guatemala)

National Order of Honour and Merit, Grand Cross with Gold Badge (Haiti)

Order of the Holy Sepulchre, Knight Grand Cross (Holy See)

Military Order of Italy, Knight Grand Cross with Swords (Italy)

Order of the Chrysanthemum, Collar (Japan)

Order of the Oak Crown, Grand Cross (Luxembourg)

Military Medal (Luxembourg)

Order pro merito Melitensi, KGC (Sovereign Military Order of Malta)

Order of the Aztec Eagle, Collar (Mexico)

Medal of Military Merit (Mexico)

Medal of Civic Merit (Mexico)

Order of Ouissam Alaouite, Grand Cross (Morocco)

Order of the Netherlands Lion, Knight Grand Cross (Netherlands)

Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav, Grand Cross (Norway)

Order of Nishan-e-Pakistan, First Class (Pakistan)

Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero, Grand Officer (Panama)

Orden Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Grand Cross (Panama)

Order of Sikatuna, Grand Collar (Philippines)

Legion of Honor
Legion of Honor
(Philippines), Chief Commander (Philippines)

Distinguished Service Star, (Philippines)

Order of Polonia Restituta, Grand Cross (Poland)

Order of Virtuti Militari, First Class (Poland)

Cross of Grunwald, First Class (Poland)

Order of the Royal House of Chakri, Knight (Thailand)

Order of Glory, Grand Cordon (Tunisia)

Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross (United Kingdom)

Order of Merit, Member (United Kingdom)

Africa Star, with "8" and "1" numerical devices (United Kingdom)

Order of Victory, Star (USSR)

Order of Suvorov, First Class (USSR)

The Royal Yugoslav Commemorative War Cross (Yugoslavia)

Other honors[edit]

An apartment at the top of the Culzean Castle
Culzean Castle
in Scotland was given to General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
in recognition of his role as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during the Second World War. The General first visited Culzean Castle
Culzean Castle
in 1946 and stayed there four times, including once while President of the United States. An Eisenhower exhibition occupies one of the rooms, with mementos of his lifetime.[278] In June 1945, Eisenhower received an honorary Freedom of the City of London.[279] In January 1946, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
named Eisenhower an Honorary Fellow for Life in recognition of his efforts to recover art looted by the Nazis during World War II.[280] In 1965, Eisenhower received an honorary doctorate from Grinnell College in Grinnell, Iowa.[281] In 1966, Eisenhower was the second person awarded Civitan International's World Citizenship Award.[282] In May 1967, Eisenhower was made an honorary brother of Epsilon Eta Chapter of Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity.[283] In December 1999, he was listed on Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th century. In 2009, he was named to the World Golf Hall of Fame
World Golf Hall of Fame
in the Lifetime Achievement category for his contributions to the sport.[284]


No insignia Cadet, United States Military Academy: June 14, 1911

No pin insignia in 1915 Second Lieutenant, Regular Army: June 12, 1915

First Lieutenant, Regular Army: July 1, 1916

Captain, Regular Army: May 15, 1917

Major, National Army: June 17, 1918

Lieutenant Colonel, National Army: October 20, 1918

Captain, Regular Army: June 30, 1920 (Reverted to permanent rank.)

Major, Regular Army: July 2, 1920

Captain, Regular Army: November 4, 1922 (Discharged as major and appointed as captain due to reduction of Army.)

Major, Regular Army: August 26, 1924

Lieutenant Colonel, Regular Army: July 1, 1936

Colonel, Army of the United States: March 6, 1941

Brigadier General, Army of the United States: September 29, 1941

Major General, Army of the United States: March 27, 1942

Lieutenant General, Army of the United States: July 7, 1942

General, Army of the United States: February 11, 1943

Brigadier General, Regular Army: August 30, 1943

Major General, Regular Army: August 30, 1943

General of the Army, Army of the United States: December 20, 1944

General of the Army, Regular Army: April 11, 1946

Note – Eisenhower relinquished his active duty status when he became president on January 20, 1953. He was returned to active duty when he left office eight years later. Family tree[edit]

Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969)

Mamie Doud (1896–1979)

Richard Nixon (1913–1994)

Pat Ryan (1912–1993)

Doud Eisenhower (1917–1921)

John Eisenhower (1922–2013)

Barbara Thompson (1926–2014)

Edward Cox (1946–present)

Tricia Nixon (1946–present)

Julie Nixon (1948–present)

David Eisenhower (1948–present)

Anne Eisenhower (1949–present)

Susan Eisenhower (1951–present)

Mary Eisenhower (1955–present)

James Brewton Millard

Christopher Cox (1979–present)

Andrea Catsimatidis (1989–present)

Anthony Cheslock (1977–present)

Jennie Eisenhower (1978–present)

Alex Eisenhower (1980–present)

Tara Brennan (1979–present)

Melanie Eisenhower (1984–present)

Merrill Eisenhower Atwater (1981–present)

Chloe Cheslock (2013–present)

Kaia Eisenhower (2007–present)

