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10,500 active duty personnel 850 reserve personnel

6 frigates 4 offshore patrol vessels 6 minehunters 1 Joint Support Ship 2 landing platform docks 4 submarines 40 other ships

20 helicopters

Part of Ministry of Defence

Headquarters Den Helder

Motto(s) "Veiligheid op en vanuit zee." Security on and from the sea.

March Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
Service Marchpast

Engagements Eighty Years' War Dutch–Portuguese War Anglo-Dutch Wars War of the Spanish Succession War of the Quadruple Alliance French Revolutionary Wars World War II Korean War Battle of Arafura Sea

Commanders

Commander Vice-Admiral Rob Kramer

Deputy commander Generaal-majoor Frank van Sprang

Notable commanders Michiel de Ruyter, Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp, Jan van Speyk, Karel Doorman

Insignia

Naval ensign

Naval jack

Aircraft flown

Patrol NH90

The Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
(Dutch: Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648), the war of independence from the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands. During the 17th century the navy of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(1581–1795) was one of the most powerful naval forces in the world and played an active role in wars against England, France, Spain
Spain
and several other European powers. The navy of the later Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
(1795–1806) and Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Holland
(1806–1810) played an active role in the Napoleonic Wars, though mostly dominated by French interests. After the establishment of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(founded 1815) it served an important role in protecting Dutch colonial rule, especially in Southeast Asia, and would play a minor role in World War II, especially against the Imperial Japanese Navy. After World War II, the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
has taken part in expeditionary peacekeeping operations.

Contents

1 Bases 2 Officer training 3 Ship prefixes 4 History

4.1 Nederlands Golden Age 4.2 World War II 4.3 Netherlands
Netherlands
New Guinea 4.4 NATO
NATO
cooperation

5 Current structure

5.1 Naval squadron 5.2 Submarine
Submarine
service 5.3 Mine Detection and Clearing Service 5.4 Hydrographic Survey 5.5 Naval aviation 5.6 Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps 5.7 Netherlands
Netherlands
& Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
Coastguard

6 Equipment

6.1 Naval aviation – maritime helicopters 6.2 Armored vehicles (Marine Corps) 6.3 Unarmored vehicles (Marine Corps) 6.4 Artillery (Marine Corps) 6.5 Personal weapons

7 2012 future naval inventory 8 Future changes

8.1 Theater ballistic missile defense

9 Gallery 10 Historic ships

10.1 By period

11 Ranks and insignia of the RNLN

11.1 Officers 11.2 Enlisted ranks

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

Bases[edit] The main naval base is located at Den Helder, North Holland. Secondary naval bases are located at Amsterdam, Vlissingen, Texel, and Willemstad
Willemstad
(Curaçao). Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps barracks are found in Rotterdam, Doorn, Suffisant on Curaçao, and Savaneta
Savaneta
on Aruba. Officer training[edit] Officers of the Nederland Navy
Navy
are trained at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine ("Royal Naval Institute"), which is part of the Nederlandse Defensie Academie (" Netherlands
Netherlands
defence academy") in Den Helder.[1] Around 100–150 people start training every year. Ship prefixes[edit] An international prefix for Dutch navy ships is HNLMS (His/Her Netherlands
Netherlands
Majesty’s Ship).[2] HNMS is also used,[3] although this can also refer to Royal Norwegian Navy
Royal Norwegian Navy
ships.[4] The Dutch navy itself uses the prefixes Zr. Ms. (Zijner Majesteits, His Majesty's) when a king is on the throne, and Hr. Ms. (Harer Majesteits, Her Majesty's) when there is a queen.[5] History[edit] Main article: Naval history of the Netherlands The modern Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
dates its founding to a "statute of admiralty" issued by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on January 8, 1488.[6] Naval historians trace the origins of an independent Dutch navy to the early stages of the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648) while the formation of a "national" navy is dated to the establishment of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
in 1597.[7] Nederlands Golden Age[edit]

The battle of Scheveningen in 1653 during the First Anglo-Dutch War

The Dutch navy was involved in several wars against other European powers from the late 16th century, initially for independence against Spain
Spain
in European waters, later for shipping lanes, trade and colonies in many parts of the world, notably in four Anglo-Dutch wars
Anglo-Dutch wars
against England. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world. As an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
consisted of five separate admiralties (three of them in Holland, and one each in Friesland
Friesland
and Zeeland), each with its own ships, personnel, shipyards, command structures and revenues.[8] World War II[edit]

HNLMS Java, c. 1941

Play media

Elements of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
on manoeuvres, 1936

Piet de Jong
Piet de Jong
commanding officer of HNLMS Gelderland in 1958.