Kaeden Eisenhower (2013–present)

See also[edit]

Biography portal United States Army
United States Army
portal World War I
World War I
portal World War II
World War II
portal 1950s portal

"And I don't care what it is", phrase by Eisenhower, 1952, on religion Atoms for Peace, a speech to the UN General Assembly in December 1953 Committee on Scientists and Engineers Eisenhower baseball controversy Eisenhower Dollar Eisenhower method
Eisenhower method
for time management Eisenhower National Historic Site Eisenhower on U.S. Postage stamps Eisenhower Presidential Center People to People Student Ambassador Program Kay Summersby Ike: Countdown to D-Day – a 2004 American television film about the decisions Eisenhower made as Supreme Commander that led to the successful D-Day invasion of World War II Pressure – a 2014 British play on Eisenhower's part in the meteorological decisions leading up to D-Day; he was played in the premiere production by Malcolm Sinclair


History of the United States (1945–1964) List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience Historical rankings of United States Presidents


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Douglas MacArthur
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
Pre-Presidential Papers, 1916–52" (PDF). Eisenhower Presidential Library. 1997. p. 74. Retrieved August 16, 2017. references to Eisenhower's pilot's license  ^ Nick Komons (August 1989). "unknown title". Air Progress: 62.  ^ Merrit, Jésus V. (1962). Our presidents: profiles in history. Philippines. p. 77.  ^ Korda (2007), pp 239–243 ^ "The Eisenhowers: The General". Dwightdeisenhower.com. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010.  ^ Ambrose 1983 ^ "Major General James E. Chaney". www.af.mil. U.S. Air Force. Retrieved August 16, 2017. From January 1942 to June 1942, he was the commanding general, U.S. Army Forces in the British Isles.  ^ Eisenhower lived in 'Telegraph Cottage', Warren Road, Coombe, Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
from 1942 to 1944. In 1995, a plaque commemorating this was placed there by the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames. It can be seen at the north end of Warren Road. ^ Huston, John W. (2002). Maj. Gen. John W. Huston, USAF, ed. American Airpower Comes of Age: General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold's World War II Diaries. Air University Press. pp. 288, 312. ISBN 1-58566-093-0.  ^ Gallagher, Wes (December 1942). "Eisenhower Commanded Gibraltar". The Lewiston Daily Sun. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ Atkinson, An Army at Dawn, pp. 251–2. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 204–10 ^ Ambrose (1983), pp. 230–3. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 254–5 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 275–6 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 280–1 ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 284 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 286–8 ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 289 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 250, 298 ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 278 ^ William Safire, Lend me your ears: great speeches in history (2004) p. 1143 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 340–54 ^ Jean Edward Smith, Eisenhower in War and Peace (2012) p. 451. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 375–80 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 395–406 ^ Hobbs 1999, p. 223 ^ Zink, Harold (1947). American Military Government in Germany, pp. 39–86 ^ Goedde, Petra. "From Villains to Victims: Fraternization
and the Feminization of Germany, 1945–1947", Diplomatic History, Winter 1999, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 1–19 ^ Tent, James F. (1982), Mission on the Rhine: Reeducation and Denazification in American-Occupied Germany ^ Zink, Harold (1957). The United States in Germany, 1944–1955 ^ Ambrose (1983). Eisenhower, pp. 421–5 ^ Goedde, Petra (2002). GIs and Germans: Culture, Gender and Foreign Relations, 1945–1949 ^ Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, with Rhodes citing a 1963 profile called " Ike on Ike, in Newsweek November 11, 1963 ^ a b Ambrose 1983, pp. 432–52 ^ "Dwight Eisenhower in Poland". Polish Radio. Retrieved April 3, 2016.  ^ a b Pusey, Merlo J. (1956). Eisenhower, the President. Macmillan. pp. 1–6.  ^ "Truman Wrote of '48 Offer to Eisenhower" The New York Times, July 11, 2003. ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 455–60 ^ "ΦΒΚ U.S. Presidents" (PDF). Phi Beta Kappa. Retrieved August 16, 2017.  ^ Ambrose (1983). Eisenhower, ch. 24 ^ Crusade in Europe, Doubleday; 1st edition (1948), 559 pages, ISBN 1-125-30091-4 ^ Pietrusza, David, 1948: Harry Truman's Victory and the Year That Transformed America, Union Square Punlishing, 2011, p. 201 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 479–83 ^ Warshaw, Shirley Anne (1993). Reexamining the Eisenhower presidency, Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-28792-9 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 502–11 ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 512 ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 524–8 ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 530 ^ a b c d Gibbs, Nancy (November 10, 2008). "When New President Meets Old, It's Not Always Pretty". Time.  ^ Ambrose 1983, pp. 541–46 ^ Ambrose (1983). Eisenhower, pp. 556–67. ^ Ambrose 1983, p. 571 ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Angus Campbell; et al. (1960). The American Voter. p. 56. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 14 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 24 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 20–5 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 32 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 43 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 52 ^ Black, Allida; Hopkins, June; et al., eds. (2003). "Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt: Dwight Eisenhower". The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. Hyde Park, New York: Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site. Archived from the original on January 5, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ David Eisenhower; Julie Nixon Eisenhower
Julie Nixon Eisenhower
(October 11, 2011). Going Home To Glory: A Memoir of Life with Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961–1969. Simon and Schuster. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-4391-9091-3.  ^ Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1959). Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower. Best Books on. p. 270. ISBN 9781623768300.  ^ Miller, James A. (November 21, 2007), An inside look at Eisenhower's civil rights record, Boston Globe, archived from the original on January 7, 2012  ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 220 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 285–8 ^ Jean Edward Smith (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House. pp. 674–83. ISBN 978-0-679-64429-3.  ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 321–5 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 297 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 25 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 537 ^ "The cracks are showing". The Economist. June 26, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008.  ^ "The Last Week – The Road to War". USS Washington (BB-56). Archived from the original on March 23, 2007. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ "About the Author". USS Washington (BB-56). Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ a b "Interstate Highway System". Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved August 21, 2012.  ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 301, 326 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 66 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 94 ^ Eisenhower, Susan, "50 years later, we're still ignoring Ike's warning", The Washington Post, January 16, 2011, p. B3. ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 132–4, 147 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 144 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 247 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 265 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 180, 236–7 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 211 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 207 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 111 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 112–3, 194 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 228 ^ Greenberg, David (January 14, 2011) "Beware the military–industrial Complex", Slate ^ John M. Logsdon, "Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program" (NASA; 1995) ^ Logsdon, John M, and Lear, Linda J. Exploring the Unknown:Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program/ Washington D.C. ^ W.D. Kay, Defining NASA
The Historical Debate Over the Agency's Mission, 2005. ^ Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1972) ^ Yankek Mieczkowski, Eisenhower's Sputnik
Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige (Cornell University Press; 2013) ^ Peter J. Roman, Eisenhower and the Missile Gap (1996) ^ The Presidents's Science Advisory Committee, "Report of the Ad Hoc Panel on Man-in-Space" December 16, 1960. NASA
Historical Collection ^ Greg Ward, "A Rough Guide History of the USA" (Penguin Group: London, 2003) ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 51 ^ Jones, Matthew (2008). "Targeting China: U.S. Nuclear Planning and 'Massive Retaliation' in East Asia, 1953–1955". Journal of Cold War Studies. 10 (4): 37–65. doi:10.1162/jcws.2008.10.4.37.  ^ a b Ambrose (1984), p. 106–7 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 173 ^ Qiang Zhai (2000). "Crisis and Confrontations: Chinese-American Relations during the Eisenhower Administration". Journal of American-East Asian Relations. 9 (3/4): 221–49. doi:10.1163/187656100793645921.  ^ a b Ambrose 1984, p. 231 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 245, 246 ^ Accinelli, Robert (1990). "Eisenhower, Congress, and the 1954–55 offshore island crisis". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 20 (2): 329–48. doi:10.2307/27550618 (inactive 2017-01-31). JSTOR 27550618.  ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 229 ^ Eisenhower gave verbal approval to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and to Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
to proceed with the coup; Ambrose, Eisenhower, Vol. 2: The President p. 111; Ambrose (1990), Eisenhower: Soldier and President, New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 333 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 129 ^ Kingseed, Cole (1995), Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