During the Second World War, the Dutch navy was based in Allied countries after the Netherlands
Netherlands
was conquered by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in a matter of days: the Dutch navy had its headquarters in London, England, and smaller units in Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka) and Western Australia. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo
Operation Dynamo
at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys and attacked enemy targets. During the war the navy suffered heavy losses, especially in defending the Dutch East Indies, most notably the Battle of the Java Sea
Battle of the Java Sea
in which the commander, Dutchman Karel Doorman, went down with his fleet along with 1,000 of the ships' crew. One Dutch light cruiser that was under construction was captured in its shipyard by Nazi Germany. During the relentless Japanese offensive of February through April 1942 in the Dutch East Indies, the Dutch navy in Asia was virtually annihilated, and it sustained losses of a total of 20 ships (including two of its three light cruisers) and 2,500 sailors killed.[9] The Dutch navy had suffered from years of underfunding and came ill-prepared to face an enemy with more and heavier ships with better weapons, including the Long Lance-torpedo, with which the cruiser Haguro sank the light cruiser HNLMS De Ruyter.[10] A small force of submarines based in Western Australian sank more Japanese ships in the first weeks of the war than the entire British and American navies together during the same period, an exploit which earned Admiral Helfrich the nickname "Ship-a-day Helfrich".[11] The aggressive pace of operations against the Japanese was a contributing factor to both the heavy losses sustained and the greater number of successes scored as compared to the British and Americans in the region. Both British and American forces believed that the Dutch admiral in charge of the joint-Allied force was being far too aggressive. Later in the war, a few Dutch submarines scored some remarkable hits, including one on a Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
U-boat
U-boat
U-95 in the Mediterranean Sea, which was sunk by O 21. Netherlands
Netherlands
New Guinea[edit] After the war, the relations between the Netherlands
Netherlands
and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority. After four years of war the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia. Part of the Dutch Navy
Navy
was next stationed in Netherlands
Netherlands
New Guinea until that, too, was turned over to the Indonesian government
Indonesian government
in 1962. This followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno
Sukarno
to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province. NATO
NATO
cooperation[edit]

The Standing NRF Maritime Group 1
Standing NRF Maritime Group 1
in 2007 with HNLMS Evertsen second from the right

With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the military focus was on the army and air force; it was not until the Korean War
Korean War
(1950–53) that the navy got more recognition. The government allowed the creation of a balanced fleet consisting of two naval squadrons. Apart from the aircraft carrier HNLMS Karel Doorman the Dutch navy consisted of two light cruisers (two De Zeven Provinciën class), 12 destroyers (four Holland
Holland
class, eight Friesland class), eight submarines, six frigates (van Speijk-class frigates), and a considerable number of minesweepers. As a member of NATO, the Netherlands
Netherlands
developed its security policy in close cooperation with other members. The establishment of the Warsaw pact in 1955 intensified the arms race between West and East. Technical innovations rapidly emerged, the introduction of radar and sonar were followed by nuclear weapon systems and long-range missiles. The geopolitical situation allowed for a fixed military strategy. Beginning in 1965, the Dutch Navy
Navy
joined certain permanent NATO squadrons like the Standing Naval Force Atlantic. Current structure[edit]

Vice-Admiral Rob Kramer is the current Commander
Commander
of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy

The constituent parts of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
are: Naval squadron[edit] Contains all surface combatants, replenishment ships, and amphibious support ships. Submarine
Submarine
service[edit] Contains the submarines and a support vessel. Mine Detection and Clearing Service[edit] Contains various minehunters. Hydrographic Survey[edit] Hydrographic surveys are carried out by the Dutch Hydrographic Service (Dienst der Hydrografie). Naval aviation[edit]