of 1956, ch 6 ^ Dwight D. Eisenhower, Waging Peace: 1956–1961 (1965) p 99 ^ Isaac Alteras, Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.–Israeli Relations, 1953–1960 (1993), p. 296 ^ a b Little, Douglas (1996). "His finest hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East Crisis". Diplomatic History. 20 (1): 27–54. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00251.x.  ^ Hahn, Peter L. (2006). "Securing the Middle East: The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 36 (1): 38–47. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.00285.x.  ^ Navari, Cornelia (2000). Internationalism and the State in the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-415-09747-5.  ^ Dunnigan, James and Nofi, Albert (1999), Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War. St. Martins Press, p. 85. ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 175 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 175–7 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 185 ^ a b Dunnigan, James and Nofi, Albert (1999), Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War, p. 257 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 204–9 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 215 ^ David L. Anderson (1991). Trapped by Success: The Eisenhower Administration and Vietnam, 1953–1961. Columbia U.P. ISBN 978-0-231-51533-7.  ^ "Vietnam War". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016.  ^ Karnow, Stanley. (1991), Vietnam, A History, p. 230 ^ Reeves, Richard (1993), President Kennedy: Profile of Power, p. 75 ^ Pocock, Chris (2000). The U-2 Spyplane; Toward the Unknown. Schiffer Military History. ISBN 978-0-7643-1113-0.  ^ a b Orlov, Alexander. "The U-2 Program: A Russian Officer Remembers". Archived from the original on July 13, 2006. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ Fontaine, André; translator R. Bruce (1968). History of the Cold War: From the Korean War
Korean War
to the present. History of the Cold War. 2. Pantheon Books. p. 338.  ^ a b c Bogle, Lori Lynn, ed. (2001), The Cold War, Routledge, p. 104. 978-0815337218 ^ State of the Union Address, February 2, 1953, Public Papers, 1953 pp. 30–1. ^ "Eisenhower Press Conference, March 19, 1953". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved October 17, 2012.  ^ Byrnes to DDE, August 27, 1953, Eisenhower Library" ^ Dudziak, Mary L. (2002), Cold War
Cold War
Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy ^ Eisenhower 1963, p. 230 ^ Parmet 1972, pp. 438–9 ^ Mayer, Michael S. (1989). "The Eisenhower Administration and the Civil Rights Act of 1957". Congress & the Presidency. 16 (2): 137–54. doi:10.1080/07343468909507929.  ^ Nichol, David (2007). A Matter of Justice: Eisenhower and the Beginning of the Civil Rights Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-4150-9.  ^ to DDE, September 25, 1957, Eisenhower Library ^ "An interview with David K. Johnson author of The Lavender Scare: The Cold War
Cold War
Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government". press.uchicago.edu. The University of Chicago. 2004.  ^ Adkins, Judith. "'These People Are Frightened to Death' Congressional Investigations and the Lavender Scare". archives.gov. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Most significantly, the 1950 congressional investigations and the Hoey committee's final report helped institutionalize discrimination by laying the groundwork for President Dwight D. Eisenhower's 1953 Executive Order #10450, 'Security Requirements for Government Employment.' That order explicitly added sexuality to the criteria used to determine suitability for federal employment.  ^ a b Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan D.; Mallory, Christy (September 2009). Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (PDF). Los Angeles: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy at the University of California Los Angeles School of Law. p. 5-3. From 1947 to 1961, more than 5,000 allegedly homosexual federal civil servants lost their jobs in the purges for no reason other than sexual orientation, and thousands of applicants were also rejected for federal employment for the same reason. During this period, more than 1,000 men and women were fired for suspected homosexuality from the State Department alone—a far greater number than were dismissed for their membership in the Communist party.  ^ Adkins, Judith. "'These People Are Frightened to Death' Congressional Investigations and the Lavender Scare". archives.gov. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Historians estimate that somewhere between 5,000 and tens of thousands of gay workers lost their jobs during the Lavender Scare.  ^ Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan D.; Mallory, Christy (September 2009). Documenting Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in State Employment (PDF). Los Angeles: The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Public Policy at the University of California Los Angeles School of Law. p. 5-3. Johnson has demonstrated that during this era government officials intentionally engaged in campaigns to associate homosexuality with Communism: 'homosexual' and 'pervert' became synonyms for 'Communist' and 'traitor.'  ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 118 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 56–62 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 140 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 167 ^ Ambrose 1984, pp. 188–9 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 154 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 157 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 219 ^ a b Joseph W. Martin as told to Donavan, Robert J. (1960), My First Fifty Years in Politics, New York: McGraw Hill, p. 227 ^ Newton, Eisenhower (2011) pp. 356–7 ^ "Personal and confidential To Milton Stover Eisenhower, 9 October 1953. In The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower, ed. L. Galambos and D. van Ee, (1996) doc. 460". Eisenhowermemorial.org. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2012.  ^ Evan Thomas (2012). Ike's Bluff: President Eisenhower's Secret Battle to Save the World. Little, Brown.  ^ Newton, Eisenhower pp 196-99. ^ Clarence G. Lasby, Eisenhower's Heart Attack: How Ike Beat Heart Disease and Held on to the Presidency (1997) pp 57-113. ^ Robert P. Hudson, "Eisenhower's Heart Attack: How Ike Beat Heart Disease and Held on to the Presidency (review)" Bulletin of the History of Medicine 72#1 (1998) pp. 161–162 online. ^ R.H. Ferrell, 'Ill-Advised: Presidential Health & Public Trust (1992), 'pp. 53–150 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 272 ^ Ambrose 1984, p. 281 ^ Johnston, Richard J.H. (June 13, 1956). "Butler Criticizes Illness Reports: Says News Has Been Handled in Terms of Propaganda—Hagerty Denies It". The New York Times. p. 32A. Paul M. Butler, the Democratic National Chairman, ... declared that the physicians who operated on and attended the President in his most recent illness 'have done a terrific job of trying to convince the American people that a man who has had a heart attack and then was afflicted with Crohn's disease
Crohn's disease
is a better man physically.' He added: 'Whether the American people will buy that, I don't know.'  ^ Clark, Robert E (June 9, 1956). "President's Heart Reported Sound; Surgery Is Indicated: Inflamed, Obstructed, Intestine Is Blamed". Atlanta Daily World. p. 1.  ^ Leviero, Anthony (June 9, 1956). "President Undergoes Surgery on Intestine Block at 2:59 A.M.: Doctors Pronounce It Success : Condition Is Good: Operation Lasts Hour and 53 Minutes–13 Attend Him". The New York Times. p. 1. President Eisenhower was operated on at 2:59 A.M. today for relief of an intestinal obstruction. At 4:55 A.M., the operation was pronounced a success by the surgeons. ... The President's condition was diagnosed as ileitis. This is an inflamation of the ileum—the lowest portion of the small intestine, where it joins the large intestine. ... The President first felt ill shortly after midnight yesterday. He had attended a dinner of the White House News Photographers Association Thursday night and had returned to the White House
White House
at 11. Mrs. Eisenhower called Maj. Gen. Howard McC. Snyder, the President's personal physician, at 12:45 A.M. yesterday, telling him the President had some discomfort in his stomach. He recommended a slight dose of milk of magnesia. At 1:20 Mrs. Eisenhower called again, saying the President was still complaining of not feeling well. This time she asked Dr. Snyder to come to the White House from his home about a mile away on Connecticut Avenue. He arrived at 2 A.M. and has not left the President's side since.  ^ Knighton, Jr., William (June 10, 1956). "Eisenhower Out Of Danger; Will Be Able To Resume Duties And Seek Reelection: Doctors See Prospect of Full Return to Job in Four to Six Weeks: Operation Performed to Prevent Gangrene of Bowel: Signing of Official Papers Viewed as Likely by Tomorrow or Tuesday". The Baltimore Sun. p. 1.  ^ "Out of Hospital Visit Postponed". The New York Times. July 1, 1956. p. E2.  ^ Williams, Charles Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
(2009) p. 345 ^ a b c "President Dwight Eisenhower: Health & Medical History". doctorzebra.com. Retrieved January 22, 2013.  ^ " Eisenhower Presidential Library
Eisenhower Presidential Library
and Museum". Eisenhower.archives.gov. Retrieved December 10, 2011.  ^ Messerli FH, Loughlin KR, Messerli AW, Welch WR: The President and the pheochromocytoma. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 1325–1329. ^ "Former Presidents Act". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ Nixon, Richard, The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, 1978, pp. 222–3. ^ a b c " Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Farewell Address". USA Presidents. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ Post Presidential Years. Eisenhower Archives. "President Kennedy reactivated his commission as a five star general in the United States Army. With the exception of George Washington, Eisenhower is the only United States President with military service to reenter the Armed Forces after leaving the office of President." ^ " John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library & Museum, A Chronology from The New York Times, March 1961". March 23, 1961. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. Retrieved May 30, 2009. Mr. Kennedy signed into law the act of Congress restoring the five-star rank of General of the Army to his predecessor, Dwight D. Eisenhower. (15:5)  ^ Klaus, Mary (August 8, 1985). "Tiny Pennsylvania Town An Escape From Modernity". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 4, 2016. From this farm the family migrated to Kansas
in the summer of 1878.  ^ Gasbarro, Norman (November 29, 2010). "Eisenhower Family Civil War Veterans". Retrieved January 4, 2016. a stately old home, identified as the ancestral home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower  ^ Historical Society of Palm Desert; Rover, Hal; Kousken, Kim; Romer, Brett (2009). Palm Desert. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7385-5964-3.  ^ "Eisenhower, Dwight D.: visit to San Antonio
San Antonio
in behalf of John Goode and Henry Catto, Jr.; downtown San Antonio". University of Texas Library. October 29, 1961. Retrieved May 17, 2016.  ^ " Ike at Gettysburg (Goldwater, 1964)". 1964: Johnson vs. Goldwater. Museum of the Moving Image. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2011.  ^ Goldschlag, William (May 11, 2016). "When an ex-president helped an 'extreme' Republican candidate". Newsday. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "Inauguration Is a Day For Rejoicing: Ike". Chicago