Two helicopter squadrons

Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps[edit]

One Marine Training Command (MTC) (formerly known as GOEM: Groep Operationele Eenheden Mariniers)

Two Operational Marine Combat Groups (1 MCG AND 2 MCG) One Maritime Special
Special
Operations Force (NLMARSOF) One Surface Assault and Training Group (SATG) One Seabased Support Group (SSG) One rifle company (32 Raiding Squadron.)is permanently stationed at Aruba

Netherlands
Netherlands
& Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
Coastguard[edit] Although the Netherlands
Netherlands
Coastguard is not an official part of the Navy, it is under its operational control. Also the Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard is under the operational control of the Navy
Navy
and is commanded by the commander of the Navy
Navy
in the Caribbean. Equipment[edit] Main article: List of active Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
ships The Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
currently operates 7 main classes of vessels:

Note: in the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
frigates are interchangeable with destroyers as there is no separate class

Type ship Defensenote 1974 Defensenote 1984 Priority Document 1993 Navy
Navy
study 2005 Economize 2011 Defensenote 2018

LC frigates

4 4 4

M frigates 4 [12] 8 [13] 8 2 2 2

GW frigates 2 2 2

L frigates 1 [14] 2 2

S frigates 12 10 6

MLM frigates [15] 6

Frigates 25 22 18 6 6 6

Patrol ships

4 4 4

Submarine 6 6 4 4 4 4

Supply ships 2 2 2 1

1

LPD

1 2 2 2

JSS

1 1 1

Minehunters 15 15 15 10 6 6

Minesweepers 11 11 [16]

Total ships 59 56 40 28 23 24

LRMP Aircraft 21 13 [17] 13

Helicopters 36 [18] 30 [19] 20 20 20 20

Total aircraft 57 43 33 20 20 20

* The Dutch Royal Navy
Navy
classifies the De Zeven Provinciën-class as frigates, but internationally they are most comparable to destroyers (due to their size and weapon capability) platform for Sea Based Anti-Ballistic Missile defence Naval aviation – maritime helicopters[edit]

20 NH90, 12 NATO
NATO
Frigate
Frigate
Helicopter (NFH) and eight transport version of the NATO
NATO
Frigate
Frigate
Helicopter (TNFH) for Marine Corps Air Lift Helicopter Squadron [20]

Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
NH-90 NFH at De Kooy Naval Air Station.

In 2012 an Apache attack helicopter from the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Air Force made a deck landing on board HNLMS  Rotterdam
Rotterdam
for the first time as part of an initial study into the possibilities for wider use of the helicopters. The Dutch amphibious support ship HNLMS Johan de Witt and the HNLMS Karel Doorman
Karel Doorman
JSS are designed to handle Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Air Force CH-47F Chinook helicopters. But these are not capable of sustained maritime operations due to lack of anti-corrosion measures. Armored vehicles (Marine Corps)[edit]

156 BV206S armored all-terrain personnel carriers (127 will get a Mid-Life Update, the rest will be disposed of or sold) 74 BVS10
BVS10
armored all-terrain personnel carriers 20 Bushmaster Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected 4 Leopard 1 BARV beach armored recovery vehicles

Unarmored vehicles (Marine Corps)[edit]

Land Rover Defender 40 Mercedes-Benz 280 CDI 17 Unimog
Unimog
1.2-ton truck Various DAF trucks

Artillery (Marine Corps)[edit]

L16A2
L16A2
81 mm mortar Brandt MO-60-V – 60 mm commando mortar

Personal weapons[edit]

Colt Canada
Canada
C7NLD – 5.56×45mm NATO
NATO
assault rifle Colt Canada
Canada
C8NLD – 5.56×45mm NATO
NATO
carbine Glock
Glock
17M – 9×19mm Parabellum
9×19mm Parabellum
semi-automatic pistol (the M in Glock 17 stands for Maritime) FN MAG
FN MAG
– 7.62×51mm NATO
NATO
general purpose machine gun M2HB-QCB – .50 BMG
.50 BMG
heavy machine gun Steyr SSG
Steyr SSG
– 7.62×51mm NATO
NATO
sniper rifle Accuracy International AWM
Accuracy International AWM
.338 Lapua Magnum
.338 Lapua Magnum
sniper rifle Barrett M107 – .50 BMG
.50 BMG
anti-materiel sniper rifle Heckler & Koch MP5 – 9×19mm Parabellum
9×19mm Parabellum
submachine gun FN P90
FN P90
5.7x28mm
5.7x28mm
submachine gun Mossberg M590A1 – 12 gauge shotgun AT4
AT4
– anti-tank weapon Panzerfaust 3
Panzerfaust 3
– anti-tank weapon GILL – anti-tank missile FIM-92C Stinger – man-portable surface-to-air missile