Tribune. January 21, 1969.  ^ a b "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Final Post". Eisenhower Presidential Center. Retrieved August 21, 2012.  ^ "1969 Year in Review: Eisenhower, Judy Garland die". UPI. October 25, 2005. Retrieved December 19, 2016.  ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 27. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (June 6, 2008). "Presidential Lies and Deceptions". US News and World Report. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008.  ^ "Presidential Politics". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved May 23, 2008.  ^ John Lewis Gaddis, "He Made It Look Easy: 'Eisenhower in War and Peace', by Jean Edward Smith", New York Times Book
Review, April 20, 2012. ^ a b Griffith, Robert (January 1, 1982). " Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and the Corporate Commonwealth". The American Historical Review. 87 (1): 87–122. doi:10.2307/1863309. JSTOR 1863309.  ^ Morgenthau, Hans J.: "Goldwater – The Romantic Regression", in Commentary, September 1964. ^ Medved, Michael (1979). The Shadow Presidents: The Secret History of the Chief Executives and Their Top Aides. New York: Times Books. ISBN 0-8129-0816-3.  ^ "Public Law 482". Retrieved April 29, 2008.  This law allowed only 75% of pay and allowances to the grade for those on the retired list. ^ "Public Law 333, 79th Congress". Naval Historical Center. April 11, 2007. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2007.  The retirement provisions were also applied to the World War II
World War II
Commandant of the Marine Corps
Commandant of the Marine Corps
and the Commandant of the Coast Guard, both of whom held four-star rank. ^ "Public Law 79-333" (PDF). legisworks.org. Legis Works. Retrieved October 19, 2015.  ^ "Our Heritage". People to People International. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009.  ^ a b c Gomez, Darryl (2015). Authoritative Numismatic Reference: Presidential Medal of Appreciation Award Medals 1958–1963. North Charleston, South Carolina: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-5117-8674-4.  ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower". aoc.gov. Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved November 29, 2008.  ^ " Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Highway". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved August 22, 2016.  ^ "Record Companies Run With Eisenhower Tribute Albums". Billboard. google.co.uk. April 12, 1969. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ Mexico, New (April 1, 2009). " Frank Gehry
Frank Gehry
to design Eisenhower Memorial". The Business Journals. American City Business Journals. Retrieved April 3, 2009.  ^ Trescott, Jacqueline (April 2, 2009). "Architect Gehry Gets Design Gig For Eisenhower Memorial". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company.  ^ Plumb, Tiereny (January 22, 2010). "Gilbane to manage design and construction of Eisenhower Memorial". Washington Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc.  ^ Weigel, George (September 27, 2017). "Gehry Ike Memorial: Everyone Hates It, Left & Right, So Scrap It National Review". NationalReview.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.  ^ Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands in an interview with H.G. Meijer, published in "Het Vliegerkruis", Amsterdam 1997, ISBN 90-6707-347-4. p. 92. ^ "The Arms of Dwight D. Eisenhower". American Heraldry Society. Archived from the original on February 2, 2015.  ^ "USA and Foreign Decorations of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Eisenhower Presidential Center. Archived from the original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved June 10, 2012.  ^ "Questions to the Chancellor" (PDF). Austrian Parliament. 2012. p. 194. Retrieved September 30, 2012.  ^ Eisenhower, John S. D. Allies.  ^ " Culzean Castle
Culzean Castle
Scotland The Eisenhower Apartment Hotel Accommodation". About Scotland. John Boyd-Brent. Retrieved January 21, 2013.  ^ "Eisenhower to Get Honor; City of London to Give Limited Freedom and Sword". The New York Times. June 9, 1945. Retrieved June 25, 2016. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Finding aid for the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
75th Anniversary Committee records, 1945–1950, Metropolitan Museum of Art. ^ "Past Honorary Degrees". Grennell College. Retrieved March 11, 2017.  ^ Armbrester, Margaret E. (1992). The Civitan Story. Birmingham, AL: Ebsco Media. p. 97.  ^ Alissa Falcone (November 7, 2016). "A Drexel History of U.S. Presidents". DrexelNow. Archived from the original on 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2017. In May 1967, Drexel students Mike Markowicz, Stan Abrampon and Jeff Steinhorn presented Eisenhower with the first Tau Epsilon Phi Distinguished American Award, according to a June 2, 1967, Triangle article. The chapter brotherhood also voted to initiate Eisenhower as an honorary brother of Epsilon Eta Chapter of Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity; the former president received his award and certificate of membership in a May 26 event. “The general also discussed various topics with the TEP delegation, including the role of fraternities in college life and the Drexel cooperative plan of education,” reported The Triangle.  ^ "President Eisenhower named to World Golf Hall of Fame". PGA Tour. Archived from the original on June 29, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2010. 