2012 future naval inventory[edit] In 2012 the new fleet plan of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
was completed, consisting of these ships:

Class Photo Type Number Dates Details

De Zeven Provinciën class

Frigate 4 2002 Mainly Anti-Air Warfare with ABM capability, ASW and with extensive Command & Communication Facilities.

Karel Doorman
Karel Doorman
class

Frigate 2 1994 8 initially built for the Dutch navy, pairs of ships subsequently sold to the Belgian Navy, Portuguese Navy
Navy
and Chilean Navy. Belgian and Dutch M-Class frigates recently received extensive upgrades such as an extended helicopter deck and new advanced sensors and improvements in stealthiness.

Holland
Holland
class

Offshore Patrol Vessel 4 2011 Ocean patrols

Alkmaar class

Minehunter 6 1989 Initial class of 15 ships, will be replaced 2025

Karel Doorman
Karel Doorman
class

Joint Logistic Support Ship 1 2014 Combined Amphibious Operations/Seabased Helicopter Platform & Fleet Replenishing, capable of supporting CH-47/AH-64/NH-90 Operations.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
class

Landing Platform Dock 2 1998/2007 Troop & Equipment Transport, Helicopter Platform with Command & Communication & Hospital Facilities

Walrus class

Submarine 4 1994 Multi-purpose Diesel-electric powered hunter-killer submarines for Deep Ocean Operations and Brown Water & Special
Special
Force Operations. SLEP 2015–2017, will be replaced by 4 new subs from 2025 onwards.

Cerberus class

Diving Support Vessel 4 1992 Multi-purpose Diving Support Vessels & Harbour Protection

Soemba class

Diving Support Vessel 1 1989 Multi-purpose Diving Support Vessels & Harbour Protection

Pelikaan class

Multi-purpose Logistic Support Vessel 1 2006 Multi-purpose Logistic Support Vessel Based in Dutch Caribbean

Mercuur class

Submarine
Submarine
Support Vessel 1 1987 Submarine
Submarine
Support Vessel & MCM Command

Snellius class

Hydrographic Survey
Hydrographic Survey
Vessel 2 2004 Multi-purpose Hydrographic Survey
Hydrographic Survey
Vessel

The total tonnage will be approx. 140,000 tonnes. Next to these ships a lot of other smaller vessels remain in the navy like the Snellius-class hydrographical survey vessels. With these changes the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
will have 10 large oceangoing vessels ranging from medium/low to high combat action ships. The renewed Dutch Navy
Navy
will be a green-water navy, having enough frigates and auxiliaries to operate far out at sea, while depending on land-based air support, and, with the large amphibious squadron, they will have significant brown-water navy capabilities. Future changes[edit]

The Walrus-class submarines are currently undergoing a Mid-Life Update, including new sonar, new optronic periscope and weapon upgrades for near shore operations. Plans to replace the current 4 subs in 2025 were announced in November 2014. The Royal Dutch Navy
Navy
is evaluating international cooperation. Upgrading the De Zeven Provinciën-class LCF frigates Theatre Ballistic Missile Defense and considered SLCM integration. Replacement of the Karel Doorman-class M frigates by mid 2020s. Replacement of the Alkmaar-class MCM ships by mid 2020s. The MCM capacity will be increased by 2018. Increasing the size of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps to remain highly integrated with the British Royal Marines. In 2017 the Ministry of Defence announced the formation of a Fleet Marine Squadron for the protection of merchant ships. The German Navy
German Navy
Seebatallion (Marines) will be integrated into the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Marine Corps. Cooperation with the German Navy
German Navy
regarding Submarine
Submarine
& Amphibious Operations. Acquisition of a Combat Support Ship.[21] This ship will be similar to the HNLMS Amsterdam, which was sold in 2014 to Peru, and is expected to be delivered in 2022.[22]