Bibliography[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Dwight D. Eisenhower General biographies[edit]

Ambrose, Stephen (1983). Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1893–1952). I. New York: Simon & Schuster.  Ambrose, Stephen (1984). Eisenhower: The President (1952–1969). II. New York: Simon & Schuster.  Boyle, Peter G. (2005). Eisenhower. Pearson/Longman. ISBN 0-582-28720-0. OCLC 55665502.  D'Este, Carlo (2002). Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. ISBN 0-8050-5686-6.  Krieg, Joann P. ed. (1987). Dwight D. Eisenhower, Soldier, President, Statesman. 24 essays by scholars. ISBN 0-313-25955-0 Newton, Jim (2011). Eisenhower: The White House
White House
Years. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-52353-0.  Parmet, Herbert S. (1972). Eisenhower and the American Crusades. OCLC 482017.  Smith, Jean Edward (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6693-X.  Wicker, Tom (2002). Dwight D. Eisenhower. Times Books. ISBN 0-8050-6907-0. OCLC 49893871. 

Military career[edit]

Ambrose, Stephen E. (1970) The Supreme Commander: The War Years of Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
excerpt and text search Ambrose, Stephen E. (1998). The Victors: Eisenhower and his Boys: The Men of World War II, New York : Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85628-X Eisenhower, David (1986). Eisenhower at War 1943–1945, New York : Random House. ISBN 0-394-41237-0. A detailed study by his grandson. Eisenhower, John S. D. (2003). General Ike, Free Press, New York. ISBN 0-7432-4474-5 Hobbs, Joseph Patrick (1999). Dear General: Eisenhower's Wartime Letters to Marshall. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801862191.  Irish, Kerry E. "Apt Pupil: Dwight Eisenhower and the 1930 Industrial Mobilization Plan", The Journal of Military History 70.1 (2006) 31–61 online in Project Muse. Jordan, Jonathan W. (2011). Brothers Rivals Victors: Eisenhower, Patton, Bradley, and the Partnership that Drove the Allied Conquest in Europe. NAL/Caliber. ISBN 0-451-23212-7. OCLC 617565184.  Jordan, Jonathan W. (2015). American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II. NAL/Caliber. ISBN 978-0-451-41457-1. OCLC 892458610.  Pogue, Forrest C. (1954). The Supreme Command. Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army. OCLC 1247005.  Weigley, Russell (1981). Eisenhower's Lieutenants: the Campaign of France and Germany, 1944–1945. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-13333-5. OCLC 6863111. 

Civilian career[edit]

Bowie, Robert R. and Immerman, Richard H. (1998). Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War
Cold War
Strategy, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506264-7 Chernus, Ira (2008). Apocalypse Management: Eisenhower and the Discourse of National Insecurity, Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-5807-9 OCLC 105454244 Damms, Richard V. (2002). The Eisenhower Presidency, 1953–1961 David Paul T., ed. (1954). Presidential Nominating Politics in 1952. 5 vols., Johns Hopkins Press. OCLC 519846 Divine, Robert A. (1981). Eisenhower and the Cold War. Gellman, Irwin F. (2015). The President and the Apprentice: Eisenhower and Nixon, 1952–1961. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-18105-0 OCLC 910504324 Greenstein, Fred I. (1991). The Hidden-Hand Presidency: Eisenhower as Leader. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02948-5 OCLC 8765635 Harris, Douglas B. "Dwight Eisenhower and the New Deal: The Politics of Preemption", Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997. Harris, Seymour E. (1962). The Economics of the Political Parties, with Special
Attention to Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy. OCLC 174566 Lasby, Clarence G. Eisenhower's Heart Attack: How Ike Beat Heart Disease and Held on to the Presidency (1997) Medhurst, Martin J. (1993). Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-26140-7 OCLC 26764309 Mayer, Michael S. (2009). The Eisenhower Years Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-5387-1 Newton, Jim. (2011) Eisenhower: The White House
White House
Years ISBN 978-0-385-52353-0 OCLC 694394274 Pach, Chester J., and Richardson, Elmo (1991). Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0436-7 OCLC 22307949 Watry, David M. (2014). Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Historiography and interpretations by scholars[edit]

Burk, Robert. "Eisenhower Revisionism Revisited: Reflections on Eisenhower Scholarship", Historian, Spring 1988, Vol. 50, Issue 2, pp. 196–209 McAuliffe, Mary S. "Eisenhower, the President", Journal of American History 68 (1981), pp. 625–32 JSTOR 1901942 McMahon, Robert J. "Eisenhower and Third World Nationalism: A Critique of the Revisionists," Political Science Quarterly (1986) 101#3 pp. 453–73 JSTOR 2151625 Polsky, Andrew J. "Shifting Currents: Dwight Eisenhower and the Dynamic of Presidential Opportunity Structure," Presidential Studies Quarterly, March 2015. Rabe, Stephen G. "Eisenhower Revisionism: A Decade of Scholarship," Diplomatic History (1993) 17#1 pp 97–115. Schlesinger Jr., Arthur. "The Ike Age Revisited," Reviews in American History (1983) 11#1 pp. 1–11 JSTOR 2701865 Streeter, Stephen M. "Interpreting the 1954 U.S. Intervention In Guatemala: Realist, Revisionist, and Postrevisionist Perspectives," History Teacher (2000) 34#1 pp 61–74. JSTOR 3054375

Primary sources[edit]

Boyle, Peter G., ed. (1990). The Churchill–Eisenhower Correspondence, 1953–1955. University of North Carolina Press. Boyle, Peter G., ed. (2005). The Eden–Eisenhower correspondence, 1955–1957. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2935-8 Butcher, Harry C. (1946). My Three Years With Eisenhower The Personal Diary of Captain Harry C. Butcher, USNR, candid memoir by a top aide Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1948). Crusade in Europe, his war memoirs. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). Mandate for Change, 1953–1956.  Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1965). The White House
White House
Years: Waging Peace 1956–1961, Doubleday and Co. Eisenhower Papers 21-volume scholarly edition; complete for 1940–1961. Summersby, Kay (1948). Eisenhower was My Boss, New York: Prentice Hall; (1949) Dell paperback.

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William P. Rogers

Postmaster General

Arthur E. Summerfield (1953–61)

Secretary of the Interior

Douglas McKay
Douglas McKay
(1953–56) Fred A. Seaton (1956–61)

Secretary of Agriculture

Ezra Taft Benson
Ezra Taft Benson

Secretary of Commerce

Sinclair Weeks
Sinclair Weeks
(1953–58) Lewis L. Strauss (1958–59) Frederick H. Mueller
Frederick H. Mueller

Secretary of Labor

Martin P. Durkin (1953) James P. Mitchell
James P. Mitchell

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Oveta Culp Hobby
Oveta Culp Hobby
(1953–55) Marion B. Folsom
Marion B. Folsom
(1955–58) Arthur S. Flemming (1958–61)

v t e

Presidents of Columbia University

S. Johnson Cooper B. Moore # Clinton # W. Johnson Wharton B. Moore Harris Duer N. Moore King Barnard Low Butler Fackenthal # Eisenhower Kirk Cordier McGill Sovern Rupp Bollinger

Pound sign (#) denotes interim president or chancellor

v t e

(1948 ←) United States presidential election, 1952
United States presidential election, 1952
(→ 1956)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries


Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon


Riley A. Bender George Theodore Mickelson Harold Stassen Robert Taft Earl Warren

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries


Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

John Sparkman


Alben W. Barkley Paul A. Dever W. Averell Harriman Hubert Humphrey Estes Kefauver Robert S. Kerr Richard Russell Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party


Stuart Hamblen

VP nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

Progressive Party


Vincent Hallinan

VP nominee

Charlotta Bass

Socialist Labor Party


Eric Hass

Socialist Party


Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party


Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

Edward Longstreet Bodin Henry B. Krajewski

Other 1952 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1952 ←) United States presidential election, 1956
United States presidential election, 1956
(→ 1960)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries


Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries


Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

Estes Kefauver


John S. Battle Happy Chandler James C. Davis W. Averell Harriman Lyndon B. Johnson Frank Lausche George Bell Timmerman Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

American Vegetarian Party


Herbert M. Shelton

VP nominee

Symon Gould

Prohibition Party


Enoch A. Holtwick

VP nominee

Herbert C. Holdridge

Socialist Labor Party


Eric Hass

VP nominee

Georgia Cozzini

Socialist Party


Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party


Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

T. Coleman Andrews Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1956 elections: House Senate

v t e

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Award winners

1967: Eisenhower 1968: Saltonstall 1969: White 1970: Hovde 1971: Kraft Jr. 1972: Holland 1973: Bradley 1974: Owens 1975: Ford 1976: Hamilton 1977: Bradley 1978: Zornow 1979: Chandler 1980: Cooley 1981: Linkletter 1982: Cosby 1983: Palmer 1984: Lawrence 1985: Fleming 1986: Bush 1987: Zable 1988: Not presented 1989: Ebert 1990: Reagan 1991: Gibson 1992: Kemp 1993: Alexander 1994: Johnson 1995: Mathias 1996: Wooden 1997: Payne 1998: Dole 1999: Richardson 2000: Staubach 2001: Cohen 2002: Shriver 2003: de Varona 2004: Page 2005: Ride 2006: Kraft 2007: Tagliabue 2008: Glenn 2009: Albright 2010: Mitchell 2011: Dunwoody 2012: Allen 2013: Dungy 2014: Mills 2015: Jackson 2016: Ueberroth 2017: Brooke-Marciniak

v t e

National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

v t e

Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)


Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush


Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)


v t e

    Philippine Legion of Honor recipients    

Chief Commander (Punong Komandante)

Emilio Aguinaldo Hassanal Bolkiah Chiang Kai-shek Dwight D. Eisenhower Leonardo Espina Francisco Franco José P. Laurel Douglas MacArthur Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Sergio Osmeña Jesse Robredo Chino Roces Franklin D. Roosevelt Jaime Sin Achmad Sukarno Lorenzo Tañada Maxwell D. Taylor Claudio Teehankee

Grand Commander (Marangal na Komandante)

Gilbert Teodoro Emilio Yap Fernando Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Augusto Zóbel de Ayala II

Grand Officer (Marangal na Pinuno)

Teodoro Locsin Jr.

Commander (Komandante)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Eulogio Balao Alfredo Montelibano Sr.

Officer (Pinuno)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Manny Pacquiao

Legionnaire (Lehiyonaryo)

Escuadrón 201 Teddy Boy Locsin Edith Nourse Rogers Richard Sakakida

v t e

    Order of Sikatuna recipients    

Grand Collar (Raja)

Juan Carlos I of Spain Dwight D. Eisenhower Chuan Leekpai Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Akihito, Emperor of Japan Shinzo Abe

Grand Cross (Datu)

Robert Gerard Brinks Daniel Inouye Aftab Ahmad Khan Graeme Matheson Jerril Santos George Yeo Sadako Ogata

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100176316 LCCN: n79066408 ISNI: 0000 0001 2145 0914 GND: 118529668 SELIBR: 184722 SUDOC: 027311201 BNF: cb12052736w (data) BIBSYS: 90127962 ULAN: 500030880 MusicBrainz: a5327141-b1a6-4229-b9e1-68a76a048693 NLA: 35231004 NDL: 00521419 NKC: jn20000700475 BNE: XX850458 CiNii: DA01162642 RKD: 25838 SN