Theater ballistic missile defense[edit] Together with the United States
United States
and several other NATO
NATO
members, the Dutch Navy
Navy
is testing and updating its ships for Tactical ballistic missile defense capability. Although tests conducted concerning the capability of the APAR (Active Phased Array Radar) have been very successful, no decision has been made by the Dutch Government in purchasing SM-3
SM-3
missiles—mainly because the SM-3
SM-3
is not operational yet. Four ships are being fitted out for tactical ballistic missile defense. If purchased (after US export approval) the four LCFs will be fitted out with only eight SM-3
SM-3
missiles each, due to the high costs for each missile (approximately $2.5–$5 million). Gallery[edit]

HNLMS Rotte, Coastal tugboat

HNLMS Urania, Sail training ship

HNLMS Snellius, Hydrographic Survey
Hydrographic Survey
Vessel

HNLMS Nautilus, Dive Support Vessel

HNLMS Mercuur, Torpedo Recovery Vessel

Landing Craft Utility MKII NL

Historic ships[edit]

several ships by the name of HNLMS De Ruyter several ships by the name of HNLMS Tromp Delft, 18th century fourth rate ship of the line De Zeven Provinciën, 17th century ship of the line and flagship of Michiel de Ruyter HNLMS Koning der Nederlanden, the navy’s largest warship in the 19th century HNLMS Prins Hendrik der Nederlanden, ironclad from the 1860s

Surviving historic ships

HNLMS Bonaire HNLMS Buffel HNLMS Schorpioen

By period[edit]

v t e

Dutch naval ship classes 1890 – 1920 and unique ships

Dreadnoughts

1913 battleship proposalC

Coastal defence ships

Evertsen Koningin Regentes Marten Harpertszoon TrompS Jacob van HeemskerckS De Zeven ProvinciënS

Protected cruisers

SumatraS Koningin Wilhelmina der NederlandenS Holland

Destroyers

Wolf

Gunboats, monitors and sloops

JavaS Ceram Lombok BorneoS Nias Koetei Brinio Reinier ClaeszenS

Torpedoboats

G 13 Z 1 Z 5

Submarines

O-series

O 1S O 2 O 6S O 7S O 8B S

K-series

K IS K IIS K III

Other

M1G S

B Former British HMS H6 C Cancelled G Former German SM UC-8 S Single ship of class

v t e

Dutch naval ship classes of World War II

Battlecruisers

Design 1047X

Cruisers

Java De RuyterS Tromp De Zeven ProvinciënC

Destroyers

Admiralen Gerard Callenburgh Van GalenB

Frigates

Johan Maurits van NassauBS

Gunboats and sloops

Brinio Flores Johan Maurits van NassauS Van KinsbergenS K

Submarines

O-series

O 9 O 12 O 16S O 19 O 21

K-series

K V K VIII K XI K XIV

Other

DolfijnBS ZeehondBS ZwaardvischB

Mine warfare vessel

Minelayers

Hydra Douwe Aukes Prins van Oranje Willem van der ZaanS

Minesweepers

M A Jan van Amstel ABC

B ex-British C Completed after the war S Single ship of class X Cancelled

v t e

Dutch naval ship classes post-1945

Active

Amphibious transport docks

RotterdamS Johan de WittS

Frigates

Karel Doorman De Zeven Provinciën

Mine warfare vessels

Alkmaar

Patrol vessels

Holland

Submarines

Walrus

Auxiliary ships

MercuurS Snellius PelikaanS Karel DoormanS

S Single ship of class

Decommissioned

Aircraft carriers

Karel DoormanBS

Cruisers

De Zeven Provinciën

Destroyers

KortenaarB BanckertBS Holland Friesland

Frigates

BatjanAu Van AmstelA RoofdierA Van Speijk Tromp Kortenaer Jacob van Heemskerck

Mine warfare vessels

Dokkum

Submarines

WalrusA Dolfijn Zwaardvis

Replenishment ships

PoolsterS ZuiderkruisS AmsterdamS

A ex-American Au ex-Australia B ex-British S Single ship of class

Ranks and insignia of the RNLN[edit] Officers[edit]

NATO
NATO
code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer

Netherlands (Edit) No equivalent

Adelborst/Korporaal-Adelborst/Sergeant-Adelborst No equivalent

Luitenant-Admiraal Vice-Admiraal Schout-bij-Nacht Commandeur Kapitein ter zee Kapitein-luitenant ter zee Luitenant ter zee der 1ste klasse Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse oudste categorie Luitenant ter zee der 2de klasse Luitenant ter zee der 3de klasse

Abbreviation (stnd)

LAdm

VAdm

SbN

Cdr

Kapt

KLt

Lt1

LtO

Lt2

Lt3

Adb

Enlisted ranks[edit]

NATO
NATO
Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

Netherlands (Edit)

Adjudant onderofficer Sergeant-majoor Sergeant Korporaal Matroos/ Marinier der 1e klasse Matroos/ Marinier der 2e klasse Matroos/ Marinier der 3e klasse

See also[edit]

Francien de Zeeuw Netherlands
Netherlands
Naval Aviation Service Ships of the Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy Military history of the Netherlands Military ranks of the Dutch armed forces

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

^ "Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine". defensie.nl. Retrieved 25 May 2016.  ^ "List of Acronyms Preceding the Name of a Ship". Corporation of Lower St. Lawrence Pilots. Retrieved 2013-07-31.  ^ See for example Paul M. Edwards (2010). Historical Dictionary of the Korean War. p. 114.  ^ See for example "King Harald V at Washington Navy
Navy
Yard Marks Historic Alliance". Royal Norwegian Embassy in Washington. Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ "Defensieschepen worden meteen Zr. Ms. in plaats van Hr. Ms" (in Dutch). Volkskrant. 2013-01-29.  ^ "Geschiedenis marine". defensie.nl. Retrieved 25 May 2016.  ^ Jaap R. Bruijn, "Dutch Navy" in Bruce, Anthony & Cogar, William (editors) An Encyclopedia of Naval History. Facts on File, New York. 1998; p. 121 ^ Rodger, N. A. M. (2004) Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Penguin Books, London; pp. 9–10 ^ Klemen, L (1999–2000). "The War at Sea". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
Campaign, 1941–1942.  ^ Dr. L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog (Dutch), 14 parts, part 11a-I-second half, RIOD, Amsterdam, 1975 ^ "World Battlefronts: Dutchman's Chance". Time. February 23, 1942.  ^ De M-fregatten werden voor het eerst genoemd bij de Memorie van Toelichting bij de defensiebegroting van 1977. ^ In de defensienota 1984 ging het om een groter type M-fregat dan in de MVT 1977 nog sprake was. ^ Het Aangepast Standaardfregat, zoals genoemd in de Defensienota van 1974 was een iets groter schip dan de uiteindelijk gebouwde L-fregatten ^ Gemoderniseerde Van Speijkklasse ^ Gepland was tevens de aanschaf van 2 oceaanmijnenvegers, maar een jaar later was dit plan al geschrapt. Gepland was voorts de vervanging van de Dokkumklasse mijnenvegers vanaf 1988, met een nader te bepalen aantal van minimaal 6 en maximaal 15 mijnenvegers. ^ Aanvankelijk werd de aanschaf van 2 extra Orion P-3 vliegtuigen overwogen, maar een jaar later waren deze plannen al geschrapt. ^ Er is later zelfs nog aan 40 helikopters gedacht. ^ Gepland was de aanschaf van 8 grote helikopters, als aanvulling op de 22 (2 waren al verloren gegaan) Lynx helikopters van de MLD. ^ "Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Navy
Navy
Takes Delivery of a Mission Planning System for the NH90
NH90
NFH Fleet". November 29, 2013.  ^ Karremann, Jaime. "Marine wil bevoorrader 'in de geest van Zr.Ms. Amsterdam'". marineschepen.nl. Retrieved 22 February 2018.  ^ Karremann, Jaime. "Nieuw bevoorradingsschip komt in 2022". marineschepen.nl. Retrieved 22 February 2018. 

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